Polar ice cap
A polar ice cap is a high latitude region of a planet or natural satellite that is covered in ice. There are no requirements with respect to size or composition for a body of ice to be termed a polar ice cap, nor any geological requirement for it to be over land; only that it must be a body of solid phase matter in the polar region. This causes the term "polar ice cap" to be something of a misnomer, as the term ice cap itself is applied with greater scrutiny as such bodies must be found over land, and possess a surface area of less than 50,000 km²: larger bodies are referred to as ice sheets.
The Earth's polar ice caps have changed dramatically over the last 12,000 years. Seasonal variations of the ice caps takes place due to varied solar energy absorption as the planet or moon revolves around the sun. Additionally, in geologic time scales, the ice caps may grow or shrink due to climate variation.
Earth's north pole is covered by floating pack ice (sea ice) over the Arctic Ocean. Portions of the ice that do not melt seasonally can get very thick, up to 3–4 meters thick over large areas, with ridges up to 20 meters thick. One-year ice is usually about 1 meter thick. The area covered by sea ice ranges between 9 and 12 million km². In addition, the Greenland ice sheet covers about 1.71 million km² and contains about 2.6 million km³ of ice. When the ice breaks off (calves) it forms icebergs scattered around the northern Atlantic.
According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center, "since 1979, winter Arctic ice extent has decreased about 4.2 percent per decade". Both 2008 and 2009 had a minimum Arctic sea ice extent somewhat above that of 2007. At other times of the year the ice extent is still sometimes near the 1979–2000 average, as in April 2010, by the data from the National Snow and Ice Data Center.
The land mass of the Earth's south pole, in Antarctica, is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet. It covers an area of about 14.6million km² and contains 25–30 million km³ of ice. Around 70% of the fresh water on the Earth is held in this ice sheet. See Climate of Antarctica.
Data from the National Snow and Ice Data Center shows that the sea ice coverage of Antarctica has a slightly positive trend over the last three decades (1979–2009).
Over the past several decades Earth’s polar ice caps have gained a significant amount of attention due to their alarming decrease in land and sea ice. NASA reports that sea ice in the Arctic has been declining at a rate of nine percent per decade for the past 30 years, while Antarctica has been losing land ice mass at a rate of more than 100 cubic kilometers per year since 2002.
Due to polar ice caps current rate of decline, there have been many investigations and discoveries on glacier dynamics and their influence on the world’s climate. In the early 1950s, scientists and engineers from the US Army began drilling into polar ice caps for geological insight. These studies resulted in “nearly forty years of research experience and achievements in deep polar ice core drillings… and established the fundamental drilling technology for retrieving deep ice cores for climatologic archives.”  Polar ice caps have been used to not only track current climate patterns, but also patterns over the past several thousands years due to traces of CO2 and CH4 found trapped in the ice. In the past decade, polar ice caps have shown their most rapid decline in size with no true sign of recovery. Josefino Comiso, a senior research scientist at NASA, found that the “rate of warming in the Arctic over the last 20 years is eight times the rate of warming over the last 100 years.” In September 2012, sea ice reached its smallest size ever. Journalist John Vidal stated that sea ice is "700,000 sq km below the previous minimum of 4.17m sq km set in 2007". In August 2013, Arctic sea ice extent averaged 6.09m km2, which represents 1.13 million km2 below the 1981-2010 average for that month.
In addition to Earth, the planet Mars also has polar ice caps. They consist of primarily water-ice with a few percent dust. Frozen carbon dioxide makes up a small permanent portion of the Planum Australe or the South Polar Layered Deposits. In both hemispheres a seasonal carbon dioxide frost deposits in the winter and sublimes during the spring.
Data collected in 2005 from NASA missions to Mars show that the southern residual ice cap undergoes sublimation inter-annually. The most widely accepted explanation is that fluctuations in the planet's orbit are causing the changes.
- The National Snow and Ice Data Center Glossary
- "NSIDC Arctic Sea Ice News Fall 2007". nsidc.org. Retrieved 2008-03-27.
- "Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis". National Snow and Ice Data Center. Retrieved 2010-05-09.
- "State of the Cryosphere / Arctic and Antarctic Standardized Anomalies and Trends Jan 1979 - Jul 2009". National Snow and Ice Data Center. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
- Thompson, Elvia. "Recent Warming of Arctic May Affect Worldwide Climate". NASA. Retrieved 2 October 2012. "Warming trends like those found in these studies could greatly affect ocean processes, which, in turn, impact Arctic and global climate."
- "Antarctic Ice Melt". OSS Foundation. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- "Is Antarctica Melting?". NASA. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- Langway, Chester (April 2008). The history of early polar ice cores, Cold Regions Science and Technology 52 (2). pp. 101–117.
- Thompson, Elvia. "Recent Warming of Arctic May Affect Worldwide Climate". NASA. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- Videl, John (19 September 2012). "Arctic Ice Shrinks 18% against Record, Sounding Climate Change Alarm Bells". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- National Snow and Ice Data Center A real hole near the pole, September 4, 2012
- Grima, Cyril G.; Kofman, W.; Mouginot, J.; Phillips, R. J.; Herique, A.; Biccardi, D.; Seu, R.; Cutigni, M. (2009). "North polar deposits of Mars: Extreme purity of the water ice". Geophysical Research Letters 36 (3). doi:10.1029/2008GL036326.
- Ravilious, Kate (2007-02-28). "Mars Melt Hints at Solar, Not Human, Cause for Warming, Scientist Says". National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2008-10-28.