Police Service of Northern Ireland
|Police Service of Northern Ireland|
|Badge of the Police Service of Northern Ireland.|
|Formed||4 November 2001|
|Preceding agency||Royal Ulster Constabulary|
|Legal personality||Governmental: Government agency|
|Police Service of Northern Ireland area|
|Population||Approx 1.7 million|
|Legal jurisdiction||Northern Ireland|
|Governing body||Northern Ireland Assembly|
|Constituting instrument||Police (Northern Ireland) Act 2000|
|Overviewed by||Northern Ireland Policing Board|
|Elected officer responsible||David Ford, Minister of Justice|
|Agency executive||Matt Baggott, Chief Constable|
|Planes||3 helicopters, 1 fixed wing aircraft|
The Police Service of Northern Ireland (Irish: Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster Scots: Polis Servis o Norlin Airlan) is the police force that serves Northern Ireland. It is the successor to the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) which, in turn, was the successor to the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) in Northern Ireland.
The vast majority of RUC officers came from the Protestant and unionist community. It was repeatedly accused of police brutality and discrimination against the Catholic and Irish nationalist/republican community. The RUC was a highly militarized police force and played a key role in the violent conflict known as the Troubles. As part of the peace process, there was an agreement to reform the RUC. As part of the reform, an Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland (the Patten Commission) was set up, and the RUC was renamed on 4 November 2001. The Police (Northern Ireland) Act 2000 renamed it the Police Service of Northern Ireland (incorporating the Royal Ulster Constabulary); shortened to Police Service of Northern Ireland for operational purposes.
All major political parties in Northern Ireland now support the PSNI. At first Sinn Féin, which represents about a quarter of Northern Ireland voters, refused to endorse the PSNI until the Patten Commission's recommendations were implemented in full. However, as part of the St Andrews Agreement, Sinn Féin announced its full acceptance of the PSNI in January 2007.
Due to the threat from paramilitary groups opposed to the peace process, the PSNI continues to be more militarized than police forces elsewhere in the UK and Ireland.
In 2001 the old police divisions and sub-divisions were replaced with 29 District Command Units (DCUs), broadly coterminous with local council areas. In 2007 these 29 Districts were replaced by 8 Districts ('A' through 'H') in anticipation of local government restructuring under the Review of Public Administration (RPA). These council boundaries have not been finalised by the Northern Ireland Assembly, however, and may change. Each district is headed by a Chief Superintendent. Districts are divided into areas, commanded by a Chief Inspector and they in turn are divided into sectors, commanded by Inspectors. In recent years under new structural reforms some Chief Inspectors command more than one Area as the PSNI strives to make savings. Policing and Justice was passed to the Northern Ireland Assembly with the devolution of Policing and Justice on 9 March 2010, although direction and control of the PSNI remains under the Chief Constable.
Police Officers of the PSNI have full police powers throughout Northern Ireland and the adjacent United Kingdom waters. Other than in mutual aid circumstances they have more limited police powers in the other two legal jurisdictions of the United Kingdom - England and Wales or Scotland.
Cooperation with Garda Síochána
The Patten Report recommended that a programme of long-term personnel exchanges should be established between the PSNI and the Garda Síochána, the police force of the Republic of Ireland. This recommendation was enacted in 2002 by an Inter-Governmental Agreement on Policing Cooperation, which set the basis for the exchange of officer between the two services. There are three levels of exchanges:
- Personnel exchanges, for all ranks, without policing powers and for a term up to one year
- Secondments: for ranks Sergeant to Chief Superintendent, with policing powers, for up to three years
- Lateral entry by the permanent transfer of officers for ranks above Inspector and under Assistant Commissioner
The protocols for this movements of personnel were signed by both the Chief Constable of the PSNI and the Commissioner of An Garda Síochána on 21 February 2005.
The PSNI also has an education organisation named 'B safe', created by Dympna Thornton in 2006.
The PSNI is supervised by the Northern Ireland Policing Board.
The Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland deals with any complaints regarding the PSNI and investigates any allegations of misconduct by police officers. The current Police Ombudsman is former Oversight Commissioner Al Hutchinson who took over from Nuala O'Loan in November 2007. The Oversight Commissioner is appointed to ensure that the Patten recommendations were implemented 'comprehensively and faithfully' and attempted to assure the community that all aspects of the report were being implemented and being seen to be implemented. The Oversight role ended on 31 May 2007, with the final report indicating that of Patten's 175 recommendations, 140 had been completed with a further 16 "substantially completed".
The PSNI is also internally regulated by "Professional Standards Department" (PSD) whose motto is "integrity is not negotiable". PSD can direct local "professional standards champions" (Superintendents at District level) to investigate relatively minor matters while a "misconduct panel" will consider more serious misconduct issues. Outcomes from misconduct hearings range from Dismissal, requirement to resign, reduction in rank, monetary fines and cautions.
The PSNI was initially legally obliged to operate an affirmative action policy of recruiting 50% of its trainee officers from a Catholic background and 50% from a non-Catholic background, as recommended by the Patten Report, in order to address the under-representation of the Catholic/Nationalist community that has existed for many decades in policing; in 2001 the RUC was drawn almost 92% from the Protestant/Unionist community. Many Unionist politicians perceived "50:50" as unfair, and when the Bill to set up the PSNI was going through Parliament, Minister of State Adam Ingram had stated: "Dominic Grieve referred to positive discrimination and we hold our hands up. Clause 43 refers to discrimination and appointments and there is no point in saying that that is anything other than positive discrimination." However, the Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission cited international human rights law to show that special measures to secure minority participation were in accordance with human rights standards and did not in law constitute 'discrimination'.
By February 2011, 29.7% of the 7,200 officers were from the Catholic community, but among the 2,500 police support staff, where the 50:50 rule operated only for larger recruitment drives, the proportion of Catholics just exceeded 18%. The British Government nevertheless proposed to end the 50:50 measure, and provisions for 'lateral entry' of Catholic officers from other police forces, with effect from end-March 2011. Following a public consultation the special measures were ended, in respect of police and support staff, in April 2011.
In September 2006 it was confirmed that Assistant Chief Constable Judith Gillespie approved the PSNI policy of using children as informants including in exceptional circumstances to inform on their own family but not their parents. The document added safeguards included having a parent or "appropriate adult" present at meetings between juveniles and their handler. It also stressed a child's welfare should be paramount when considering the controversial tactics and required that any risk had been properly explained to them and a risk assessment completed.
The colour of the PSNI uniform is green. Pre-1970s RUC uniforms retained a dark green, which was often mistaken as black. A lighter shade of green was introduced following the Hunt reforms of the early 1970s, although Hunt recommended that British blue should be introduced. The Patten report, however, recommended the retention of the green uniform (Recommendation No. 154). The RUC officially described this as 'rifle green'. When the six new versions of the PSNI uniform were introduced, in March 2002, the term 'bottle green' was used for basically the same colour to convey a less militaristic theme.
The PSNI badge features the St. Patrick's saltire, and six symbols representing different and shared traditions:
- The Scales of Justice (representing equality and justice)
- A crown (a traditional symbol of royalty but not the St Edward's Crown worn by or representing the British Sovereign)
- The harp (a traditional Irish symbol but not the Brian Boru harp used as an official emblem in the Republic)
- A torch (representing enlightenment and a new beginning)
- An olive branch (a peace symbol from Ancient Greece)
- A shamrock (a traditional Irish symbol, used by St Patrick, patron saint of all Ireland, to explain the Christian Trinity)
The flag of the PSNI is the badge in the centre of a dark green field. Under the Police Emblems and Flags Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2002 no other flag can be used by the PSNI and it is the only one permitted to be flown on any PSNI building, vehicle, aircraft or vessel.
PSNI officers routinely wear flak jackets and in recent years have been issued the stab vests worn by most UK police officers and the Gardaí. Flak jackets were routinely worn by officers in Ballymena in late 2004, and in December 2007 for PSNI officers patrolling in the Greater Belfast & Greater Derry City areas owing to the threat from dissident republicans. In 2009 the PSNI issued an upgraded and redesigned flak jacket to operational officers. While the flak jacket offers a high level of ballistic protection many officers prefer the lighter and more comfortable stab vest. Both are issued to each operational officer and the wearing of body armour generally comes down to personal preference, except in areas of high threat.
Due to the elevated threat level PSNI personnel face from armed paramilitary groups the PSNI, unlike the majority of police services in the United Kingdom, routinely arms all of its officers with firearms and is the only territorial police service in the UK to do so. In addition the PSNI is the only police service in the UK which allows its officers to carry their issue sidearm off-duty. Officers are issued the Glock 17 pistol, phasing out the now considered obsolete Ruger Speed Six revolvers previously issued. Previously long arms were routinely issued: either the Heckler & Koch MP5, Remington 870 shotgun or rifles such as Heckler & Koch G3s, G36Cs or HK33s which replaced Ruger AC-556 select fire rifles. Long arms are still routinely carried in areas of higher threat such as North and West Belfast or various border areas.
The best known PSNI vehicle is the Land Rover Tangi but with the improving security situation these are less likely to be used for everyday patrols and are more likely to be used for crowd control instead. In 2011 it was announced that some of the Tangis were to be replaced, due to the ongoing security threat and the age of the current fleet.This led to the creation of the PANGOLIN- Armoured Public Order Vehicle - designed and built by OVIK Special Vehicles (part of the OVIK Group), 60 Mk1 and 60 Mk2 variants have been delivered and are currently in service. A further 30 are on order. Also a number of Public Order Land Rover's made by Penman are also currently in service.
Other vehicles include Škoda Octavias, Škoda Superb, Vauxhall Vectras, Vauxhall Astra estates, Ford Mondeos, Volkswagen Passat Estates, Audi A6, Audi A4. Vans include Volkswagen Transporter, Volkswagen Crafter and Mercedes Sprinter. 4X4 vehicles include Mitsubishi Shoguns, Range Rovers, Land Rover Discovery 4s and a small number of Honda quad bikes. Higher spec cars include Volkswagen Golf R32s, Vauxhall Vectra VXRs, Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution and Vauxhall Insignia VXRs. Many older armoured vehicles are still in use, but newer cars are more likely to be non-armoured. The PSNI have a fleet of Honda and BMW R 1200 RT motorbikes. The PSNI also have a fleet of 242 bicycles which are used for city centres and walkway patrols.
The PSNI have the largest Air support unit within the United Kingdom. In May 2005 the PSNI took delivery of its first helicopter, a Eurocopter EC 135, registration G-PSNI and callsign Police 44. The PSNI (and the RUC) relied heavily on British Army helicopter support during the Troubles and into the 21st century. A new registration G-PSNO and callsign Police 45 was acquired in 2010 at a cost of £7 million. The PSNI also hire a third helicopter out from Veritair, a Eurocopter BK117, registration G-DCPA and callsign Police 46. A second Eurocopter EC 145 is currently on order from Eurocopter UK and is expected to be delivered in time for the 39th G8 summit in June 2013. Finally the PSNI have a fixed wing aircraft, a Britten-Norman Islander, registration G-BSWR and callsign Scout 1 All aircraft are used for investigations, anti-crime operations, traffic management, search and rescue, public order situations, crime reduction initiatives and tackling terrorism.
Other items of equipment include Hiatts Speedcuffs, CS (irritant) Spray, Monadnock autolock batons with power safety tip and hindi cap, a first aid pouch, a tetra radio(Motorola MTH800) and a torch with traffic wand, Limb Restraints, finally the PSNI plan to distribute 2100 BlackBerry devices to officers by the end of March 2011 and by March 2012 they plan to distribute an additional 2000 devices.
The senior officer in charge of the PSNI is its Chief Constable. To date this position has been held, substantively or temporarily, by five people:
- Chief Constable Sir Ronnie Flanagan OBE, from the formation of the PSNI. Flanagan was previously the Chief Constable of the RUC.
- Acting Chief Constable Colin Cramphorn, from 1 April 2002. Cramphorn was formerly Flanagan's deputy, and with Flanagan's resignation Cramphorn acted as Chief Constable while the Policing Board sought a permanent replacement. Cramphorn is believed to have turned down the post of Chief Constable due to the political expectations that he was required to fulfil, but which he apparently believed were inappropriate at that time.
- Chief Constable Sir Hugh Orde OBE, from 29 May 2002 until August 2009. Cramphorn continued as Orde's deputy until September 2002, when he was appointed Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police.
- Deputy Chief Constable Judith Gillespie, acting from August 2009 until 22 September 2009.
- Chief Constable Matt Baggott CBE, QPM, from 22 September 2009.
- Chief Constable
- Deputy Chief Constable
- Assistant Chief Constable
- Chief Superintendent
- Chief Inspector
- Reserve Constable (Part Time)
- Reserve Constable (Full Time) (2001–2011)
The ranks and their insignia correspond to those of British police services, with a few modifications. Sergeants' chevrons are worn point-up as is done in the United States, rather than points-down as is done in other police and military services of the United Kingdom. Sergeants do not wear numbers as their counterparts do in other UK police services. The six-pointed star & saltire device from the PSNI badge is used in place of St Edward's Crown in the insignia of superintendents, chief superintendents and the chief constable.
- Aerial roof markings
- Policing in the United Kingdom
- List of Government departments and agencies in Northern Ireland
- An Garda Síochána - the police service in the Republic of Ireland
- Northern Ireland Security Guard Service
Weitzer, Ronald. 1995. Policing Under Fire: Ethnic Conflict and Police-Community Relations in Northern Ireland (Albany, New York: State University of New York Press).
Weitzer, Ronald. 1996. "Police Reform in Northern Ireland", Police Studies, v.19, no.2. pages:27-43.
Weitzer, Ronald. 1992. "Northern Ireland's Police Liaison Committees", Policing and Society, vol.2, no.3, pages 233-243.
- Stations. Police Service of Northern Ireland. Retrieved on 2009-09-10.
- . Police Service of Northern Ireland. Retrieved on 2011-07-19.
- "Faisnéis as Gaeilge faoi Sheirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart Éireann". Police Service of Northern Ireland (in Irish). Retrieved 2 March 2009.
- "Wittins anent the Polis Service o Norlin Airlan in the Ulster Scots". Police Service of Northern Ireland (in Ulster Scots). Retrieved 2 March 2009.
- "The RUC: Lauded and condemned". BBC News (bbc.co.uk). 31 October 2001. Retrieved 5 June 2007. "Condemned by republicans, nationalists and human rights groups for embodying sectarianism and lauded by security forces as one of the most professional police operations in the world, the Royal Ulster Constabulary is one of the most controversial police forces in the UK."
- 'New era' as NI police change name, BBC News', 4 November 2001
- s.1, Police (Northern Ireland) Act 2000
- Police (Northern Ireland) Act 2000 (c. 32)
- "SF delegates vote to support policing". RTÉ News (rte.ie). 28 January 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2007. "The Sinn Féin decision in favour of supporting policing in Northern Ireland for the first time ever has been welcomed in Dublin, London and Belfast."
- Freedom of Information Request Number F-2008-05327. Lateral Entry into PSNI
- Office of the Oversight Commissioner
- House of Commons Standing Committee B, 27 June 2000
- Human Rights Commission paper on 50:50 recruitment, January 2010
- Workforce composition data from PSNI website
- Northern Ireland Office consultation paper on 50:50 recruitment, November 2010
- "PSNI allowed to use child informers". UTV News (u.tv). 1 September 2006. Retrieved 5 June 2007. "The Police Service of Northern Ireland policy, 'Children as Covert Human Intelligence Sources' was approved by Assistant Chief Constable Judith Gillespie in February 2005 as part of its child protection policy. In June 2009, Judith Gillespie was promoted to the rank of Deputy Chief Constable, the high rank obtained by a female."
- The Patten Report on Policing Summary of Recommendations
- Police Emblems and Flags Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2002 Statutory Rule 2002 No. 23
- McDonald, Henry (13 December 2007). "Belfast police forced back into flak jackets". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 10 March 2009.
- "Northern Ireland". Encarta. msn. Retrieved 5 June 2007. "Unlike police forces in the rest of the United Kingdom, the PSNI is an armed force."
Please see attached response from the Police Service of Northern Ireland, in relation to the freedom of information request F-2010-01784
"Discretion aims to encourage officers to use their professional judgement to resolve minor crime to the satisfaction of victims and the community whilst maintaining accountability. Discretion procedures focus on delivering effective and proportionate criminal justice outcomes which meet the needs and expectations of victims and their communities. They will assist officers in using their professional judgement in managing low level and local crimes through the use of discretion. Discretion can be applied to minor crimes and incidents. Discretion is a victim led alternative to prosecution and one of a range of options which will be open to police in dealing with crimes and incidents".
This I believe is a useful contribution to reduce crime, especially the youth from becoming involved in crime and additionally not attracting a criminal report at a young age.
- Police Service of Northern Ireland
- The badge and flag of the PSNI
- Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland website
- PSNI Roll Of Honour
- PSNI recruitment managed by Deloitte