Polytechnic University of Milan
|Politecnico di Milano|
|Established||29 November 1863|
|Type||State-supported Technical University|
|Rector||Prof. Giovanni Azzone|
|Location||Milan, Como, Lecco, Mantova, Cremona, Piacenza, Italy|
The Politecnico di Milano (Polytechnic University of Milan) is the largest technical university in Italy, with about 38,700 students. It offers undergraduate, graduate and higher education courses in Engineering, Architecture and Design. Founded in 1863, it is the oldest university in Milan.
The Politecnico has two main campuses in Milan city, where the majority of the research and teaching activity are located, and other satellite campuses in five other cities across Lombardy and Emilia Romagna. The central offices and headquarters are located in the historical campus of Città Studi in Milan, which is also the largest, active since 1927.
The university was ranked the best for Engineering and among the top big universities in Italy in the CENSIS-Repubblica Italian University rankings for 2011-2012 and is ranked as the 28th best technical university in the world according to the QS World University Rankings.
- 1 History
- 2 Campuses
- 3 Academics
- 4 Research
- 5 Governance
- 6 Student life
- 7 Notable alumni
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes and references
- 10 External links
|List of Rectors of the Politecnico di Milano|
|Francesco Brioschi (1824—1897)||1863—1897|
|Giuseppe Colombo (1836—1921)||1897—1921|
|Cesare Saldini (1848—1922)||1921—1922|
|Luigi Zunini (1856—1938)||1922—1926|
|Gaudenzio Fantoli (1867—1940)||1926—1940|
|Carlo Isnardo Azimonti (1876—1943)||1940—1943|
|Gino Cassinis (1885—1964)||1944—1960|
|Gino Bozza (1899—1967)||1960—1967|
|Bruno Finzi (1899—1974)||1967—1969|
|Francesco Carassa (1922—2006)||1969—1972|
|Luigi Dadda (1923—2012)||1972—1984|
|Arrigo Vallatta (1930—2001)||1984—1987|
|Emilio Massa (1926—1998)||1987—1994|
|Adriano De Maio (b. 1941)||1994—2002|
|Giulio Ballio (b. 1940)||2002—2010|
|Giovanni Azzone (b. 1962)||2010—present|
The Politecnico was founded on 29 November 1863 by Francesco Brioschi, secretary of the Ministry of Education and rector of the University of Pavia. It is the oldest university in Milan. Its original name was Istituto Tecnico Superiore ("Higher Technical Institute") and only Civil and Industrial Engineering were taught. Architecture, the second main line of study at Politecnico, was introduced in 1865 in cooperation with the Brera Academy.
There were only 30 students admitted in the first year. Over the decades, most of students were men: the first female graduate from the university was in 1913.
In 1927 the Politecnico moved to piazza Leonardo da Vinci, in the district now known as Città studi (City of Studies), where Politecnico's main facilities are still today. At the time, it was named Regio Politecnico ("Royal Polytechnic"). The word Regio was removed as Italy was proclaimed a republic at the end of World War II. The historical building still in use today was designed and built by engineers and architects all graduated in the Politecnico itself.
In 1954, the first European centre of electronic computation was opened in Politecnico by Gino Cassinis and Ercole Bottani. In 1963 Giulio Natta received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on crystalline polymers, polypropylene in particular. In 1977, the satellite Sirio, jointly developed by Politecnico and other companies, was launched.
Since the end of the 1980s, the Politecnico has begun a process of territorial expansion that would have resulted in the opening of its satellite campuses in Lombardy and Emilia Romagna. A university programme in industrial design was started in 1993. In 2000, the politecnico's faculty of design was created with new courses in undergraduate and postgraduate programs of graphic & visual, fashion and interior design along with the already existent industrial design.
In April 2012, the university announced that, beginning in 2014, all graduate courses would be taught only in English, however that decision has since been reversed in May 2013 by an Italian court, which ruled that the proposal was unconstitutional.
Milano Leonardo is the oldest among Politecnico campuses still in use. The first buildings on Piazza Leonardo da Vinci were inaugurated in 1927. Over the years, the complex has been expanded and is now generally referred to as "Città Studi", City of Studies, referring also to some faculties of the University of Milan in the same area. The campus extends over several streets: Leonardo, Bonardi, Clericetti, Mancinelli, Gran Sasso and Colombo.
The Leonardo Campus is the main campus of the university, and comprises the central administration offices, the rectorate, and most of the research departments.
The Milano Bovisa campus is located in the Bovisa district in Milan and active since 1989; campus Bovisa is today composed by campus Durando, opened in 1994, and campus La Masa, inaugurated in 1997. The first is the seat of the School of Design, while the second is dedicated to Industrial, Mechanical, Aerospace and Energy Engineering faculties. Bovisa also houses the research facilities connected, including the wind tunnel.
Politecnico di Milano offers several three-year undergraduate courses, two-year graduate courses, one-year master courses and PhD programs in the fields of engineering, architecture and design. The Politecnico offers 32 first level (Bachelor) degree programmes. Among these, there is an on-line course in Computer Engineering, the first on-line academic course in Italy. This wide range of different curricula is tailored to the needs of its territory (the Lombardy region), which is one of the most developed industrial areas in Europe.
The academic year is divided into two terms, or semesters, the first from mid-September to late January and the second from March to late June. There are 3 exam sessions: those at the end of each semester (in February and July) and one more in September. Students need to achieve 60 "university credits" (CFU or Crediti Formativi Universitari) per year during their Bachelor and Master Degrees. Therefore, the 3-years Bachelor requires 180 credits while the 2-years Master 120.
Politecnico maintains several relations with foreign universities and offers a wide range of international projects for student exchange, The university encourages the enrollment of foreign students by providing several courses in English, German and Spanish. It participates in the ENTREE network for student exchange among Electrical Engineering colleges in Europe and it is a member of Top Industrial Managers for Europe (TIME) network.
The Alta Scuola Politecnica is a joint institution of Politecnico di Milano and Politecnico di Torino addressed to young talents who want to develop their interdisciplinary capabilities for leading and promoting innovation, and runs in parallel to the two-year programmes of laurea magistrale (graduate courses).
As of 2013, the Politecnico di Milano is ranked as the 28th best engineering and technology university in the world in the QS World University Rankings. In 2011 the university was ranked as the 48th in the same category. This was a 9-positions growth from the 57th position in 2009, and a 15-position growth since the 63rd position in 2008. In 2009 an Italian research ranked it as the best in Italy over indicators such as scientific production, attraction of foreign students, and others.
According to the SIR 2013 World Report about the quality of scientific research produced, the Politecnico has a normalized impact factor of 1.42, and 16.62% of the articles produced fall within the 10% most cited in the international bibliography (the best values in Italy are those of the Politecnico di Bari: 2.03 and 22.61%).
The admission in the undergraduate programme in Engineering in the Politecnico is bound to an admission test, aimed to verify the starting preparation of every student. The main goal of this test is to point out the lacks of the aspiring students and, in case, to assign them an extra course. Only some programmes have a strictly limited number of places, even if the Academic Senate fixes an approximate maximum number of students for every programme. The admission test for any Engineering school, except Construction Engineering, is divided in four parts, each about one of the following general subject: English Language; Logic, Mathematics and Statistics; Verbal Comprehension; Physics.
Architecture, Design and Construction Engineering
Architecture, Design and Construction Engineering schools have a limited number of students admitted every year and the selection is based on a national test administered by the Ministry of Education. The test is divided into five parts, each about one of the following general subject: Logic and General Knowledge; History; Drawing and Representation; Mathematics and Physics.
Admission to the graduate programmes in the Politecnico requires an undergraduate degree and a set of requirements specific for each school, such as the time spent in obtaining the undergraduate degree or the grade point average scored during the undergraduate programme.
The Politecnico also offers courses of study for the title of Dottore di Ricerca (Ph.D.), MBA courses, and other postgraduate courses. MIP Business School is one of the most prominent management school in Italy and was ranked as 96th best business school in the world by Financial Times in 2011.
Politecnico di Milano is organized in 12 departments:
- Architettura e Studi Urbani (Architecture and Urban studies)
- Architettura, Ingegneria delle Costruzioni e Ambiente Costruito (Architecture, Construction Engineering)
- Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica "Giulio Natta" (Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering)
- Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria (Electronics, Information and Bioengineering)
- Energia (Energy)
- Fisica (Physics)
- Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale (Civil and Environmental Engineering)
- Ingegneria Gestionale (Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering)
- Matematica (Mathematics)
- Meccanica (Mechanics)
- Scienze e Tecnologie Aerospaziali DAST (Aerospace Science and Technology)
Library System and publishing
The library system of the Politecnico counts more than 470.000 records distributed all over the libraries in the campuses. The system is made up of four Central Libraries (amongst which the 'Central Engineering Library' and the 'Central Architecture Library') and Teaching Libraries (department libraries), set up to help students preparing their exams. The titles registered in the library system can be searched through an OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue).
Since autumn 2004, the Politecnico owns a publishing trademark, Polipress, created mainly to publish researches by the Politecnico community. Polipress publishes also the free Politecnico periodical.
The Politecnico di Milano participates to European and international networks of research. In year 2004 alone, about 60 large scale, multi-year international research projects have been initiated or participated by the Politecnico, just in the context of the European Research framework. As of 2012, Politecnico takes part in over 132 current FP7 research projects. The University raised almost 80% of its research funds from external sources in 2008, from participation in national and international calls for proposals by its researchers and from research contracts stipulated with companies.
Politecnico has a long history of research. Many scientists working in the university have received awards and recognition by the scientific community: among them, the most famous is Giulio Natta, the only Italian Nobel laureate for Chemistry, in 1963, who was the head of the Department of Industrial Chemistry. The University also operated the first research nuclear reactor in Italy, the 50 kW LM54, from 1959 to 1979 in the "Enrico Fermi Nuclear Research Institute" and now operates several important laboratories such as one of the biggest wind tunnels in Europe.
As of 2005, a number of professors at Politecnico are ACM or IEEE fellows. The Politecnico participates in associations and consortia for applied research, has offices to assist technological transfers and continuing education for professionals. The university supports the establishment of research spin-offs (20 spin-offs from 2000 to today), and also of high-tech companies during their start-up phase, with a structure named Acceleratore d'Impresa (Start-up Incubator).
The Rector, the Academic Senate and the Board of Directors (Consiglio di Amministrazione) are the governing bodies of the Politecnico. Internal Financial Auditors (Collegio dei revisori dei conti) controls the management and finance of the University. There are several other consulting bodies, among them the Students' Council, which is directly elected by students and serves in an advisory role.
The Rector represents the University and coordinates the Academic and Research activity. The tenure of the Rector is six years, and can serve only one term.
Student fees at the Politecnico depend on the income of the family of the student. They range between about 150 €/year and 3000 €/year. Students with good grades are granted partial or full rebates, in addition to various kinds of scholarships. There are many scholarships for international students as part of its recent internationalization program.
Most Italian universities do not offer accommodation for their students on campus. Politecnico has a limited number of approximately 2000 beds available for students. Most students from outside the city are either commuters or renting. It is customary for students to share flats in small groups of 3 or 4 people, as rent rates are very expensive in the city.
An interesting part of student life are "copy centers". During the 1970s, two copy centers were born: CLUP and CUSL (the former from left-wing student groups, the latter with a Catholic, conservative student base), as an effort from students to solve their own problems (such as the cost of books and sharing of lecture notes). They have been the only copy centres within Politecnico's premises for a long time. They are important just for historical and political reasons, as nowadays there are plenty of alternative facilities.
A well known structure is the ISU (a generic term which in Italian university describes additional student facilities such as open libraries, lending of portable PCs, cafeterias and study spaces), dedicated to Luigi Divieti. A legend talks of the "Pianist of ISU", a man who is supposed to be living there since he was born some 50 years ago, and to be a hopelessly old student of the university.
Inside the Leonardo campus students can find the seat of the Educafe. Educafe has been conceived as a space where students can meet up or freely surf the net. It is also a meeting center, where cultural events are organized regularly.
Among the student organizations:
- BEST Milano (Board of European Students of Technology) a European non-profit and politically neutral organization, focus on Empowered diversity, done by students for the students and present in more than 30 countries.
- ESN (European Student Network) a non-profit organization, gathering exchange student and encouraging exchange project.
- Euroavia, an organization founded to gather aerospace students of the Politecnico and make easy to contact other aerospace students in Europe.
- Associazione Ingegneri Ambiente e Territorio (Environment and Territory Engineers Association), a student association composed by students in Environmental Engineering.
- Teatro delle Biglie ('Theatre of the Marbles'), an independent non-profit organization, born as a theatre association.
- POuL (Politecnico Open Unix Labs), a student association for students interested in promoting open source and free software.
- IEEE Student Branch of the Politecnico di Milano.
Professional opportunities and statistics
The 2007 graduate survey shows that 80% of graduates of the Politecnico di Milano find a job within three months from graduation, and almost 95% within six months. The figures are similar for the bachelor and the masters level graduates. A specialized "Career Service" facilitates contacts between graduates and the industry, it invites companies for presentations and prepares statistics about graduated students. It posts several stage and job offers every day both for students and graduates.
Approximately 55% of undergraduate students complete their studies on time, and approximately 80% of them graduate within an additional year. Similar figures apply to graduate students.
Students at Politecnico elect representatives in the Academic Senate, the Board of Directors and in the Boards of schools. Currently, the three main political groups in student's elections are:
- Lista aperta per il diritto allo studio ("Open list for the right to study"), whose members are also usually part of the Catholic movement Comunione e Liberazione. The movement is generally considered conservative because of its affinity to the movement, even if it defines itself as "not politically oriented";
- La Terna Sinistrorsa ("The left-hand coordinate system"), the left-wing organization. The name is a pun on the Cartesian three-dimensional coordinate system.
- Svolta Studenti - La Students' Union del Politecnico di Milano ("The Student's Union of Politecnico di Milano"), which takes inspiration from the Anglo-Saxon student-groups, is not politically oriented and its main purpose is to provide services to students.
There are also other smaller groups. However, participation in student elections is generally low, typically below 15%, as a result of low interest in issues and the low influence of elected students on the academy's decisions.
- Gae Aulenti (architect 1927-2012)
- Achille Castiglioni (industrial designer and architect 1918-2002)
- Gian Paolo Dallara (engineer and entrepreneur, b. 1936)
- Elio (musician, b. 1961)
- Gianfranco Ferré (fashion designer 1944-2007)
- Enrico Forlanini (engineer and inventor 1848-1930)
- Carlo Emilio Gadda (engineer and writer 1893-1973)
- Francesco Giavazzi (economist, b. 1949)
- Giulio Natta (chemist and Nobel Laureate 1903-1979)
- Adriano Olivetti (chemical engineer and entrepreneur 1901-1960)
- Renzo Piano (architect, b. 1937)
- Giovanni Battista Pirelli (entrepreneur 1848-1932)
- Gio Ponti (architect 1891-1979)
- Ernesto Nathan Rogers (architect 1909-1969)
- Aldo Rossi (architect 1931-1997)
- Saul Steinberg (cartoonist and illustrator 1914-1999)
- Giuseppe Terragni (architect 1904-1943)
- Marco Zanuso (architect and designer 1916-2001)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Politecnico di Milano.|
- Alumni of the Politecnico di Milano
- Faculty members of the Politecnico di Milano
- List of Italian universities
Notes and references
- "I Numeri". Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Politecnico di Milano". Anagrafe Nazionale Studenti. Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "LE CLASSIFICHE DI CENSIS E REPUBBLICA 2011-2012 DELLE UNIVERSITÀ ITALIANE". universita.net. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- "QS World University Rankings by Faculty 2013 - Engineering and Technology". QS World University Rankings. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "I rettori nella storia". Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Le origini". La storia. Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Le sedi storiche". La storia. Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "The logo and its history". Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Michael Day, "Italian university switches to English" The Independent April 14, 2012 
- "Poli territoriali". Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Overview of Milano Bovisa campus". Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Towards the present". History. Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "Corso di Laurea in Ingegneria Informatica Online". Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- "Fai un'esperienza all'estero". Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- "Politecnico di Milano: English version". Polimi.it. 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2013-03-21.
- "List of members". time-association.org. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "Progetti di mobilità". Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities". Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. 2010. Retrieved May 31, 2010.
- "Top 200 - The Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2010-2011". The Times Higher Education. 2010. Retrieved September 16, 2010.
- "QS World University Rankings". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2010. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
- "QS World Engineering Rankings". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2010. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
- "Politecnico di Milano - QS World University Rankings". topuniversities.com. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
- "Università - La nuova classifica di Vision". Vision. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
- Corriere.it - Università, più fondi alle migliori
- Corriere.it - Le università virtuose e quelle bocciate
- SIR-Scimago Institution Rankings-http://www.scimagoir.com/pdf/SIR%20Global%202013%20O.pdf
- "Come si accede". PoliOrientaMi. Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Global MBA Rankings 2011". Financial Times. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- "Departments". Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Using the Politecnico Libraries" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-03-21.
- "OPAC - Online Catalogue". Opac.biblio.polimi.it. Retrieved 2013-03-21.
- "PoliPress Editore". Polipresseditore.polimi.it. Retrieved 2013-03-21.
- "Politecnico - Rivista del Politecnico di Milano". Rivistapolitecnico.polimi.it. Retrieved 2013-03-21.
- http://www.cri.polimi.it/IRO/index.html[dead link]
- "Financing Research". Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- "Batte il cuore atomico del Politecnico | Milano la Repubblica.it". Milano.repubblica.it. Retrieved 2013-03-21.
- "Galleria del Vento - CIRIVE - Boundary Layer and Aeronautical Wind Tunnel". Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- Acceleratore d'impresa - Politecnico incubator
- Statuto del Politecnico di Milano - Titolo II
- "Politecnico di Milano: English version". Polimi.it. 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2013-03-21.
- "Wi-Fi Polimi". Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
- BEST Milano - official website
- ESN - official website
- Euroavia - official website
- Associazione Ingegneri Ambiente e Territorio - official website
- Teatro delle Biglie - official website
- Poul - official website
- IEEE Student Branch
- "Indagine occupazionale dei laureati e laureati specialistici del Politecnico di Milano usciti nell'anno 2007" [survey on occupational levels for alumni of Politecnico di Milano graduated in 2007]. Politecnico di Milano.
- www.careerservice.polimi.it - Politecnico di Milano - Career Service
- Carta degli Studenti, VI, 33 p. 4
- www.ternasinistrorsa.it - official website
- www.svoltastudenti.it - official website
- Results of the last elections are available on-line at
- (English) Politecnico di Milano website
- (Italian) Brief history of the Politecnico
- (Italian) Studentipolitecnico.it — Politecnico Students Community
- AlumniPolimi - Politecnico Alumni