Police cadets in the United Kingdom
The term Police Cadets has two principal meanings in the United Kingdom. It may refer to the Police Cadet scheme which allows young adults to serve on the pay-roll of their local police in a virtual apprenticeship, leading (in most cases) to subsequent enrollment as a full-time Police Constable; this scheme was phased out in most English and Welsh police forces between 1990 and 1995, but is still active in Scotland. The term may also refer to the more recent (post-1995) Volunteer Police Cadet youth organisation, that offers an insight into policing, under the general supervision of the local police force in England and Wales.
- 1 Police Cadets (apprentice police officers)
- 2 Volunteer Police Cadets (youth organisation)
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Police Cadets (apprentice police officers)
The Police Cadet scheme no longer operates in England & Wales. Police Cadets never had the powers of a Police Constable, but were employed by police forces to work alongside regular Constables, learning about police work in a practical and 'hands-on' environment. Working as a Police Cadet in this way usually went alongside more classroom-based training. On operational duty, despite having no powers of arrest, they were able to assist their more senior colleagues in many practical matters (such as taking statements, directing traffic, or offering crime prevention advice) as well as observing the work of their supervisors. Applications were accepted from the age of 16, and full-time paid Police Cadet service continued until the age of 19 , by which time a Cadet would either apply for training as a Constable, or leave the police force.
The Police Cadet uniform was, in most force areas, identical to the uniform of regular constables, with two exceptions. Firstly, Cadets wore a peaked cap with a blue band (as opposed to the police black and white Sillitoe Tartan design), and never wore a police helmet; and secondly, they wore a "Police Cadet" shoulder flash/badge on their tunics.
Many of the most senior policemen in the United Kingdom, including many recent Commissioners of the Metropolitan Police Service, Commissioners of the City of London Police, and County Chief Constables, started their careers as full-time Police Cadets. Appointment as a Constable was never guaranteed, but service as a Police Cadet was a significant advantage in the selection process, and appears to have provided a solid basis for the subsequent careers of many senior police officers.
The Police Cadet scheme continues to operate in Scotland, with recruits typically entering the scheme aged 16 and serving for two years, before progressing to the regular police force. Cadets are employed full-time, although salaries tend to be low. Entry examinations are required, but those who have completed the scheme are not required to resit the entry examination on progressing to the regular police.
Police Cadets in popular culture
In 1980 the ITV television network aired The Squad, a drama series which followed the fictional adventures of Metropolitan Police Cadets. The twelve episodes were produced by London ITV-franchise company Thames Television.
Volunteer Police Cadets (youth organisation)
There are a number of Volunteer Police Cadet schemes for young people aged (in most cases) between 14 and 18. These groups are designed to provide a sense of what it is like to be a police officer, by getting cadets involved in various police related activities, such as crime prevention projects. Some forces allow cadets to go out on patrol with Police Officers in connection with non-confrontational policing duties, once they reach the age of 14. Each scheme is sponsored by a statutory police service, although it has a separate identity, and in that sense is more distant from regular policing than the work of the former full-time Police Cadets. In most forces there are no formal entry requirements to become a cadet.
Pioneering schemes and Cadet uniform
Following the demise of their full-time cadet scheme, a Volunteer Police Cadet scheme was launched in Cambridgeshire. These cadets wore a similar uniform to the old full-time cadets, but were issued with a navy blue combat-style sweater (marked 'Police Cadet') instead of a tunic; however in Sussex their uniform is similar to a police officer's, with white shirt, tie, Epaulettes, black trousers, and black shoes. They also have cadet jackets and a high visibility jacket. In Hertfordshire a Volunteer Cadet Scheme was launched at Force Headquarters, predominantly based on sporting activities or the Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme. It was non uniformed, but cadets were issued with a light blue V neck sweater which had the county emblem embroidered on it. The Hertfordshire scheme has now changed and cadets wear a uniform similar to regular police officers, but with the word "cadet" embroidered on epaulette rank slides instead of a collar number and similarly the word "cadet" on the left breast reflective strip instead of the word "police". Cadets are encouraged to participate in the Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme and most schemes include a strong element of outdoor experience such as rock climbing, kayaking/canoeing, hillwalking and navigation. The Telford Volunteer Police Cadets, operational since the mid-1990s, won the Queens Award for Voluntary Service in 2010. Each year this group participates in the Crucial Crew Workshops at Buildwas Abbey, and polices a wide variety of events jointly with full-time police colleagues. In most cases Volunteer Police Cadets wear a recognisable uniform. Some police cadets use a pale- or turquoise-blue hat band, others black, green or another colour; some forces use baseball caps or berets. Police Cadets within Devon and Cornwall Police are an exception in that they are called Community Police Cadets, with cadets wearing a solid red hatband and epaulettes. Many Police Services have shied away from Cadets having uniforms that resemble that of the local Police service for health and safety reasons; the concern being that a Cadet may be mistaken for a police officer, PCSO or Community Warden or that it might facilitate an over eager Cadet impersonating a warranted officer. These Police Services have tended towards "blues" or Polo shirts and a beret or baseball cap.
The largest cadet scheme is operated by the Metropolitan Police Service, with over 3,200 Cadets (March 2014). The first Volunteer Police Cadet Unit started in Dulwich in 1988. Started by local officers it soon grew to a success and was expanded across other boroughs. By 2010 every London Borough had a VPC Unit, along with a central support team within the Territorial Policing Command Unit. Metropolitan Police Cadets (aged from 13 to 19)  are involved in continuing further education, DofE, learning about the police service, carrying out attachments to Divisions and Specialist departments, learning First Aid, and engaging in community work projects with the disabled and disadvantaged. Police cadets representing forces from all over the country formerly spent a weekend at Hendon Police College, in North London, for the annual National Police Cadet Competitions. This involved cadets competing in a range of police activities and scenarios, in which they were competitively assessed. In 2006, the Metropolitan Police announced that the National Cadet Competition was no longer to be held at Hendon due to operational and financial constraints. However the Annual Cadet Competition continues as a long tradition- although cancelled in 2012 due to London Olympic Games requirements it re-opened its doors and grounds to the VPC in 2013. 2013 also saw the launch of Junior Police Cadets capturing those young people from school Year 6 to Year 9 at which point they become eligible to join the senior VPC.
On Sunday 14 June 2009, the Metropolitan Police Volunteer Police Cadets took part in what is believed to have been the largest ever formal parade of young people, to celebrate the 21st anniversary of the establishment of the Volunteer Police Cadet force in what was named as the "colour parade" and was carried out on Horse Guard's Parade. Each cadet troop was formally passed a Standard (flag) under the review of the Metropolitan Police Commissioner, Sir Paul Stephenson, and other senior officers of the Metropolitan Police. The parade also included the showing of vintage police vehicles, police dogs, and a static display of the Boys Brigade's London Massed Bugle Band. Bands that lead the four columns of a total of 1,400 cadets (and various police cadet staff, most of whom also hold different roles within the Metropolitan Police) were Metropolitan Police Pipe Band, the Nottinghamshire Police Pipe Band, the British Airways Brass Band, and the Enfield District Scout Band.
Cadets are also involeved in the Duke of Edinburgh's Award scheme, and have the scheme's largest operating licence. They also have an opportunity to gain a BTEC in Public Services, and the central team are currently compiling a senior leadership course to be a NVQ qualifaction. There are also plans for the new entry test required for police officers to be included.
The Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, has supported the VPC (Volunteer Police Cadets) and has promised London an increase of double by 2014.
Since 2011 many Police Services have been working together to develop a National VPC framework, under the guidance of Ch Insp Ed Sherry (retired 2013) and supported by the Department for Communities and Local Government via the Youth United Foundation. The developing scheme revolves around 4 aims:
- Promote a practical understanding of policing among all young people
- Encourage a spirit of adventure and good citizenship
- Support local policing priorities through volunteering and give young people a chance to be heard
- Inspire young people to participate positively in their communities
This new model also includes the principals that each Unit should:
- Engage with young people between 13 and 18 years old
- Have 25% of their membership from a “Vulnerable” background
- Support their Cadets to volunteer 3 hours a month assisting in community and crime prevention events
- Have a body of Cadets that represents the diversity of their Service Area
In April 2013 Chief Constable Shaun Sawyer was appointed ACPO portfolio lead for this programme and is supported by a small implementation team developing the project further under a common “brand” and framework. By April 2014 this work had led to 34 Services in England, Scotland and Wales agreeing to this joint framework, and many of the remainder scoping the viability of a starting a Cadet scheme.
The 2013–2014 Crime Plan written by PCC Angus Macpherson for Wiltshire Police outlined the introduction of a new cadet scheme to engage young people and provide insight into policing.
Schemes in operation
- Avon and Somerset Police
- Bedfordshire Police
- Cheshire Constabulary
- Derbyshire Constabulary
- Devon and Cornwall Police
- Dyfed-Powys Police
- Essex Police
- Grampian Police
- Greater Manchester Police
- Hertfordshire Constabulary
- Kent Police Trial scheme of 20 cadets in 2013, plans for expansion to 60 in 2014
- Lancashire Police
- Lincolnshire Police
- Merseyside Police Force-wide in April 2006. Operates seven scheme across Merseyside
- Metropolitan Police Operates twenty-nine schemes across the Greater London area.
- Northumbria Police
- North Wales Police Force-wide in June 2007
- Nottinghamshire Police Trial scheme of 70 cadets in 2013, plans for expansion 2014
- South Yorkshire Police Operates four schemes in Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham and Sheffield.
- Surrey Police
- Sussex Police
- Warwickshire Police
- West Mercia Police
- Gwent Police
- Full details of the training programme and salary levels are shown on this web page from Scotland.
- See the British Film Institute website here for more details.
- This uniform is illustrated here.
- Official report of the award on this webpage.
- As stated and illustrated here.
- As outlined on this webpage.
- Police Could You
- UK Police service portal
- Police Cadet forum
- Avon and Somerset Constabulary (Police Cadets)
- Bedfordshire Police Cadets
- Derbyshire Police Cadets
- Essex Police Cadets
- Greater Manchester Police Police Cadets
- Hertfordshire Constabulary Volunteer Police Cadets
- Merseyside Police Cadets
- Metropolitan Police Cadets
- North Wales Police Volunteer Cadets
- Lancashire Police Cadets
- Lincolnshire Police Volunteer Cadets
- South Yorkshire Police Cadets
- Strathclyde Police Cadets Programme
- Surrey Police Community Support Cadets
- Sussex Police Cadets
- West Mercia Police Cadets
- Colour Parade Announcement - Metropolitan Police
- Gloucestershire Constabulary Cadet Reunion 2 November 2013