Police ranks of the United Kingdom

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Most of the police forces of the United Kingdom use a standardised set of ranks, with a slight variation in the most senior ranks for Greater London's Metropolitan Police Service and the City of London Police.[1][2] Most of the British police ranks that exist today were chosen by Home Secretary Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the Metropolitan Police, enacted under the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829. The ranks at that time were deliberately chosen so that they did not correspond with military ranking (with the exception of Sergeant), due to fears of a paramilitary force.

Rank insignia[edit]

Badges of rank are usually worn on the epaulettes. However, when in formal uniform sergeants wear their rank insignia on their upper sleeves.[1][2] When police tunics had closed collars (not open collars as worn with ties), constables and sergeants did not wear epaulettes but had their divisional call number on their collar (hence the fact that they are still often referred to as collar numbers). Sergeants wore their stripes on their upper sleeve. Inspectors and more senior ranks wore epaulettes at a much earlier stage, although they once wore their rank insignia on their collars. Most forces no longer use divisional call numbers, and retain only the collar number and rank insignia.

United Kingdom police ranks (up to Chief Superintendent)
Rank Police Constable Sergeant Inspector Chief Inspector Superintendent Chief Superintendent
Insignia Uk-police-01.PNG Uk-police-02.PNG Uk-police-03.PNG Uk-police-04.PNG Uk-police-05.PNG Uk-police-06.PNG
United Kingdom police ranks (chief officers)
Rank Assistant Chief Constable Deputy Chief Constable Chief Constable
City of London Police rank Commander Assistant Commissioner Commissioner
Metropolitan Police rank Commander Deputy Assistant Commissioner Assistant Commissioner Deputy Commissioner Commissioner
Insignia Uk-police-07.PNG Uk-police-08.PNG Uk-police-09.PNG Uk-police-10.PNG Uk-police-11.PNG


Senior officers usually wear distinguishing marks around the outer edge of the peaks of their caps (or under the capbadge for female officers, who do not wear peaked caps). Normally this is a raised black band for inspectors and chief inspectors, a silver or gold band for superintendents and chief superintendents, and a row of silver or gold oakleaves for chief officers. Chief constables, the Commissioner of the City of London Police, and all commissioner ranks of the Metropolitan Police wear oakleaves on both the outer and inner edges of their peaks (or a double row beneath the capbadge for female officers).

Additionally, officers at or above the rank of commander or assistant chief constable wear gorget patches on the collars of their tunics. The gorget patches are patterned after those worn by general officers of the British Army and Royal Marines; the police versions, however, are of silver on black rather than gold on red, in keeping with the police uniform colours.

The above ranks are used by all territorial forces in the United Kingdom, and the specialist national forces: the British Transport Police, Ministry of Defence Police, and Civil Nuclear Constabulary.[3] Other specialist forces, and those outside of the United Kingdom (including the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and Gibraltar) use the same general system, but often have fewer senior ranks.

In Britain, Chief Constable is the title of the head of each British territorial police force except the Metropolitan Police and City of London Police, which are headed by commissioners. Ranks above Chief Superintendent are usually non-operational management roles, and are often referred to as "Chief Officer" ranks. The Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police is often considered to be the highest police rank within the United Kingdom,[4] although in reality every Chief Constable and the two Commissioners are supreme over their own forces and are not answerable to any other officer.

Epaulettes are normally black with white sewn on or silver metal insignia, although high-visibility uniforms are often yellow with black insignia.

Uniform insignia[edit]

The rank of an officer can be found in varying details of the uniform such as headgear, sleeve patches and tunic collar details, although these details do not vary for every rank.

Illustration of uniform tunics insignia to denote rank in British police forces
Ranks Police
Constable
Sergeant Inspector
up to Chief
Superintendent
Assistant Chief
Constable
up to
Deputy Chief
Constable
Assistant Commissioner
up to Commissioner
(and Chief Constable)
Uniform
insignia
PoliceTunic1-Constable.png PoliceTunic2-Sergeant.png PoliceTunic5-LowRanks.png PoliceTunic3-MidRanks.png PoliceTunic4-SeniorRanks.png


Illustrations of headgear used to denote rank in British police forces
Ranks Police
Community
Support
Officer
Police
Constable

and Sergeant
Inspector
and Chief
Inspector
Superintendent
and Chief
Superintendent
Assistant Chief
Constable
up to
Deputy Assistant Commissioner
(excluding
Chief Constable)
Assistant
Commissioner

up to
Commissioner
(including Chief Constable)
Foot patrol
(Male)
PoliceHeadgear3 - PCSOCap2.png
PoliceHeadgear3 - PCSOCap1.png
PoliceHeadgear1 - BrunswickHelmet.png PoliceHeadgear2 - PeakedCap1.png PoliceHeadgear3 - PeakedCap2.png PoliceHeadgear3 - PeakedCap3.png PoliceHeadgear4-HighestPeakedCap.png
Mobile patrol
(male)
PoliceHeadgear3 - PCSOCap2.png
PoliceHeadgear3 - PCSOCap1.png
PoliceHeadgear2 - PeakedCap1.png PoliceHeadgear2 - PeakedCap1.png PoliceHeadgear3 - PeakedCap2.png PoliceHeadgear3 - PeakedCap3.png PoliceHeadgear4-HighestPeakedCap.png
Foot and
Mobile patrol
(female)
PoliceHeadgearFemale2-PCSOB.png
PoliceHeadgearFemale1-PCSOA.png
PoliceHeadgearFemale3-Constable.png PoliceHeadgearFemale3-Constable.png PoliceHeadgearFemale5-Mid.png PoliceHeadgearFemale7-Senior.png PoliceHeadgearFemale8-Highest.png
Traffic Officer
(male)
PoliceHeadgear3 - RoadTrafficCap.png PoliceHeadgear3 - RoadTrafficCap.png PoliceHeadgear4-MidRankRoadsPolicingUnit.png
Traffic Officer
(female)
PoliceHeadgearFemale4-ConstableRPU.png PoliceHeadgearFemale4-ConstableRPU.png PoliceHeadgearFemale6-MidRPU.png
Police Scotland, Thames Valley Police and Police Service of Northern Ireland do not wear the custodian helmet,
instead favouring the peaked cap for all duties. Hampshire Constabulary have two versions of the custodian helmet for Constable and Sergeant


Examples of variations[edit]

City of London Police[edit]

The City of London Police has fewer ranks above Chief Superintendent:

The Commissioner of the City of London Police has the unique status of not holding the office of constable, but is classed as a justice of the peace. This was the same for the Metropolitan Police until recent years; Sir Paul Condon was the last Commissioner of that force to have this status, along with his deputies. The Commissioner has the power to attest his own officers as constables without putting them before a local magistrate to do so, as happened in the Metropolitan Police.

City of London Police insignia is gold where that of other forces is silver. For example, rank insignia and collar numbers on epaulettes are gold, as are the bands and oakleaves on the caps of senior officers, and officers of or above the rank of Commander wear gold-on-black gorget patches on the collars of their tunics.

The City of London Police also have variations for some acting ranks such as Sergeant and Inspector: acting sergeants wear their chevrons above their divisional letters (now "CP" for all officers, following the abolition of the force's divisions) (substantive sergeants wear them below their collar number), whilst acting inspectors are denoted by a crown in the place of their divisional letters, whilst keeping their collar number and chevrons.

Ranks of the City of London Police
Rank Police
Community
Support
Officer
Constable Acting
Sergeant
Sergeant Acting
Inspector
Inspector
Insignia CofL00-PCSO.png CofL01-Constable.png CofL10-ActingSergeant.png CofL02-Sergeant.png CofL11-ActingInspector.png CofL03-Inspector.png
Rank Chief
Inspector
Superintendent Chief
Superintendent
Commander Assistant
Commissioner
Commissioner
Insignia CofL04-ChiefInspector.png CofL05-Superintendent.png CofL06-ChiefSuperintendent.png CofL07-Commander.png CofL08-AssistantCommissioner.png CofL09-Commissioner.png
In contrast to every other British police force, uses gold insignia.

Note: Acting Sergeant and Acting Inspector are not compulsory ranks in promotion and sucession;
they are displayed because the City of London Police is the only force in the country with
variant insignia for these acting ranks.

Royal Ulster Constabulary/Police Service of Northern Ireland[edit]

The Royal Ulster Constabulary was headed by an Inspector-General and had a different rank structure until 1 June 1970, when it fully adopted the rank system used elsewhere in the United Kingdom. The RUC has now been succeeded by the Police Service of Northern Ireland, which uses the same ranks, but has a different version of the rank insignia, with the star from the PSNI badge replacing the crown.[5] Unusually, the star is worn below the pip by chief superintendents and by the Chief Constable, who wears both symbols above his tipstaves. The PSNI has retained the RUC's distinctive inverted (point-up) sergeants' chevrons.

Psni ranks.png

Isle of Man Constabulary[edit]

The Isle of Man Constabulary has fewer ranks above Superintendent:

Miscellaneous constabularies[edit]

There are, in the United Kingdom, a number of miscellaneous constabularies. These are not operated, regulated or funded by the Home Office, although they are fully authorised (by Act of Parliament) establishments. In general they provide the policing for ports, docks, tunnels, or other particular institutions. Although these forces tend to require high standards of training and accountability, which closely mirror those of the Home Office police forces, they are usually much smaller in terms of personnel, and therefore utilise fewer of the 'standard' ranks.

History of police ranks[edit]

All police forces have used a wide variety of ranks to meet their organisational needs, especially the Metropolitan Police Service. Ranks have been created, abolished, amalgamated and sometimes revived during the history of British policing.

Defunct rank insignia[edit]

Rank War
Reserve
Constable
Sub-
Divisional
Inspector
Sub-
Divisional
Inspector
Station
Inspector
Station
Inspector
Junior
Station
Inspector
Station
Sergeant
Chief
Inspector
Chief
Superin-
tendent
Years
Active
1939 -
1948
1880 -
1922
1922 -
1949
1880 -
1936
1936 -
1949
1936 -
1949
1890 -
1980
1868 -
1953
1949 -
1974
Rank
insignia
used
WarReserveConstableEpaulette.png Sub Divisional Inspector.png Uk-police-03.PNG Sub Divisional Inspector.png Station Inspector.png Junior Station Inspector 2nd.png Station Sergeant.png Uk-police-05.PNG Chief Superintendent 1949 1974.png

Powers[edit]

In law, every member of a police force is a Constable whatever their actual rank, in the sense that, despite being a low-ranking or high-ranking officer, all have the same powers of arrest. The basic police powers of arrest and search of an ordinary Constable are identical to those of a superintendent or chief constable; however certain higher ranks are given administrative powers to authorise certain police actions. In England and Wales, these include the powers to:

  • authorise the continued detention of up to 24 hours of a person arrested for an offence and brought to a police station (granted to sergeants and above at designated police stations),
  • authorise section 18 (1) PACE house searches (granted to inspectors and above), or
  • extend the length of prisoner detention to 36 hours (granted to Superintendents).

Some authorities are matters of force or national or force policy and not subject to law, such as authorising the use of tyre deflation devices, and authorising the use of safe controlled crashes of pursued vehicles, by trained traffic police officers.

In relation to police officers of the Home Office or territorial police forces of England and Wales, section 30 of the Police Act 1996 states that "a member of a police force shall have all the powers and privileges of a Constable throughout England and Wales and the adjacent United Kingdom waters". Police officers do not need to be on duty to exercise their powers and can act off duty if circumstances require it (technically placing themselves back on duty). Officers from the police forces of Scotland and Northern Ireland and non-territorial special police forces have different jurisdictions. See List of police forces in the United Kingdom for a fuller description of jurisdictions.

Detectives[edit]

Officers holding ranks up to and including Chief Superintendent who are members of the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) or Special Branch (and certain other units) have the prefix "Detective" before their rank. Due to the nature of their duties, these officers generally wear plain clothes and so do not wear the corresponding rank insignia; however, they still operate within the same structure as uniformed officers.

It is a misconception often portrayed by the media that detective ranks are superior to those of uniformed officers. In the United Kingdom, this is not the case, and a detective sergeant has the same powers and authority as a uniformed sergeant. The "Detective" prefix designates that the officer has a proven investigative ability and has received suitable training and passed related examinations, to conduct all manner of criminal investigations.

Trainee, temporary and acting ranks[edit]

Constables who are training to become Detective Constables sometimes bear the title Trainee Investigator (T/I) or Trainee Detective Constable (T/DC).

The prefix "Temporary" before a rank (e.g. Temporary Detective Sergeant, abbreviated T/DS) denotes an officer who has been temporarily promoted to a rank (and so who does actually hold that rank, albeit on a temporary basis), whilst the prefix "Acting" (e.g. Acting Inspector, abbreviated A/Insp) denotes an officer who is performing the role of a higher rank than the one actually held (sometimes informally termed "acting up"). Temporary ranks are often used for set periods (e.g. a six-month appointment to a particular role), whereas acting ranks, although sometimes held for extended periods, are often used for a very short time (e.g. a single shift when additional supervisory officers are required, or to replace an officer on short-term leave).

Under section 107 of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984, Sergeants and Chief Inspectors may be designated (by an officer of at least the rank of Superintendent) to exercise the powers of an Inspector or a Superintendent respectively. Such a designation will generally accompany such an officer being given an acting rank, so for most operational purposes there is no difference between substantive, temporary and acting ranks at Inspector and above (although there may be differences as to pay, pensions and insignia). On the other hand, under section 36 of that Act, only substantive Sergeants may be appointed custody officers.

Identification numbers[edit]

All officers have a unique identification number. These are usually referred to as shoulder or collar numbers, referring to the fact that they were once worn on the uniform collar and later on the epaulettes by constables and sergeants. Uniformed officers in many forces still wear them on the epaulettes, but other forces have badges or other ways of displaying their identification numbers. Kent Police, for instance, refers to its numbers as force numbers and officers wear them on a velcro tab on their stab vest or on a badge attached to their shirt or tunic. Officers in all forces of the rank of inspector or above do not usually wear their numbers.

In most forces these identification numbers are simple numbers, with 1 to 5 digits.

The Metropolitan Police, being a much bigger force, uses a different system:

  • Sergeant - borough code and 1 or 2 digits
  • Constable - borough code and 3 digits (Though Metropolitan Police constables based in the Borough of Westminster have 4 digits)
  • Special constable - borough code and 4 digits, usually beginning with the number 5
  • PCSO - borough code and 4 digits, the first digit being a 7 or an 8

The borough code is a two-letter code preceding collar numbers. Before the reorganisation into boroughs, each division had a different code. A few other forces still use divisional codes.

Special constables[edit]

Special constables are volunteer police officers who have exactly the same powers as a regular officer, and (with minor exceptions) wear the same uniform and are issued the same equipment. The roles of "specials" can vary greatly from force to force, though normally include working with local regular officers to provide an additional and heightened police presence on the streets and in the local community. They may also be requested to police particular events such as football matches and community events.

In virtually all police forces, there are various grades of special constable which assist in the tasking and management of the constabulary. The ranks are management grades; those holding them are not "sergeants" or "inspectors" for the purposes of the law (for example, authorisations to order the removal of disguises or to set up roadblocks). Originally, specials held the same ranks and used the same rank insignia as regular officers, but there was a general shift to distinct terms such as "area officer" and "divisional officer" in the 1980s. However, recent national practice has been for most special constabularies to revert to the regular ranks (with the prefix "Special"), although only Merseyside Police and Wiltshire Police have reverted to regular rank insignia.

Special constabulary epaulettes frequently bear the letters "SC" (with or without a crown above) to differentiate them from regular officers. Senior special constables wear the same markings on their cap peaks as equivalent regular ranks.

Forces using regular rank insignia[edit]

Since 2000, the National Policing Improvement Agency has encouraged special constabularies to return to rank structures and epaulette insignia identical to their regular counterparts. Although most forces have now reverted to regular rank titles, only Merseyside Special Constabulary, later followed by Wiltshire Special Constabulary and the City of London Special Constabulary have reverted to regular rank insignia.

Forces using the regular rank insignia
Gaps in the table indicate when a rank is not used in a forces structure.
Rank Special
Police
Constable
Special
Sergeant
Special
Inspector
Special
Chief
Inspector
Special
Superin-
tendent
Special
Chief
Superin-
tendent
Chief Officer
of the Special
Constabulary
City of London
Special
Constabulary
SCCofL01-Constable.png SCCofL02-Sergeant.png SCCofL03-Inspector.png SCCofL04-ChiefInspector.png SCCofL05-Superintendent.png SCCofL06-Commandant.png
Merseyside
Special
Constabulary
SC01-SPC.png SC02-SSgt.png SC03-SInsp.png SC04-SCInsp.png SC05-SSupt.png SC06-SpecialChiefSuperintendent.png SC07-SChiOff.png
Wiltshire
Special
Constabulary
SC01-SPC.png SC02-SSgt.png SC03-SInsp.png SC04-SCInsp.png SC05-SSupt.png SC07-SChiOff.png
These three forces use the NPIA recommended insignia for Special Constabulary,
the forty other constabularies have not adopted this structure.

Forces using 'bars' rank insignia[edit]

Other special constabularies use combinations of bars, half bars, pips, crowns, laurel wreaths, collar numbers, force crests and the SC identity (with or without a crown) to distinguish ranks (and/or role).

Forces using the alternative rank insignia
Gaps in the table indicate when a rank is not used in a forces structure.
Alternative titles are listed below the rank when used by each force
Equivalent
Rank
Special
Constable
Special
Sergeant
Special
Inspector
Special
Chief
Inspector
Special
Superintendent
Special Chief
Superintendent
Assistant
Chief Officer
of the Special
Constabulary
Deputy
Chief Officer
of the Special
Constabulary
Chief Officer
of the Special
Constabulary
Avon and
Somerset
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable.jpg Special Sergeant.jpg
Section Officer
Special Inspector.jpg
Area Officer
Special Chief Inspector.jpg
District Officer
Special Chief Officer.jpg
Cheshire
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable Cheshire.png Special Sergeant Cheshire.png Special Inspector Cheshire.png Special Chief Inspector Cheshire.png Special Superintendent Cheshire.png Special Chief Superintendent Cheshire.png Special Deputy Chief Officer Cheshire.png Special Chief Officer Cheshire.png
Devon and
Cornwall
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable DevonAndCornwall.png Special Sergeant DevonAndCornwall.png Special Inspector DevonAndCornwall.png Special Chief Inspector DevonAndCornwall.png Special Superintendent DevonAndCornwall.png Special Chief Superintendent DevonAndCornwall.png Special Deputy Chief Officer DevonAndCornwall.png Special Chief Officer DevonAndCornwall.png
Dorset
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable.jpg Special Sergeant.jpg Special Inspector Dorset.png Special Superintendent Dorset.png Special Chief Officer.jpg
Dyfed-Powys
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable DevonAndCornwall.png Special Sergeant DevonAndCornwall.png Special Inspector DevonAndCornwall.png Special Chief Officer.jpg
Essex
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable.jpg Special Sergeant.jpg Special Inspector.jpg Special Chief Inspector.jpg Special Superintendent Cheshire.png Special Deputy Chief Officer Essex.png Special Chief Officer Essex.png
Gloucestershire
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable Gloucestershire.png Special Sergeant Gloucestershire.png
Section Officer
Special Inspector DevonAndCornwall.png
Assistant
Area Officer
Special Chief Inspector DevonAndCornwall.png
Area Officer
Special Superintendent DevonAndCornwall.png
Hampshire
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable.jpg Special Sergeant.jpg
Sector Officer
Special Inspector.jpg
District Officer
Special Chief Inspector.jpg
Area Officer
Special Deputy Chief Officer Essex.png Special Chief Officer Essex.png
Lancashire
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable Lancashire.png Special Sergeant Lancashire.png Special Inspector.jpg Special Chief Inspector.jpg Special Deputy Chief Officer Lancashire.png Special Superintendent Cheshire.png
Metropolitan
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable Met.png Special Sergeant Met.png Special Inspector DevonAndCornwall.png Special Chief Inspector DevonAndCornwall.png Special Chief Superintendent DevonAndCornwall.png Special Deputy Chief Officer DevonAndCornwall.png Special Chief Officer DevonAndCornwall.png
Northamptonshire
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable Northamptonshire.png Special Sergeant Northamptonshire.png Special Inspector.jpg Special Chief Inspector.jpg Special Superintendent Northamptonshire.png Uk-police-04.PNG
*Regular Chief
Inspector
Northumbria
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable.jpg
Northumbria Special Constabulary abolished its ranks in 2006. All officers hold the rank of Special Constable, although those who previously held a supervisory rank are entitled to continue wearing their rank insignia.
Nottinghamshire
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable Nottinghamshire.png Special Sergeant Nottinghamshire.png Special Inspector Nottinghamshire.png Special Chief Inspector.jpg Special Chief Officer Essex.png Special Chief Officer.jpg
South
Yorkshire
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable South Yorkshire.png Special Sergeant South Yorkshire.png Special Inspector DevonAndCornwall.png
Deputy
District Officer
Special Chief Inspector DevonAndCornwall.pngDistrict
Officer
Special Deputy Chief Officer DevonAndCornwall.png Special Chief Officer DevonAndCornwall.png
Stafforshire
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable Staffordshire.png Special Sergeant Staffordshire.png Special Inspector Staffordshire.png Special Chief Inspector Staffordshire.png Special Deputy Chief Officer Staffordshire.png Special Chief Officer Staffordshire.png
Suffolk
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable Suffolk.png Special Sergeant Suffolk.png Special Inspector DevonAndCornwall.png Special Chief Inspector DevonAndCornwall.png Special Chief Officer DevonAndCornwall.png
Surrey
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable Surrey.png Special Sergeant Surrey.png
*rank obsolete
Special Inspector Surrey.png Special Chief Inspector.jpg
*rank obsolete
Special Deputy Chief Officer Essex.png
*rank obsolete
Special Chief Officer Essex.png
*rank obsolete
Special Chief Officer.jpg
Thames
Valley
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable Thames Valley.png Special Sergeant Thames Valley.png Special Inspector DevonAndCornwall.png Special Chief Inspector DevonAndCornwall.png Special Superindentent Thames Valley.png Special Chief Officer DevonAndCornwall.png
Warwickshire
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable Warwickshire.png Special Sergeant Warwickshire.png Special Inspector DevonAndCornwall.png Special Chief Inspector DevonAndCornwall.png Special Deputy Chief Officer DevonAndCornwall.png Special Chief Officer DevonAndCornwall.png
West
Mercia
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable West Mercia.png Special Sergeant West Mercia.png Special Inspector.jpg Special Chief Inspector.jpg Special Chief Officer.jpg
West
Yorkshire
Special
Constabulary
Special Constable Gloucestershire.png Special Sergeant Gloucestershire.png
Section Officer
Special Inspector West Yorkshire.png
Senior
Section Officer
Uk-police-04.PNG
*Regular Chief
Inspector
These forty forces use insignia's for Special ranks not recommended by the NPIA. Only three forces have adopted approved insignia's.


Police Community Support Officers (PCSO)[edit]

Variations of PCSO epaulettes varying between forces
Examples of PCSO supervisor epaulettes

Police Community Support Officers in general do not have a rank system: their epaulettes simply bear the words "POLICE COMMUNITY SUPPORT OFFICER" and their shoulder number, or, in the Metropolitan Police, a borough identification code and shoulder number.

South Yorkshire Police and Kent Police have PCSO Supervisors. In South Yorkshire they wear a bar above the words "Police Community Support Officer Supervisor" and the shoulder number.

Traffic wardens[edit]

Traffic wardens are administered by the police and exercise some police powers to control traffic or issue fixed penalty notices for traffic offences; their epaulettes bear their shoulder number and the words TRAFFIC WARDEN. They are not to be confused with local authority civil enforcement officers (formerly parking attendants) who, under decriminalised parking enforcement, have powers to issue fixed penalty notices for breaches of parking laws on highways or in local authority car parks and compel the production of a disabled parking permit (blue badge) for inspection.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Badges of Rank". Metropolitan Police Service. Retrieved December 1, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b Thames Valley Police: Uniformed police ranks
  3. ^ CNC ranks listed here on their website.
  4. ^ Stephenson is named new Met Police chief, The Independent
  5. ^ Police Service of Northern Ireland: Badges of Rank