|Poison sumac leaves|
Toxicodendron vernix, commonly known as poison sumac, is a woody shrub or small tree growing to 9 m (30 ft) tall. It was previously known as Rhus vernix. This plant is also known as thunderwood, particularly where it occurs in the southern US states. All parts of the plant contain a resin called urushiol that causes skin and mucous membrane irritation to humans. When burned, inhalation of the smoke may cause the rash to appear on the lining of the lungs, causing extreme pain and possibly fatal respiratory difficulty.
Poison sumac is a shrub or small tree, growing up to nearly 30 feet in height. Each pinnate leaf has 7–13 leaflets, each of which is 2–4 inches long. These are oval-to-oblong; acuminate (tapering to a sharp point); cuneate (wedge-shaped) at the base; undulate (wavy-edged); with an underside that is glabrous (hairless) or slightly pubescent (down-like hair) beneath. The stems along the leaflets are red and the leaves can have a reddish tint to them, particularly at the top of the plant. New bark for a poison sumac tree is lightish gray, and as the bark ages, it becomes darker.
In terms of its potential to cause urushiol-induced contact dermatitis, poison sumac is far more virulent than its relatives poison ivy and poison oak. According to some botanists, poison sumac is the most toxic plant species in the United States (Frankel, 1991).
The dermatitis shows itself in painful and long continued swellings and eruptions. In the worst case, smoke inhaled by burning poison sumac leaves results in a medical condition pulmonary edema whereby blood enters lungs and the victim dies of suffocation.
- Keeler, Harriet L. (1900). Our Native Trees and How to Identify Them. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 94–96.
- Rucker, Colby. "Tall Trees of Maryland". Maryland's Tallest Native Tree Species. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service: Toxicodendron vernix
- Poison sumac: Facts to be known
- Frankel, Edward, Ph.D. 1991. Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, Poison Sumac and Their Relatives; Pistachios, Mangoes and Cashews. The Boxwood Press. Pacific Grove, Calif. ISBN 0-940168-18-9.