Political Security Directorate

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Political Security Directorate

إدارة الأمن السياسي
Agency overview
Jurisdiction Government of Syria
Headquarters Damascus, Syria
Agency executive Rustum Ghazali, Director

Political Security Directorate (Arabic: إدارة الأمن السياسي‎, Idarat al-Amn al-Siyasi) is an intelligence service of Syria. It is active against the opposition.[1] It runs detention centres.[2] It is divided into an Internal Security Department and an External Security Department.[3] It monitors political dissent and all media outlets,[3] and registered parties are surveilled, too.[4]

History and chiefs[edit]

From 1987 until the 1990s, it was headed by Adnan Badr Hassan, an Alawite from Homs.[5] Ghazi Kanaan was its chief from 2002 to 2004.[6] In 2004, Muhammad Manasra became its head.[7] In 2011, its chief was Deeb Zaitoun, an Alawite.[8]

Heads of Political Security Directorate[edit]

  • Head of Investigative branch: Brig. Gen. Makhmoud al-Khattib (2011).[15]
  • Head of Operations branch: Brig. Gen. Mohamed Heikmat Ibrahim (2011).[15]

Regional Heads of Political Security Directorate[edit]

  • Daraa branch: Atef Najib (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for "being responsible for the violence against protesters in Daraa during the Syrian uprising".[16] He was replaced by Brig. Gen. Nasser Al-Ali.[15]

Other Syrian intelligence agencies[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Syria, Intelligence and Security". Espionageinfo. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  2. ^ "Syria's terror networks". Washington Times. 19 February 2007. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  3. ^ a b "Bashar's Syria" (PDF). Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  4. ^ Paul Todd; Jonathan Bloch (8 November 2003). Global Intelligence: The World's Secret Services Today. Zed Books. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-84277-113-6. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  5. ^ "Syria's Intelligence Services: A Primer". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin 2 (6). 1 July 2000. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  6. ^ "Syrian official commits suicide after probe". Mafhoum. 12 October 2005. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  7. ^ Robert G. Rabil (2006). Syria, The United States, and the War on Terror in the Middle East. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-275-99015-2. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  8. ^ a b Ahed Al Hendi (3 May 2011). "The Structure of Syria's Repression". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  9. ^ Rathmell, Andrew (1996). "Syria's Intelligence Services: Origins and Development". The Journal of Conflict Studies 16 (2). Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  10. ^ The Annual Register: A Record of World Events 2002 - Keesings Worldwide. 2002. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  11. ^ "A rather convenient suicide". The Economist. 12 October 2005. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  12. ^ "Bahjat Suleiman Moved along with Other Security Chiefs". Syria Comment. 19 June 2005. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  13. ^ "Political security department". Cablegatesearch. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  14. ^ "Bashar al-Assad's inner circle". BBC. 30 July 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  15. ^ a b c "By all means necessary" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  16. ^ "Joint Proposal for a COUNCIL REGULATION concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Syria and repealing Regulation (EU) No 442/2011". EuroLex. 52011PC0887. 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2012.