Point-class cutter

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For the British Armed Forces roll-on/roll-off sealift vessels, see Point class sealift ship.
USCGC Point Evans.jpg
Class overview
Builders: Coast Guard Yard 1960—63, 1970;
J.M. Martinac Shipbuilding Corp. 1966—67
Operators: United States Coast Guard
Preceded by: Cape-class 95' patrol boat
Succeeded by: Marine Protector-class 87' patrol boat
Built: 1960—1970
In commission: 1960—2003
Completed: 79
Retired: 79
General characteristics 1960
Type: Patrol Boat (WPB)
Displacement: 60—69 tons
Length: 82 ft 10 in (25.25 m)
Beam: 17 ft 7 in (5.36 m) max
Draft: 5 ft 11 in (1.80 m)
Propulsion: Originally (2) 600hp Cummins diesel, thru hull number 82330 ex. hulls 82314, 82318
(2) 800hp Cummins diesel, hulls 82331 and up and hull 82318
(2) 1000 hp Gas turbine, hull 82314
Speed: 16.8 knots (1960)
Range: 577 miles at maximum sustained speed of 14.5 knots
1271 miles at 10.7 knots economic speed (1960)
Complement: domestic service, 8 men; (Vietnam service, 2 officers, 8 men)
Armament: 1960
• 1 × Oerlikon 20 mm cannon
Vietnam service
• 5 × M2 Browning machine guns
• 1 × 81 mm M29 mortar[1]

The United States Coast Guard Point-class cutters were a class of 82-foot patrol vessels designed to replace the aging 83-foot wooden hull patrol boat being used at the time. The design utilized a mild steel hull and an aluminum superstructure. The Coast Guard Yard discontinued the building of the 95-foot Cape-class cutter in order to have the capacity to produce the 82-foot Point-class patrol boat in 1960.[2] They served as patrol vessels used in law enforcement and search and rescue along the coasts of the United States and the Caribbean. They were replaced by the 87-foot Marine Protector-class coastal patrol boats beginning in the late 1990s.

Naming the class[edit]

Following the Coast Guard custom in place in 1960 of not naming vessels under 100 feet in length, the first 44 Point-class patrol boats were only identified by their hull number using the scheme of WPB-823xx, where 82 was the design length of the hull.[2] Beginning in January 1964, the Coast Guard started naming all vessels 65 feet in length and over; the 82-foot patrol boats were all given geographical "Point" names.[2][3]

Design and production[edit]

The design of the 82 foot patrol boat actually began in the early 1950s with the introduction of the 95 foot patrol boat, which was introduced to replace the aging wooden gasoline powered 83 foot patrol boats that were produced during World War II. The 95 foot patrol boat was originally developed as a search and rescue boat to replace the less capable 83 foot boat. With the outbreak of the Korean War and the requirement by the Coast Guard to secure port facilities in the United States under the Moss-Magnuson Act, the complete replacement of the 83 foot boat was deferred and the 95 foot boat was used for harbor patrols.[2][4] With the goal of reducing manning requirements in mind, the Point-class patrol boat was designed to accommodate an 8 man crew, which was a reduction from the 15 man crews of the Cape-class cutter.[5][6] Production started in early 1960 at the Coast Guard Yard at Curtis Bay, Maryland and continued through late December 1963, producing 44 boats. The first 30 boats were powered by two 600 horsepower Cummins diesel engines; except for 82314 (later Point Thatcher) which was powered by two 1000 horsepower gas turbine engines with controllable pitch propellers[5] and 82318 (later Point Herron) which had two 800 horsepower Cummins diesels installed. Beginning in March 1962 with 82331 (later Point Marone), all boats were equipped with two 800 horsepower Cummins diesel engines. All were equipped with twin propellers. Eventually all boats were upgraded to the same 800 horsepower main engines used in the later production.[2][3] In 1966 a contract for the production of 25 additional boats was awarded to J.M. Martinac Shipbuilding Corp. of Tacoma, Washington and all 25 were equipped with the twin 800 horsepower engines of the 1962 and later Yard production. In 1970, the last 9 boats of the class were produced at the Yard utilizing the 800 horsepower design of the rest of the class.[2] Those boats in service in 1990 were refit with Caterpillar diesel main drive engines.[2] Engine exhaust was ported through the transom rather than through a conventional stack and this permitted a 360 degree view from the bridge; a feature that was very useful in search and rescue work as well as a combat environment.[6]

The design specifications for the 82 foot cutter included a steel hull for durability and an aluminum superstructure to save weight. Ease of operation with a small crew size was possible because of the non-manned main drive engine spaces. Controls and alarms located on the bridge allowed one man operation of the cutter thus eliminating a live engineer watch in the engine room.[6] Because of design, four men could operate the cutter; however, the need for resting watchstanders brought the crew size to eight men for normal domestic service.[6] Berthing spaces were provided for thirteen so that requirements were met for passengers and extra wartime manning needs.[6] The screws were designed for ease of replacement and could be changed without removing the cutter from the water. A clutch-in idle speed of three knots helped to conserve fuel on lengthy patrols and an eighteen knot maximum speed could get the cutter on scene quickly.[7] Already part of the design, crews stationed in Vietnam found the air-conditioned interior especially helpful. Interior access to the deckhouse was through a watertight door on the starboard side aft of the deckhouse. The deckhouse contained the cabin for the officer-in-charge and the executive petty officer but for Vietnam service the spaces quartered the commanding officer, the executive officer and chief boatswain's mate as well as the chief engineman.[7] The deckhouse also included a small arms locker, scuttlebutt, a small desk and head. Access to the lower deck and engine room was down a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder was the galley, mess and recreation deck which also included three bunks for first class petty officers. A watertight door at the front of the mess bulkhead led to the main crew quarters which was ten feet long and included six bunks that could be stowed, three bunks on each side. Forward of the bunks was the crew's head complete with a compact sink, shower and commode.[7]

History[edit]

Domestic service[edit]

A total of 79 Point-class cutters were used for law enforcement and search and rescue patrol boats beginning in 1960. The cutters were mostly co-located with Coast Guard stations along the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf coasts. Point-class cutters were phased out in the late 1990s by the introduction of the Marine Protector-class coastal patrol boat with the last Point-class cutter being decommissioned in 2003.[8][9]

Vietnam service[edit]

Gun crew on board USCGC Point Comfort (WPB-82317) firing 81mm mortar during bombardment of suspected Viet Cong staging area one mile behind An Thoi.(August 1965)

At the request of the U.S Navy, 26 of the Point-class cutters were transported to Vietnam to serve with Coast Guard crews under U.S. Navy control during Operation Market Time. Coast Guard Squadron One was commissioned at Alameda, California 27 May 1965 and immediately began training and preparation for overseas deployment. All were later given to the South Vietnamese Navy as part of the Vietnamization of the war effort.[10]

Replacement[edit]

When planning the replacement for the Point-class cutter, designers took into consideration the need for different berthing arrangements that would accommodate a mixed gender crew. Another important feature lacking on the Point class cutter that was desired on a replacement was a stern launch ramp for the rapid deployment of the cutter's small boat for use in search and rescue missions and in law enforcement work. Both of these requirements were designed into the Marine Protector-class that began replacing the Point class cutters during the late 1990s.[8] The last Point class cutter was replaced in 2003.[9]

Commissioning, homeport, and disposition information[edit]

Legend:       Denotes Vietnam service       Denotes construction by J.M. Martinac Shipbuilding Corp.

Name Hull number Commissioned Decommissioned Homeport[2][11] Disposition[2][11][12]
Point Caution WPB-82301 5 October 1960 29 April 1970 Galveston, Texas 61-65; Division 12, RVN 65-70 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Nguyễn An (HQ-716) 29 April 1970
Point Hope WPB-82302 5 October 1960 3 May 1991 Sabine Pass, Texas 61-91 Transfer to Costa Rica 3 May 1991
Point Young WPB-82303 26 October 1960 16 March 1970 Grand Isle, Louisiana 61-65; Division 11, RVN 65-70 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Trần Lo (HQ-714) 16 March 1970
Point League WPB-82304 9 November 1960 16 May 1969 Morgan City, Louisiana 61-65; Division 13, RVN 65-69 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Lê Phước Đức (HQ-700) 16 May 1969[13]
Point Partridge WPB-82305 23 November 1960 27 May 1970 Beals and West Jonesport, Maine 61-65; Division 13, RVN 66-70 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Bùi Viết Thành (HQ-715) 27 May 1970
Point Jefferson WPB-82306 7 December 1960 21 February 1970 Nantucket, Massachusetts 61-65; Division 13, RVN 65-70 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Lê Ngọc Ẩn (HQ-712) 21 February 1970
Point Glover WPB-82307 7 December 1960 14 February 1970 Fort Hancock, New Jersey 61-65; Division 11, RVN 65-70 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Đào Văn Đặng (HQ-711) 14 February 1970
Point White WPB-82308 18 February 1961 12 January 1970 New London, Connecticut 61-65; Division 13, RVN 66-70 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Lê Đình Hùng (HQ-708) 12 January 1970
Point Arden WPB-82309 1 February 1961 14 February 1970 Pt. Pleasant, New Jersey 61-65; Division 12, RVN 65-70 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Phạm Ngọc Châu (HQ-710) 14 February 1970
Point Garnet WPB-82310 15 March 1961 16 May 1969 Norfolk, Virginia 61-65; Division 11, RVN 65-69 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Lê Văn Ngà (HQ-701) 16 May 1969[13]
Point Verde WPB-82311 15 March 1961 12 May 1991 Venice, Louisiana 61-68; Dauphin Island, Louisiana 69-79; Pensacola, Florida 80-91 Transfer to Mexico 12 June 1991
Point Swift WPB-82312 22 March 1961 30 March 1995 St. Petersburg, Florida 61-68; Clearwater Beach, Florida 69-91 Stored at CG Yard at least through Jun 1997.[2] Sunk as an artificial reef near Cape May, New Jersey, 30 March 2000[14]
Point Slocum WPB-82313 12 April 1961 11 December 1969 St. Thomas, VI 61-65; Division 13, RVN 66-69 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Nguyễn Ngọc Thạch (HQ-706) 11 December 1969
Point Thatcher WPB-82314 13 September 1961 13 May 1992 Miami Beach, Florida 61-63, 66-71; Norfolk, Virginia 64-65; Sarasota, Florida 71-84; Nokomis, Florida 85-92 Sunk as artificial reef
Point Clear WPB-82315 26 April 1961 15 September 1969 San Pedro, California 61-65; Division 11, RVN 65-69 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Huỳnh Văn Đức (HQ-702) 15 September 1969
Point Mast WPB-82316 10 May 1961 15 June 1970 Long Beach, California 61-65; Division 11, RVN 65-70 Transfer to RVN as Ho Dang La 15 June 1970[Note 1]
Point Comfort WPB-82317 24 May 1961 17 November 1969 Benicia, California 61-65; Division 11, RVN 65-69 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Đào Thức (HQ-704) 17 November 1969
Point Herron WPB-82318 14 June 1961 27 July 1991 Lewes, Delaware 61-64; Cape May, New Jersey 65; Bay Shore, New Jersey 66-81; Babylon, New York 82-91 Transfer to Mexico 27 July 1991
Point Orient WPB-82319 28 June 1961 14 July 1970 Ft. Pierce, Florida 61-65; Division 12, RVN 65-70 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Nguyễn Kim Hưng (HQ-722) 14 July 1970
Point Kennedy WPB-82320 19 July 1961 16 March 1970 San Juan, PR 61-65; Division 13, RVN 66-70 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Huỳnh Văn Ngan (HQ-713) 16 March 1970
Point Lomas WPB-82321 9 August 1961 23 May 1970 Port Aransas, Texas 61-65; Division 12, RVN 65-70 Transfer to RVN as HQ-718 23 May 1970[Note 2]
Point Hudson WPB-82322 30 August 1961 11 December 1969 Panama City, Florida 61-65; Division 13, RVN 65-69 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Đặng Văn Hoành (HQ-707) 11 December 1969
Point Grace WPB-82323 27 September 1961 15 June 1970 Crisfield, Maryland 61-65; Division 13, RVN 66-70 Transfer to RVN as Dam Thoai 15 June 1970[Note 3]
Point Grey WPB-82324 11 October 1961 14 July 1970 Norfolk, Virginia 61-65; Division 11, RVN 65-70 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Huỳnh Bộ (HQ-723) 14 July 1970
Point Dume WPB-82325 1 November 1961 14 February 1970 Fire Island, New York 61-65; Division 12, RVN 65-70 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Trường Tiền (HQ-709) 14 February 1970
Point Cypress WPB-82326 22 November 1961 15 August 1970[17] Boston, Massachusetts 61-65; Division 13, RVN 66-70 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Hồ Duy (HQ-724) 15 August 1970[Note 4]
Point Banks WPB-82327 13 December 1961 26 March 1970 Woods Hole, Massachusetts 61-65; Division 13, RVN 66-70 Transfer to RVN as HQ-719 26 March 1970[Note 5]
Point Gammon WPB-82328 31 January 1962 11 November 1969 Ft. Bragg, California 62-65; Division 12, RVN 65-69 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Nguyễn Đao (HQ-703) 11 November 1969
Point Welcome WPB-82329 14 February 1962 29 April 1970 Everett, Washington 62-65; Division 12, RVN 65-70 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Nguyễn Hấn (HQ-717) 29 April 1970
Point Ellis WPB-82330 28 February 1962 9 December 1969 Port Townsend, Washington 62-65; Division 12, RVN 65-69 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Lê Ngọc Thanh (HQ-705) 9 December 1969
Point Marone WPB-82331 14 March 1962 15 August 1970 San Pedro, California 62-65; Division 11, RVN 65-70 Transfer to RVN as RVNS Trương Ba (HQ-725) 15 August 1970
Point Roberts WPB-82332 6 June 1962 1 February 1992 Mayport, Florida 62-92 Transfer to EPA as Lake Explorer Duluth, Minnesota
Point Highland WPB-82333 27 June 1962 24 February 2001 Little Creek, Virginia 62-65; Crisfield, Maryland 65-81; Chincoteague, Maryland 81-97; Cape May, New Jersey 97-01 Transfer to Trinidad & Tabago as Bacolet Point 30 September 1
Point Ledge WPB-82334 18 July 1962 3 August 1998 Ft. Bragg, California 62-94; St. Thomas, VI 94-96; Mobile, Alabama 96-98 Transfer to Venezuela 30 August 1998
Point Countess WPB-82335 8 August 1962 25 May 2000 Bellingham, Washington 62-65; Everett, Washington 66-67; Port Angeles, Washington 68-88; Nokomis Beach, Florida 88-00 Transfer to Republic of Georgia 29 June 2000
Point Glass WPB-82336 29 August 1962 3 April 2000 Tacoma, Washington 62-70; Gig Harbor, Washington 71-89; Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 90-00 Transfer to NOAA 3 April 2000
Point Divide WPB-82337 19 September 1962 31 March 1995 Newport Beach, California 62-65; Corona del Mar, California 66-95 Donated to Seattle Maritime Academy[20] renamed Maritime Instructor.
Point Bridge WPB-82338 10 October 1962 19 September 2001 San Pedro, California 62-64; Venice, California 65-78; Marina del Rey, California 79-01 Transfer to Costa Rica
Point Chico WPB-82339 29 October 1962 24 June 2001 Sausalito, California 63-65; Benicia, California 66-74; Yerba Buena Island, California 74-80; Bodega Bay, California 80-01 Transfer to Costa Rica
Point Batan WPB-82340 22 November 1962 22 September 1999 Fort Hancock, New Jersey 62-65; Pt. Pleasant, New Jersey 66-84; Cape May, New Jersey 85-99 Transfer to Dominican Republic 22 September 1999
Point Lookout WPB-82341 12 December 1962 24 March 1994 Pascagoula, Mississippi 62-64; Morgan City, Louisiana 65-94 Sunk as artificial reef at Ocean City, Maryland 4 April 1997
Point Baker WPB-82342 30 October 1963 6 February 2002 Port Isabel, Texas 63-65; Port Aransas, Texas 66-91, Sabine Pass, Texas 92-02 Transfer to Republic of Georgia
Point Wells WPB-82343 20 November 1963 13 October 2000 Montauk, New York 64-00 Transfer to Colombia
Point Estero WPB-82344 11 December 1963 6 February 2001 Gulfport, Mississippi 63-01 Transfer to Colombia
Point Judith WPB-82345 26 July 1966 15 January 1992 San Pedro, California 66-72; Santa Barbara, California 73-92 Transfer to Venezuela as Alcatraz (PG-32) 15 January 1992
Point Arena WPB-82346 26 August 1966 30 March 1995 Little Creek, Virginia 66-95 Stored at CG Yard at least through Jun 1997
Point Bonita WPB-82347 12 September 1966 14 November 2000 Nantucket, Massachusetts 66-71; Woods Hole, Massachusetts 72-88; South Portland, Maine 88-00 Transfer to Trinidad & Tobago 14 November 2000
Point Barrow WPB-82348 4 October 1966 7 June 1991 San Francisco, California 66-80; Monterey, California 81-91 Transfer to Panama as Tres de Noviembre (P-204) 7 June 1991
Point Spencer WPB-82349 20 October 1966 12 December 2000 New Orleans, Louisiana 67-85; Galveston. TX 85-00 Transfer to Dominican Republic 12 December 2000
Point Franklin WPB-82350 14 November 1966 23 June 1998 Cape May, New Jersey 66-98 Transfer to Venezuela as Pelicano (PG-34) 3 August 1998
Point Bennett WPB-82351 19 December 1966 12 February 1999 Port Townsend, Washington 67-99 Transfer to Trinidad and Tabago 12 February 1999
Point Sal WPB-82352 5 December 1966 29 May 2001 Grand Isle, Louisiana 67-01 Transfer to Colombia 29 May 2001
Point Monroe WPB-82353 27 December 1966 21 August 2001 Galveston, Texas 67-68; Freeport, Texas 69-01 Transfer to NOAA
Point Evans WPB-82354 10 January 1967 1 December 1999 Long Beach, California 67-92; Kauai, HI 92-99 Transfer to Philippines
Point Hannon WPB-82355 23 January 1967 11 January 2001 West Jonesport, Maine 67-01 Transfer to Panama
Point Francis WPB-82356 2 February 1967 5 March 1999 Fort Hancock, New Jersey 67-76; Highlands, New Jersey 76-99 Transfer to Panama as 10 de Noviembre (P-207) 21 April 1999
Point Huron WPB-82357 17 February 1967 12 April 1999 Norfolk, Virginia 67-99 Transfer to Panama as 28 de Noviembre (P-206)
Point Stuart WPB-82358 17 March 1967 27 April 2001 Long Beach, California 67-95; Newport Beach, California 95-01 Transfer to El Salvador
Point Steele
ex-Point Buchon
WPB-82359 26 April 1967 9 July 1998 Rockaway, New York 67-70, Oswego, New York 70-80; Key West, Florida 80; Fort Myers Beach, Florida 82-98 Transfer to Antigua-Barbuda as Hermitage (P-03) 17 July 1998
Point Winslow WPB-82360 3 March 1967 22 September 2000 San Francisco, California 67-80; Eureka, California 81-86; Morro Bay, California 87-94, Morgan City, Louisiana 94-00 Transfer to Panama 22 September 2000
Point Charles WPB-82361 5 May 1967 13 December 1991 Cape Canaveral, Florida; 67-88; West Palm Beach, Florida 88-91 Transfer to Texas A&M University
Point Brown WPB-82362 30 March 1967 27 September 1991 Little Creek, Virginia 67-81; Oregon Inlet, North Carolina 81-88; Atlantic Beach, North Carolina 88-91 Donated to Coast Guard Auxiliary as Lady B, New York 30 September 1991
Point Nowell WPB-82363 13 June 1967 15 October 1999 Port Isabel, Texas 67-99 Transfer to Jamaica as Savanna Point 15 October 1999
Point Whitehorn WPB-82364 13 July 1967 30 March 1995 St. Thomas, VI 67-95 Scuttled Mar 1997
Point Turner ex-Point Houghton WPB-82365 14 April 1967 3 April 1998 Newport, Rhode Island 67-98 Transfer to St. Lucia as Alphonse Reynolds (P-05) 15 April 1998
Point Lobos WPB-82366 29 May 1967  ? Panama City, Florida 67-? Transfer to NOAA, 2001
Point Knoll WPB-82367 27 June 1967 11 September 1991 New London, Connecticut 67-91 Transfer to Venezuela as Petrel (PG-31) 20 December 1991
Point Warde WPB-82368 14 August 1967 29 June 2000 San Juan, PR 67-87; Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina 87-00 Transfer to Colombia 29 June 2000
Point Heyer WPB-82369 3 August 1967 17 December 1998 San Francisco, California 67-86; Morro Bay, California 87-98 Transfer to Trinidad and Tobago 12 February 1999
Point Richmond WPB-82370 25 August 1967 30 September 1997 Anacortes, Washington 67-87 Transfer to Ecuador as 23 de Mayo 1997
Point Barnes WPB-82371 21 April 1970 12 January 2000 Miami Beach, Florida 70-75; Fort Pierce, Florida 75-00 Transfer to Jamaica
Point Brower[9] WPB-82372 21 April 1970 28 March 2003 San Diego, California 70-89; San Francisco, California 89- Transfer to Azerbaijan as Marine Brigade Ship S-201
Point Camden WPB-82373 4 May 1970 15 December 1999 San Pedro, California 70-92; Santa Barbara, California 92-99 Transfer to Costa Rica
Point Carrew WPB-82374 18 May 1970 22 August 2000 San Pedro, California 70-84; Oxnard, California 85-00 Transfer to Argentina as ARA Río Santiago (P-66)
Point Doran WPB-82375 1 June 1970 22 March 2000 Everett, Washington 70-00 Transfer to Philippines
Point Harris WPB-82376 22 June 1970 12 April 1992 Bodega Bay, California 70-77; Guam 78-80; Honolulu, HI 80-81; Nawiliwili, HI 90-92 Sold to private owner
Point Hobart WPB-82377 13 July 1970 8 July 1999 Oceanside, California 70-99 Transfer to Argentina as ARA Punta Mogotes (P-65)
Point Jackson WPB-82378 3 August 1970 30 May 2000 Woods Hole, Massachusetts 70-00 Transfer to Turkmenistan as Merjin 30 May 2000
Point Martin WPB-82379 20 August 1970 6 August 1999 Norfolk, Virginia 70-73; Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina 74-83; Atlantic Beach, North Carolina 83-99 Transfer to Dominican Republic 1 October 1999

Notes[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ The Coast Guard Historian's Office cites Point Mast being recommissioned Ho Dang La and no hull number. Scotti cites Dam Thoai and a hull number of HQ-721.[15]
  2. ^ The Coast Guard Historian's Office cites Point Lomas being recommissioned with only a hull number of HQ-718. Scotti cites Van Dien and a hull number of HQ-719.[15]
  3. ^ The Coast Guard Historian's Office cites Point Grace being recommissioned Dam Thoai and no hull number. Scotti cites Ho Dang La and a hull number of HQ-720.[16]
  4. ^ Larzelere cites 15 August 1970 as decommissioning date of Point Cypress[17] while the Coast Guard Historian's Office[2] and Scheina[18] cite a decommissioning date of 11 November 1969. Larzelere cites picture of event on page 239 and an extract of the August 1970 monthly historical summary of Commander, Naval Forces Vietnam on page 240 as his source.
  5. ^ The Coast Guard Historian's Office cites Point Banks being recommissioned with only a hull number of HQ-719. Scotti cites Ngo Van Quyen and a hull number of HQ-718.[19]
Citations
  1. ^ William R. Wells II, The United States Coast Guard's Piggyback 81mm Mortar/.50 cal. machine gun, Vietnam Magazine, August 1997
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Coast Guard Historian website Point-Class History Index
  3. ^ a b Scheina, p 72
  4. ^ Green, "The 82-foot Class Patrol Boat", The Engineer's Digest, March–April 1962, Number 133, pp 2–5
  5. ^ a b Johnson, p 313
  6. ^ a b c d e Scotti, p 165
  7. ^ a b c Scotti, p 166
  8. ^ a b "87-foot Coastal Patrol Boat (WPB) - Marine Protector Class". Marine Protector Class datasheet. US Coast Guard Historian's Office. Retrieved 16 January 2012. 
  9. ^ a b c "Last of the Class", USCGC Point Brower Press release 28 March 2003, R/V Transquest.com website
  10. ^ Larzelere, p 229
  11. ^ a b Scotti, pp 209–212
  12. ^ Shipbuilding History. Com website Martinac cutter data
  13. ^ a b Scotti, p 187
  14. ^ New Jersey SCUBA website USCGC Point Swift
  15. ^ a b Scotti, p 211
  16. ^ Scotti, p 210
  17. ^ a b Larzelere, p 239
  18. ^ Scheina, p 69
  19. ^ Scotti, p 209
  20. ^ Seattle Maritime Academy website USCGC Point Divide
References cited

External links[edit]