In physics, polaritons // are quasiparticles resulting from strong coupling of electromagnetic waves with an electric or magnetic dipole-carrying excitation. They are an expression of the common quantum phenomenon known as level repulsion, also known as the avoided crossing principle. Polaritons describe the crossing of the dispersion of light with any interacting resonance.
Types of Polaritons
Thus, a polariton is the result of the mixing of a photon with an excitation of a material. The following are types of polaritons:
- Phonon-polaritons result from coupling of an infrared photon with an optic phonon;
- Exciton-polaritons result from coupling of visible light with an exciton
- intersubband-polaritons result from coupling of an infrared or terahertz photon with an intersubband excitation.
- Surface plasmon polaritons, resulting from coupling of surface plasmons with light (the wavelength depends on the substance and its geometry).
- Bragg-polaritons or Braggoritons, have been observed  and studied theoretically.
Principles of Polaritons
Whenever the polariton picture is valid, the model of photons propagating freely in crystals is insufficient. A major feature of polaritons is a strong dependency of the propagation speed of light through the crystal on the frequency. For exciton-polaritons, rich experimental results on various aspects have been gained in copper (I) oxide.
The polariton is a bosonic quasiparticle, and should not be confused with the polaron, a fermionic one, e.g. an electron plus attached phonon cloud. Polaritons were first considered theoretically by Kirill Borisovich Tolpygo, a Ukrainian physicist, and were initially termed light-excitons in Ukrainian and Russian scientific literature.
- N. Eradat "etal", Evidence for braggoriton excitations in opal photonic crystals infiltrated with highly polarizable dyes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3491 (2002).
- K.B. Tolpygo, "Physical properties of a rock salt lattice made up of deformable ions," Zh.Eks.Teor.Fiz. v.20, No 6, pp.497–509 (1950), in Russian. English translation: Ukrainian Journal of Physics, v.53, special issue (2008); http://www.ujp.bitp.kiev.ua/files/file/papers/53/special_issue/53SI21p.pdf
- Fano, U. (1956). "Atomic Theory of Electromagnetic Interactions in Dense Materials". Physical Review 103 (5): 1202–1218. Bibcode:1956PhRv..103.1202F. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.103.1202.
- Hopfield, J. J. (1958). "Theory of the Contribution of Excitons to the Complex Dielectric Constant of Crystals". Physical Review 112 (5): 1555–1567. Bibcode:1958PhRv..112.1555H. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.112.1555.
- Baker-Jarvis, J. (2012). "The Interaction of Radio-Frequency Fields With Dielectric Materials at Macroscopic to Mesoscopic Scales". Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (National Institute of Science and Technology) 117: 1. doi:10.6028/jres.117.001.
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