Political assassinations in post-apartheid South Africa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

There have been a number of political assassinations in post-apartheid South Africa.[1][2] Many have been ascribed to battles around patronage within the ruling African National Congress[3][4][5] and it has been suggested that there was an escalation of political assassinations in the lead up to the 2010 FIFA World Cup.[6][7][8] However not all assassinations are a result of conflict within the ruling party. The National Freedom Party led by Zanele Magwaza-Msibi, with its base largely in KwaZulu-Natal, claims that 21 of its members have been killed since the party was founded in early 2011.[9] The Inkatha Freedom Party claims that ten of its elected representatives have been murdered.[10] According to the Daily Maverick there have been "59 political murders in the last five years".[11]

According to Raymond Suttner "assassinations have become a regularised way of deciding on leadership and access to wealth within the ANC and its allies".[12]

Location of assassinations[edit]

It has been argued that the situation is particularly bad in the provinces of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal with KwaZulu-Natal being, by far, the worst.[7][13][14][15] KwaZulu-Natal has been described as the "epicenter of political violence"[16] while Mpumalanga has been described as "notorious for political assassinations"[17] Fourteen assassinations have been documented in Mpumalanga[18] and 450 in KwaZulu-Natal.[19] It has been reported that "Since the beginning of 2011, the murder of people with high political profiles has been confined almost exclusively to KwaZulu-Natal, with 27 in the province since February 2011.[18] According to the ANC 38 of its members have been assassinated in KwaZulu-Natal since the beginning of 2011.[20] It has been suggested that support for murders in the taxi industry in KwaZulu-Natal by leading figures in the ruling party legitimated the use of violence in the democratic era which then spilled over into the political sphere.[20][21]

Conviction rates and a possible 'licence to kill'[edit]

There has been one conviction in response to the fourteen assassinations in Mpumalanga and four in KwaZulu-Natal for the forty two assassinations leading one researcher to conclude that some people are starting to believe there may be a "general licence for political killings" but that "this may only be available to people in certain political positions".[18]

List of politicians assassinated in post-Apartheid South Africa[edit]

  • Thomas Shabalala, IFP MP (and former warlord), Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2005[22]
  • Thandi Mtsweni, Deputy Mayor, Secunda, Mpumalanga, 2007[23]
  • Rajah Naidoo, Independent councillor, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2007[24]
  • Moss Phakoe, ANC councillor, Rustenburg, North West Province, 2009[7][25]
  • Caswell Maluleke, ANC Mayor Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga, 2000[3]
  • Jimmy Mtolo, local ANC leader, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2009[26]
  • Sthembiso Cele, chairperson of the ANC Youth League in Umgababa, KwaZulu-Natal, 2009[27]
  • Bongani Ngcobo, ANC leader, Nongoma, KwaZulu-Natal, 2009[28]
  • Jabulani Khumalo, ANC leader, Nongoma, KwaZulu-Natal, 2009[27]
  • Jimmy Mohlala, ANC leader, Mbombela, Mpumalanga, 2010[3]
  • James Nkambule, senior ANC politician, Mpumalanga, 2010[29]
  • Sammy Mpatlanyane, senior ANC politician, Mpumalanga, 2010[10]
  • John Ndlovu, ANC politician, Thulamasha, Mpumalanga, 2011[30]
  • S'bu Sibiya, ANC regional secretary, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2011[31]
  • Wiseman Mshibe, ANC councillor, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2011[31]
  • Wandile Mkhize, ANC chief whip, South Coast, KwaZulu-Natal, 2012[1][32]
  • Nhlakanipho Shabane, ANC member, South Coast, KwaZulu-Natal, 2012[29]
  • Dumisani Malunga, ANC member, South Coast, KwaZulu-Natal, 2012[33]
  • Bheki Chiliza, ANC member, South Coast, KwaZulu-Natal, 2012[34]
  • Mthembeni Shezi, ANC Councillor, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal 2012[35]
  • David Mosiane Chika, ANC Leader, North West 2012[36]
  • S'bu Majola, ANC branch chairperson, Wembezi, Estcourt, KwaZulu-Natal, 2013[37]
  • Makhosonke Msibi, ANC Councillor, Nongoma, KwaZulu-Natal, 2013[38]
  • Siphumelelo Buthelezi, NFP Councillor, Ulundi, 3 November 2013[39]
  • Buyisile Mkavu, ANC Councillor, KwaLanga, Uitenhage [40]

List of other political assassinations in post-Apartheid South Africa[edit]

  • Sinethemba Myeni, 12 April 2006, Umlazi, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal (former SACP member supporting independent candidate in local government elections)[41]
  • Mazwi 'Komi' Zulu, 3 May 2006, Umlazi, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal (former SACP member supporting independent candidate in local government elections)[41]
  • Scorpion Dimane, anti-mining activist, Mbizana, 2008[42]
  • Mbongeleni Zondi, traditional leader with close ties to Jacob Zuma and the ANC, Durban, 2009
  • Mthunzi Nkonki, MV veteran, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, 2010[43]
  • Bomber 'Radioman' Ntshangase, SACP leader, Mpumalanga, 2012[29][44]
  • Kevin Kunene, environmental rights activist, KwaMbonambi, 2012[45]
  • Dalivuyo Bongo, National Union of Mineworkers, Rustenburg, North West, 2012[46]
  • Thembinkosi Qumbelo, Local activist and ANC leader, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2013[47]
  • Two unnamed members of Abahlali baseMjondolo, KwaNdengezi, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2013[48]
  • Steve Khululekile, AMCU regional organiser, Rustenburg, North West, 2013[49]
  • Nkululeko Gwala, Abahlali baseMjondolo activist, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2013[11][50][51]
  • Sthembiso Biyela & Buyisile Malusi, (Biyela was reported to have left the IFP to join the ANC) Durban, 2014[52]
  • Njabulo Ndebele, Sibonelo “John-John” Ntuli and Ntobeko Maphumulo, NUMSA leaders, Isithebe, KwaZulu-Natal, August 2014[53]

List of assassinations of government officials in post-Apartheid South Africa[edit]

  • Noby Ngombane, Head of the Free State government's policy monitoring and evaluation unit, Bloemfontein, Free State, 2005[29]
  • Sammy Mpatlanyane, spokesman for the Mpumalanga department of culture, sport and recreation, Nelspruit, 2010[54]
  • Oupa Matlaba, City Power, Johannesburg, 2011[55]
  • Andile Matshaya, Internal Auditor, Department of Transport, Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, 2012[56]
  • Lawrence Moepi, Forensic Auditor at a private firm contracted to the Public Protector's Office, Johannesburg, 2013[57]
  • Moses Tshake, Head Auditor, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Free State, 2013[58]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b ANC: A party under violent, criminal siege, Paul Trewhela, Mail & Guardian, 4 August 2012
  2. ^ Quintal, Genevieve (29 July 2012). Political Murders – It's About the Dough, SAPA,
  3. ^ a b c The ANC's provincial criminal enterprises problem, by Sipho Hlongwane, The Daily Maverick, 23 July 2012
  4. ^ Power, money and the ANC: There will be blood, Mandy de Waal, The Daily Maverick, 23 January 2012
  5. ^ Why Are Political Killings Increasing in South Africa?, James Bullock, Think Africa Press, 21 October 2013
  6. ^ Murder takes party infighting to new level, Setumo Stone, Business Day, 20 July 2012
  7. ^ a b c A Culture of Political Assassination, Jane Duncan, SACSIS, 2010
  8. ^ Murder, Lies and Corruption: Mbombela and the Bequeathal of the ANC's 'Family' War, Dale T. McKinely, 9 September 2011
  9. ^ Another NFP member killed, SAPA, IOL, 18 July 2012
  10. ^ a b Quintal, Genevieve (29 July 2012). Political Murders – It's About the Dough, SAPA
  11. ^ a b KZN: Anatomy of an assassination, Niki Moore, Daily Maverick, 31 July 2013
  12. ^ Government and tripartite alliance ‘no pitch’ at Marikana memorial, 18 August 2013
  13. ^ Hlongwane, Sipho (23 July 2012). The ANC's provincial criminal enterprises problem, The Daily Maverick
  14. ^ Analysis: Meanwhile, on the killing fields of KZN, Mandy de Waal, Daily Maverick, 15 November 2012
  15. ^ Can the ANC rein in grass-roots coercion?, David Bruce, Mail & Guardian, 20 September 2013
  16. ^ SA cannot flourish in violent culture, by Imraan Buccus, The Mercury, 5 April 2013
  17. ^ Two suspects released in Mpumalanga political assassination case, Sizwe Sama Yende, City Press, 2011
  18. ^ a b c Bruce, David (7 October 2012) and 450 in KwaZulu-Natal.ref>A Provincial Concern? Political Killings in South Africa, David Bruce, SA Crime Quarterly (45), 2013
  19. ^ A Provincial Concern? Political Killings in South Africa, David Bruce, SA Crime Quarterly (45), 2013
  20. ^ a b Wheels of justice turn slowly as political killings escalate, David Bruce, Mail & Guardian, 26 October 2012
  21. ^ Sanctioned taxi violence poisons KwaZulu-Natal, Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 19 October 2012
  22. ^ Life and times of a tyrant, Paddy Harper, Sunday Times, 2005
  23. ^ Quintal, Genevieve (29 July 2012). South Africa: Timeline of Reported Political Killings From 2007–2012, All Africa
  24. ^ Slain councillor was surrounded by dispute, Karishma Ganpath,, IOL, 2007
  25. ^ Moss Phakoe’s spirit must galvanise us, Zwelinzima Vavi, City Press', 22 July 2012
  26. ^ Cops hunt for killer of Sanco man, Canaan Mdletshe, Sowetan, 2009
  27. ^ a b Timeline of Reported Political Killings From 2007–2012, Quintal, Genevieve SAPA, 29 July 2012
  28. ^ Quintal, Genevieve (29 July 2012). Timeline of Reported Political Killings From 2007–2012, SAPA
  29. ^ a b c d Murders rock ANC, Paddy Harper, Mmanaledi Mataboge and Sizwe sama Yende, City Press, 29 July 2012
  30. ^ "Two suspects released in Mpumalanga political assassination case", Sizwe Sama Yende, City Press, 2011
  31. ^ a b Three arrested for the murder of eThekwini councillor, City Press, 2011
  32. ^ Darkness visible in JZ's kingdom by the sea, Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 20 July 2012
  33. ^ More ANC leaders gunned down in KZN, SABC, 10 September 2012
  34. ^ More ANC leaders gunned down in KZN, SABC, 10 September 2012]
  35. ^ Mthembeni Shezi dies of his wounds, ANC KZN, 27 September 2012
  36. ^ Murder before Mangaung, by Xolani Mbanjwa, City Press, 16 December 2012
  37. ^ Wembezi mob barricades road after ‘political’ killing, Daily News, 12 March 2013
  38. ^ ANC councillor shot dead in KZN, SAPA, 12 August 2013
  39. ^ NFP leader shot and killed in Ulundi BY NCE MKHIZE, Business Day, NOVEMBER 05 2013
  40. ^ Murdered councillor a ‘hero’, Lubabalo Ngcukana, City Press, 10 August 2014
  41. ^ a b Umlazi Political Violence, Press Statement, 2006
  42. ^ 'We Don't Want Your Development', Jacques de Wet, in Rural Resistance in South Africa, Thembele Kepe & Lungisile Ntsebeza (Eds), UCT Press, 2012
  43. ^ A Culture of Political Assassination, Jane Duncan, SACSIS, 2010
  44. ^ Is the SACP still relevant?, Jeremy Cronin, The Times, 31 July 2012
  45. ^ Amnesty International South Africa Report, 2013
  46. ^ NUM branch secretary shot dead at Westplats mine, SABC, 6 October 2012
  47. ^ Cato Crest community leader gunned down, By NKULULEKO NENE, Daily News, 18 March 2013
  48. ^ Murder in KwaNdengezi, Abahlali baseMjondolo Press Statement, 2013
  49. ^ Another Marikana murder, NIVASHNI NAIR, The Times, 13 May 2013
  50. ^ KZN protest leader shot 12 times, Nkululeko Nene, Daily News, 27 June 2013
  51. ^ Africa: Killed for crying foul, by Andrew England, Financial Times, 26 August 2013
  52. ^ Political intolerance behind KZN murders, Sihle Mahanda, The Mercury, 1 April 2014
  53. ^ Numsa condemns killing of its three shopstewards in Kwazulu – Natal
  54. ^ Quintal, Genevieve South Africa: Timeline of Reported Political Killings From 2007–2012, All Africa, 29 July 2012
  55. ^ Death of City Power procurement specialist silences staff members, CHARLES MOLELE, Mail & Guardian, 8 February 2013
  56. ^ Freedom is a killer, Njabulu S. Ndebele, City Press, 29 July 2012
  57. ^ Moepi's killing a hit:Cosatu, The Times, 21 October 2013
  58. ^ Who Killed Moses Tshake?, GroundUp, Mandy de Waal and Jon Pienaar, 1 April 2014