Pointillism

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Main article: Neo-impressionism
Detail from Seurat's La Parade de Cirque (1889), showing the contrasting dots of paint used in Pointillism

Pointillism /ˈpɔɪntɨlɪzəm/ is a technique of painting in which small, distinct dots of pure color are applied in patterns to form an image. Georges Seurat and Paul Signac developed the technique in 1886, branching from Impressionism. The term "Pointillism" was first coined by art critics in the late 1880s to ridicule the works of these artists, and is now used without its earlier mocking connotation.[1] The technique is also known as Divisionism. The movement Seurat began with this technique is known as Neo-Impressionism. [2]

Technique[edit]

The technique relies on the ability of the eye and mind of the viewer to blend the color spots into a fuller range of tones. It is related to Divisionism, a more technical variant of the method. Divisionism is concerned with color theory, whereas pointillism is more focused on the specific style of brushwork used to apply the paint.[1] It is a technique with few serious practitioners today,[3] and is notably seen in the works of Seurat, Signac and Cross. However, see also Andy Warhol's early works, and Pop Art.

Paul Signac, Femmes au Puits, 1892, showing a detail with constituent colors.

Practice[edit]

The practice of Pointillism is in sharp contrast to the traditional methods of blending pigments on a palette. Pointillism is analogous to the four-color CMYK printing process used by some color printers and large presses that place dots of Cyan (blue), Magenta (red), Yellow, and Key (black). Televisions and computer monitors use a similar technique to represent image colors using Red, Green, and Blue (RGB) colors.

If red, blue, and green light (the additive primaries) are mixed, the result is something close to white light (see Prism (optics)). Painting is inherently subtractive, but Pointillist colors often seem brighter than typical mixed subtractive colors. This may be partly because subtractive mixing of the pigments is avoided, and partly because some of the white canvas may be showing between the applied dots.

The painting technique used for Pointillist color mixing is at the expense of the traditional brushwork used to delineate texture.

The majority of Pointillism is done in oil paints. Anything may be used in its place, but oils are preferred for their thickness and tendency not to run or bleed.[4]

Music[edit]

Pointillism also refers to a style of 20th-century music composition. Different musical notes are made in seclusion, rather than in a linear sequence, giving a sound texture similar to Pointillism.[5] This type of music is also known as punctualism or klangfarbenmelodie.

Notable artists[edit]

Vincent van Gogh, Self Portrait, 1887, using pointillist technique.
Maximilien Luce, Morning, Interior, 1890, using pointillist technique.

Notable paintings[edit]

Neo-Pointillism[edit]

Neo-Pointillism is a further development of pointillism. This style of art was born in the late 20th early 21st century.

Neo-Pointillism artists[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Pointillism." Artcyclopedia. Artists by Movement. John Malyon/Artcyclopedia, 2007. Web. http://www.artcyclopedia.com/history/pointillism.html
  2. ^ Ruhrberg, Karl. "Seurat and the Neo-Impressionists". Art of the 20th Century, Vol. 2. Koln: Benedikt Taschen Verlag, 1998. ISBN 3822840890.
  3. ^ "makeyourideasart.com". Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
  4. ^ Nathan, Solon. "Pointillism Materials." Web. 9 Feb 2010. http://www.si.umich.edu/chico/emerson/pntmat.html
  5. ^ Britannica - The Online Encyclopedia http://www.britannica.com/

External links[edit]

  • Georges Seurat, 1859-1891, a fully digitized exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries
  • Signac, 1863-1935, a fully digitized exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries