Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2012)|
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland () proper.
The kingdom has been traditionally dated back to c. 966, when Mieszko I and his pagan Slavic realm joined the Christian Europe (Baptism of Poland), thus culminating the process of creation of the state of Poland started by his PolanPiast dynasty ancestors, and finally his oldest son and successor prince Bolesław I Chrobry, Duke of Poland, became the first crowned King of Poland in 1025.
It marked a milestone in the evolution of Polish statehood, and represented the concept of the Polish kingdom (nation) as distinctly separate from the person of the monarch. The introduction of that concept marked the transformation of the Polish government from the patrimonial monarchy to the class monarchy (monarchia stanowa).
A related concept that evolved soon afterward was that of Rzeczpospolita, both of which served as the alternate names for the Polish state. The Crown of Poland was also related to other symbols of Poland, such as the capital (Kraków), Polish coat of arms and the flag of Poland.
The concept of Crown also had a geographical aspect, in particularly related to the indivisibility of the Polish (Crown) territory. It can be also seen as a unit of administrative division, the territories under direct administration of Polish state from middle-ages to late 18th century (currently lands of Ukraine, Poland, some border lands of inter alia: Russia, Belarus, Moldova, Slovakia, Romania). Some of them belonged to the early Kingdom of Poland, then to Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until its final collapse in 1795.
At the same time, the Crown also referred to all lands that the Polish state (not the monarch) could claim to have the right to rule over, including those that were not within Polish borders.
The term distinguishes those territories federated with the Crown Grand Duchy of Lithuania () from various fiefdom territories (which enjoyed varying degrees of autonomy or semi-independence from the King) inter alia the Duchy of Prussia (), the Duchy of Courland ().
Prior to the 1569 Union of Lublin, Crown territories may be understood as those of Poland proper, inhabited by Poles, or other areas under the sovereignty of Polish nobility. With the Union of Lublin, however, most of present-day Ukraine (which had a negligible Polish population and had until then been governed by Lithuania) passed under Polish administration, becoming likewise Crown territory.
In that period, a term for a Pole was koroniarz(plural: koroniarze), derived from Korona.
- Depending on context, "Crown" may also refer to "The Crown," a term used to distinguish the personal influence and private assets of the Commonwealth's current monarch from government authority and property. This often meant a distinction between persons loyal to the elected King (royalists) and persons loyal to Polish magnates.
Crown was divided into two provinces: Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska) and Greater Poland (Polish: Wielkopolska) which were further divided into administrative units known as voivodeships (Polish names of voivodships and towns below in brackets).
Greater Poland Province
- Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship (województwo brzesko-kujawskie, Brześć Kujawski)
- Gniezno Voivodeship (województwo gnieźnieńskie, Gniezno) from 1768
- Inowrocław Voivodeship (województwo inowrocławskie, Inowrocław)
- Kalisz Voivodeship (województwo kaliskie, Kalisz)
- Łęczyca Voivodeship (województwo łęczyckie, Łęczyca)
- Mazovian Voivodeship (województwo mazowieckie, of Mazowsze, Warsaw)
- Poznań Voivodeship (województwo poznańskie, Poznań)
- Płock Voivodeship (województwo płockie, Płock)
- Podlaskie Voivodeship (województwo podlaskie, Drohiczyn)
- Rawa Voivodeship (województwo rawskie, Rawa)
- Sieradz Voivodeship (województwo sieradzkie, Sieradz)
- Prince-Bishopric of Warmia
Lesser Poland Province
- Bełz Voivodeship (województwo bełzkie, Bełz)
- Bracław Voivodeship (województwo bracławskie, Bracław)
- Czernichów Voivodeship (województwo czernichowskie, Czernichów)
- Kijów Voivodeship (województwo kijowskie, Kijów)
- Kraków Voivodeship (województwo krakowskie, Kraków)
- Lublin Voivodeship (województwo lubelskie, Lublin)
- Podole Voivodeship (województwo podolskie, Kamieniec Podolski)
- Ruś Voivodeship (województwo ruskie, Lwów)
- Sandomierz Voivodeship (województwo sandomierskie, Sandomierz)
- Wołyń Voivodeship (województwo wołyńskie, Łuck)
- Duchy of Siewierz (Siewierz)
Royal Prussia Province (1569–1772)
Royal Prussia Polish: Prusy Królewskie) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland from 1466 and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. Royal Prussia included Pomerelia, Chełmno Land (Kulmerland), Malbork Voivodeship (Marienburg), Gdańsk (Danzig), Toruń (Thorn), and Elbląg (Elbing). Polish historian Henryk Wisner writes that Royal Prussia belonged to the Province of Greater Poland.
Towns in Spisz County (1412–1795)
As one of the terms of the Treaty of Lubowla, the Hungarian crown exchanged, for a loan of sixty times the amount of 37,000 Prague groschen – approximately seven tonnes of pure silver, 16 rich salt-producing towns in the area of Spisz (Zips), as well as a right to incorporate them into Poland until the debt is repaid. The towns affected were: Biała, Lubica, Wierzbów, Spiska Sobota, Poprad, Straże, Spiskie Włochy, Nowa Wieś, Spiska Nowa Wieś, Ruszkinowce, Wielka, Spiskie Podgrodzie, Maciejowce, Twarożne.
- Administrative division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
- Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
- Lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslaus
- Juliusz Bardach, Boguslaw Lesnodorski, and Michal Pietrzak, Historia panstwa i prawa polskiego (Warsaw: Paristwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1987, p.85-86
- Henryk Wisner, Rzeczpospolita Wazów. Czasy Zygmunta III i Władysława IV. Wydawnictwo Neriton, Instytut Historii PAN, Warszawa 2002, page 26
- Jan Herburt, Statuta Regni Poloniae: in ordinem alphabeti digesta, Cracoviae (Kraków) 1563.
- Jan Dąbrowski(author), Korona Królestwa Polskiego w XIV wieku:studium z dziejów rozwoju polskiej monarchii stanowej, Zakład im. Ossolińskich, 1956.
- Stanisław Szczur, Historia Polski Średniowiecze (History of Poland - Middle Ages), Wydawnictwo Literackie 2002, ISBN 83-08-03272-9