Polish parliamentary election, 1991

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Polish parliamentary election, 1991
Poland
1989 ←
27 October 1991 (1991-10-27)
→ 1993

All 460 seats in the Sejm
231 seats were needed for a majority in the Sejm
All 100 seats in the Senate
  First party Second party Third party
  Tadeusz Mazowiecki 80th birthday.jpg Aleksander Kwasniewski (cropped).jpg Wieslaw Chrzanowski.jpg
Leader Tadeusz Mazowiecki Aleksander Kwaśniewski Wiesław Chrzanowski
Party Democratic Union Democratic Left Alliance Catholic Election Action
Leader since May 1991 30 January 1990 28 October 1989
Leader's seat Poznań Warsaw Lublin
Last election Did not exist 173 seats, 37.6% Did not exist
Seats won 62 seats 60 49
Seat change Increase 62 Decrease 113 Increase 49
Popular vote 1,382,051 1,344,820 980,304
Percentage 12.3% 12% 8.7%
Swing Increase 12.3% Decrease 25.6% Increase 8.7%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Kaczynski Jaroslaw 1 067.JPG Waldemar Pawlak candidate 2010 D crop.jpg Leszek Moczulski.JPG
Leader Jarosław Kaczyński Waldemar Pawlak Leszek Moczulski
Party Centre Alliance Polish People's Party Confederation for an Independent Poland
Leader since 12 May 1990 29 June 1991 1 September 1979
Leader's seat Warsaw Płock Kraków
Last election Did not exist 76 seats, 16.5% Did not exist
Seats won 44 48 46
Seat change Increase 44 Decrease 28 Increase 46
Popular vote 977,344 972,952 841,738
Percentage 8.7% 8.7% 7.5%
Swing Increase 8.7% Decrease 7.8% Increase 7.5%

Wybory sejm 1991.png

Voivodeships with winning majority

– Democratic Union – Democratic Left Alliance
– Polish People's Party – Catholic Election Action
– Peasants' Agreement – Civic Center Alliance
– Liberal Democratic Congress – Confederation of Independent Poland
– Independent – German Minority


Prime Minister before election

Jan Krzysztof Bielecki
KLD

New Prime Minister

Jan Olszewski
Centre Agreement

The 1991 Polish parliamentary election was held on 27 October 1991 to elect deputies to both houses of the National Assembly.[1] The 1991 election was notable on several counts. It was the first to be held since the formation of the Third Republic, the first entirely free and competitive election since the fall of communism, the first completely free national election of any sort since 1922, and only the third free election in all of Polish history. Due to the collapse of the Solidarity movement's political wing, the 1991 election saw deep political fragmentation, with a multitude of new parties and alliances emerging in its wake.[2] Low voting thresholds within individual constituencies, along with a five percent national threshold allocated to a small portion of the Sejm, additionally contributed to party fragmentation.[3] As a result, 29 political parties gained entry into the Sejm and 22 in the Senat, with no party forming a decisive majority. Two months of intense coalition negotiations followed, with Jan Olszewski of the Centre Agreement forming a minority government along with the Christian National Union, remnants of the broader Center Civic Alliance, and the Peasants' Agreement, with conditional support from Polish People's Party, Solidarity and other minor parties.[4]

460 members of parliament (poseł) were elected; 391 from 6980 candidates from 37 regional lists of candidates and 69 from country-wide lists of candidates.In the Sejm elections, 27,517,280 citizens were eligible to vote, 11,887,949 (43.2%) of them cast their votes, 11,218,602 (94.4%) of those were counted as valid. In the Senate elections, 43.2% of citizens cast their votes, 96.5% were valid.

Elections were supervised by the National Electoral Commission (Państwowa Komisja Wyborcza). 37 regional (okręgowe) commissions were formed, and 22,341 district (obwodowe), staffed by 197,389 citizens.

A remarkable 111 parties competed and 29 parties (listed below) won Parliamentary seats. The success of the frivilous Polish Beer-Lovers' Party with 16 seats gained news coverage worldwide.

Results[edit]

Party Sejm Senate
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Democratic Union 1,382,051 12.3 62 3,764,156 32.8 21
Democratic Left Alliance 1,344,820 12.0 60 2,431,178 21.2 4
Catholic Election Action 980,304 8.7 49 1,995,866 17.4 9
Center Civic Alliance 977,344 8.7 44 2,071,045 18.0 9
Polish People's Party 972,952 8.7 48 1,691,566 14.7 7
Confederation of Independent Poland 841,738 7.5 46 1,071,364 9.3 4
Liberal Democratic Congress 839,978 7.5 37 1,497,718 13.1 6
Peasants' Agreement 613,626 5.5 28 719,778 6.3 5
Solidarity 566,553 5.1 27 2,219,160 19.3 11
Polish Beer-Lovers' Party 367,106 3.3 16
Christian Democracy 265,179 2.4 5
Real Politics Union 253,024 2.3 3 371,891 2.2 0
Labour Solidarity 230,975 2.1 4
Democratic Party 159,017 1.4 1 453,721 4.0 0
German Minority 132,059 1.2 7
Party of Christian Democrats 125,314 1.1 4 507,722 4.4 3
Party X 52,735 0.5 3 417,857 3.6 0
Ruch Demokratyczno-Społeczny 51,656 0.5 1
Ludowe Porozumienie Wyborcze "Piast" 42,031 0.4 1
Silesian Autonomy Movement 40,061 0.4 2
Solidarni z Prezydentem 27,586 0.2 1
Związek Podhalan 26,744 0.2 1
Polski Związek Zachodni 26,053 0.2 4
Wielkopolsce i Polsce 23,188 0.2 1
Jedności Ludowej 18,902 0.2 1
Prawosławnych 13,788 0.1 1
Solidarność 80 12,769 0.1 1
Unia Wielkopolan 9,019 0.0 1
Sojusz Kobiet 1,922 0.0 1
Local lists and independents 820,108 7.3 0 3,708,344 32.3 21
Invalid/blank votes 669,347 413,019
Total 11,887,949 100 460 11,887,865 100 100
Registered voters/turnout 27,517,280 43.2 25,517,280 43.2
Source: Nohlen & Stöver

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1491 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. ^ Millard, Francis (September 1994). "The Shaping of the Polish Party System, 1989-93". East European Politics & Societies 8 (3): 467–494. doi:10.1177/0888325494008003005. 
  3. ^ Lundberg, Thomas. "Political Transition in Hungary and Poland". Voting and Democracy Report: 1995. Center for Voting and Democracy. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  4. ^ Jasiewicz, Krzysztof (1 January 1992). "From Solidarity to Fragmentation". Journal of Democracy 3 (2): 55–69. doi:10.1353/jod.1992.0024. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  • Obwieszczenie Państwowej Komisji Wyborczej z dn. 31 X 1991 r., Monitor Polski. Nr 41, poz. 288
  • Obwieszczenie PKW z dn. 30 X 1991 r., M.P. Nr 41, poz. 287