Political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union
||It has been suggested that Psikhushka be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since February 2014.|
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Soviet Union
|Psychiatry in Russia and the USSR|
Russian Mental Health Law
During the leadership of General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, psychiatry was used as a tool to eliminate political opponents ("dissidents") who openly expressed beliefs that contradicted official dogma. The term "philosophical intoxication" was widely used to diagnose mental disorders in cases where people disagreed with leaders and made them the target of criticism that used the writings by Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and Vladimir Lenin. Article 58-10 of the Stalin Criminal Code—which as Article 70 had been shifted into the RSFSR Criminal Code of 1962—and Article 190-1 of the RSFSR Criminal Code along with the system of diagnosing mental illness, developed by academician Andrei Snezhnevsky, created the very preconditions under which non-standard beliefs could easily be transformed into a criminal case, and it, in its turn, into a psychiatric diagnosis. Anti-Soviet political behavior, in particular, being outspoken in opposition to the authorities, demonstrating for reform, writing books were defined in some persons as being simultaneously a criminal act (e.g., violation of Articles 70 or 190-1), a symptom (e.g., "delusion of reformism"), and a diagnosis (e.g., "sluggish schizophrenia"). Within the boundaries of the diagnostic category, the symptoms of pessimism, poor social adaptation and conflict with authorities were themselves sufficient for a formal diagnosis of "sluggish schizophrenia."
The process of psychiatric incarceration was instigated by attempts to emigrate; distribution or possession of prohibited documents or books; participation in civil rights actions and demonstrations, and involvement in forbidden religious activity. The religious faith of prisoners, including well-educated former atheists who adopted a religion, was determined to be a form of mental illness that needed to be cured. Formerly highly classified government documents published after the dissolution of the Soviet Union demonstrate that the authorities used psychiatry as a tool to suppress dissent.
According to the Commentary on the Russian Federation Law on Psychiatric Care, persons who were subjected to repressions in the form of commitment for compulsory treatment to psychiatric medical institutions and were rehabilitated in accordance with the established procedure receive indemnity payment. The Russian Federation acknowledged that psychiatry was used for political purposes and took responsibility for the victims of "political psychiatry."
- 1 Background
- 2 Joint Session
- 3 Sluggish schizophrenia
- 4 Political trend toward mass abuse onset
- 5 Examination and hospitalization
- 6 Cases
- 6.1 Sergei Pisarev
- 6.2 Pyotr Grigorenko
- 6.3 Viktor Rafalsky
- 6.4 Joseph Brodsky
- 6.5 Valery Tarsis
- 6.6 Evgeni Belov
- 6.7 Alexander Esenin-Volpin
- 6.8 Yuli Daniel
- 6.9 Viktor Fainberg
- 6.10 AGDHR members
- 6.11 Valeriya Novodvorskaya
- 6.12 Natalya Gorbanevskaya
- 6.13 Zhores Medvedev
- 6.14 Andrei Sakharov
- 6.15 Viktor Nekipelov
- 6.16 AFTU members
- 6.17 SMOT members
- 7 Struggle against abuse
- 8 Classification of the victims
- 9 Incomplete figures estimated due to some archival documents
- 10 Theoretical analysis
- 11 Residual problems
- 12 Documents and memoirs
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Sources
- 16 Further reading
- 17 Photos
|Repression in the Soviet Union|
|Political repression • Economic repression • Ideological repression|
|Red Terror • Collectivization • Great Purge • Population transfer • Gulag • Holodomor • Political abuse of psychiatry|
|Religion • Suppressed research • Censorship • Censorship of images|
Political abuse of psychiatry is the misuse of psychiatric diagnosis, detention and treatment for the purposes of obstructing the fundamental human rights of certain groups and individuals in a society. It entails the exculpation and committal of citizens to psychiatric facilities based upon political rather than mental health-based criteria. Many authors, including psychiatrists, also use the terms "Soviet political psychiatry" or "punitive psychiatry" to refer to this phenomenon.
In the book Punitive Medicine by Alexander Podrabinek, the term "punitive medicine", which is identified with "punitive psychiatry," is defined as "a tool in the struggle against dissidents who cannot be punished by legal means." Punitive psychiatry is neither a discrete subject nor a psychiatric specialty but, rather, it is an emergency arising within many applied sciences in totalitarian countries where members of a profession may feel themselves compelled to service the diktats of power. Psychiatric confinement of sane people is uniformly considered a particularly pernicious form of repression and Soviet punitive psychiatry was one of the key weapons of both illegal and legal repression.
As Vladimir Bukovsky and Semyon Gluzman wrote in their joint A Manual on Psychiatry for Dissenters, "the Soviet use of psychiatry as a punitive means is based upon the deliberate interpretation of dissent… as a psychiatric problem."
Psychiatry possesses an inherent capacity for abuse that is greater than in other areas of medicine. The diagnosis of mental disease can give the state license to detain persons against their will and insist upon therapy both in the interest of the detainee and in the broader interests of society. In addition, receiving a psychiatric diagnosis can in itself be regarded as oppressive. In a monolithic state, psychiatry can be used to bypass standard legal procedures for establishing guilt or innocence and allow political incarceration without the ordinary odium attaching to such political trials. In the period from the 1960-s to 1986, the abuse of psychiatry for political purposes was reported to have been systematic in the Soviet Union and episodic in other Eastern European countries such as Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. The practice of incarceration of political dissidents in mental hospitals in Eastern Europe and the former USSR damaged the credibility of psychiatric practice in these states and entailed strong condemnation from the international community. Psychiatrists have been involved in human rights abuses in states across the world when the definitions of mental disease were expanded to include political disobedience. As scholars have long argued, governmental and medical institutions have at times coded threats to authority as mental disease during periods of political disturbance and instability. Nowadays, in many countries, political prisoners are still sometimes confined and abused in mental institutions.
In the Soviet Union dissidents were often confined in the so-called psikhushka, or psychiatric wards. Psikhushka is the Russian ironic diminutive for "mental hospital". One of the first psikhushkas was the Psychiatric Prison Hospital in the city of Kazan. In 1939 it was transferred to the control of the NKVD, the secret police and the precursor organization to the KGB, under the order of Lavrentiy Beria, who was the head of the NKVD. International human rights defenders such as Walter Reich have long recorded the methods by which Soviet psychiatrists in Psikhushka hospitals diagnosed schizophrenia in political dissenters. Western scholars examined no aspect of Soviet psychiatry as thoroughly as its involvement in the social control of political dissenters.
As early as 1948, the Soviet secret service took an interest in this area of medicine. It was one of the superiors of the Soviet secret police, Andrey Vyshinsky, who first ordered the use of psychiatry as a tool of repression. Russian psychiatrist Pyotr Gannushkin also believed that in a class society, especially during the most severe class struggle, psychiatry was incapable of not being repressive. A system of political abuse of psychiatry was developed at the end of Joseph Stalin's regime. However, according to Alexander Etkind, punitive psychiatry was not simply an inheritance from the Stalin era as the GULAG (the acronym for Chief Administration for Corrective Labor Camps, the penitentiary system in the Stalin years) was an effective instrument of political repression and there was no compelling requirement to develop an alternative and expensive psychiatric substitute. The abuse of psychiatry was a natural product of the later Soviet era. From the mid-1970s to the 1990s, the structure of mental health service conformed to the double standard in society, that of two separate systems which peacefully co-existed despite conflicts between them:
- the first system was punitive psychiatry that straight served the institute of power and was led by the Moscow Institute for Forensic Psychiatry named after Vladimir Serbsky;
- the second system was composed of elite, psychotherapeutically oriented clinics and was led by the Leningrad Psychoneurological Institute named after Vladimir Bekhterev.
The hundreds of hospitals in the provinces combined components of both systems.
What was the abuse of psychiatry under the dictatorship of Stalin? If a person was mentally ill, he was sent to a psychiatric hospital until his dying day. If he was not quite mentally healthy but not quite ill, with his character traits, he was sent to a prison camp or shot. When some allusions to the so-called socialist legality appeared, it was decided these people must be tried. But soon it became realized that bringing the people who gave anti-Soviet speeches to trial made matters worse, they began not to be admitted to the court by being attributed with psychiatric diagnoses and declared insane.
A precursor of later abuses in psychiatry in the Soviet Union was the so-called "Joint Session" of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences and the Board of the All-Union Neurologic and Psychiatric Association in October 1951. Held in the name of Ivan Pavlov it considered the status of several leading neuroscientists and psychiatrists of the time, including Grunya Sukhareva, Vasily Gilyarovsky, Raisa Golant, Aleksandr Shmaryan, and Mikhail Gurevich, who were charged with practicing "anti-Pavlovian, anti-Marxist, idealistic [and] reactionary" science that was damaging to Soviet psychiatry. During the Joint Session these eminent psychiatrists, motivated by fear, had to publicly admit that their scientific positions were in error and they also had to promise to conform Pavlovian doctrines. However, these public declarations of obedience proved insufficient as in the closing speech of the congress, the lead author of the event's policy report, Snezhnevsky stated that they "have not disarmed themselves and continue to remain in the old anti-Pavlovian positions", thereby causing "grave damage to the Soviet scientific and practical psychiatry". The vice president of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences accused them of "diligently fall[ing] down to the dirty source of American pseudo-science". The congressional members who articulated these accusations, among them Irina Strelchuk, Vasily Banshchikov, Oleg Kerbikov, and Snezhnevsky, were characterized by careerist ambition and fears for their own positions. Not surprisingly, many of them were advanced and appointed to leadership positions shortly after the session.
The Joint Session also had a negative impact on several leading Soviet academic neuroscientists, such as Pyotr Anokhin, Aleksey Speransky, Lina Stern, Ivan Beritashvili, and Leon Orbeli. They were labeled as anti-Pavlovians, anti-materialists and reactionaries and subsequently they were dismissed from their positions. In addition to losing their laboratories some of these scientists were subjected to torture in prison. The Moscow, Leningrad, Ukrainian, Georgian, and Armenian schools of neuroscience and neurophysiology were damaged for a period due to this loss of personnel. The Joint Session ravaged productive research in neurosciences and psychiatry for years to come. It was pseudoscience that took over.
After the joint session of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences on 28 June — 4 July 1950 and during the session of the Presidium of the Academy of Medical Sciences and the Board of the All-Union Society of Neuropathologists and Psychiatrists on 11–15 October 1951, the leading role was given to Snezhnevky's school. The 1950 decision to give monopoly over psychiatry to the Pavlovian school of Snezhnevsky was one of the crucial factors in the rise of political psychiatry. The Soviet doctors, under the incentive of Snezhnevsky, devised a "Pavlovian theory of schizophrenia" and increasingly applied this diagnostic category to political dissidents.
"The incarceration of free thinking healthy people in madhouses is spiritual murder, it is a variation of the gas chamber, even more cruel; the torture of the people being killed is more malicious and more prolonged. Like the gas chambers, these crimes will never be forgotten and those involved in them will be condemned for all time during their life and after their death." (Alexander Solzhenitsyn)
Psychiatric diagnoses such as the diagnosis of "sluggish schizophrenia" in political dissidents in the USSR were used for political purposes. It was the diagnosis of "sluggish schizophrenia" that was most prominently used in cases of dissidents. Sluggish schizophrenia as one of new diagnostic categories was created to facilitate the stifling of dissidents and was a root of self-deception among psychiatrists to placate their consciences when the doctors acted as a tool of oppression in the name of a political system. According to the Global Initiative on Psychiatry chief executive Robert van Voren, the political abuse of psychiatry in the USSR arose from the conception that people who opposed the Soviet regime were mentally sick since there was no other logical rationale why one would oppose the sociopolitical system considered the best in the world. The diagnosis "sluggish schizophrenia," a longstanding concept further developed by the Moscow School of Psychiatry and particularly by its chief Snezhnevsky, furnished a very handy framework for explaining this behavior. The weight of scholarly opinion holds that the psychiatrists who played the primary role in the development of this diagnostic concept were following directives from the Communist Party and the Soviet secret service, or KGB, and were well aware of the political uses to which it would be put. Nevertheless, for many Soviet psychiatrists "sluggish schizophrenia" appeared to be a logical explanation to apply to the behavior of critics of the regime who, in their opposition, seemed willing to jeopardize their happiness, family, and career for a reformist conviction or ideal that was so apparently divergent from the prevailing social and political orthodoxy.
Snezhnevsky, the most prominent theorist of Soviet psychiatry and director of the Institute of Psychiatry of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, developed a novel classification of mental disorders postulating an original set of diagnostic criteria. The Soviet model of schizophrenia is based on the hypothesis that a single fundamental characteristic, by which schizophrenia spectrum disorders are distinguished clinically, is their longitudinal course. The hypothesis implies that there are three main types of schizophrenia:
- the continuous type that is defined as unremitting, proceeding with either a rapid ("malignant") or a slow ("sluggish") progression and has a poor prognosis in both instances;
- the periodic, or recurrent type that is characterized by an acute attack followed by full remission with minimal progression, if any;
- the mixed, or shift-like, type ("schubweise" — in German "schub" means phase or attack), a mixture of continuous and periodic types that occurs periodically and is characterized by only partial remission.
A carefully crafted description of sluggish schizophrenia established that psychotic symptoms were non-essential for the diagnosis, but symptoms of psychopathy, hypochondria, depersonalization or anxiety were central to it. Symptoms referred to as part of the "negative axis" included pessimism, poor social adaptation, and conflict with authorities, and were themselves sufficient for a formal diagnosis of "sluggish schizophrenia with scanty symptoms." According to Snezhnevsky, patients with sluggish schizophrenia could present as quasi sane yet manifest minimal but clinically relevant personality changes which could remain unnoticed to the untrained eye. Thereby patients with non-psychotic mental disorders, or even persons who were not mentally sick, could be easily labelled with the diagnosis of sluggish schizophrenia. Along with paranoia, sluggish schizophrenia was the diagnosis most frequently used for the psychiatric incarceration of dissenters. As per the theories of Snezhnevsky and his colleagues, schizophrenia was much more prevalent than previously considered since the illness could be presented with comparatively slight symptoms and only progress afterwards. As a consequence, schizophrenia was diagnosed much more often in Moscow than in cities of other countries, as the World Health Organization Pilot Study on Schizophrenia reported in 1973. In particular, the scope was widened by sluggish schizophrenia because according to Snezhnevsky and his colleagues, patients with this diagnosis were capable of functioning almost normally in the social sense. Their symptoms could be like those of a neurosis or could assume a paranoid character. The patients with paranoid symptoms retained some insight into their condition but overestimated their own significance and could manifest grandiose ideas of reforming society. Thereby, sluggish schizophrenia could have such symptoms as "reform delusions," "perseverance," and "struggle for the truth." As Viktor Styazhkin reported, Snezhnevsky diagnosed a reformation delusion for every case when a patient "develops a new principle of human knowledge, drafts an academy of human happiness, and many other projects for the benefit of mankind."
In the 1960s and 1970s, theories, which contained ideas about reforming society and struggling for truth, and religious convictions were not referred to delusional paranoid disorders in practically all foreign classifications, but Soviet psychiatry, proceeding from ideological conceptions, referred critique of the political system and proposals to reform this system to the delusional construct. Diagnostic approaches of conception of sluggish schizophrenia and paranoiac states with delusion of reformism were used only in the Soviet Union and several Eastern European countries.
On the covert orders of the KGB, thousands of social and political reformers—Soviet "dissidents"—were incarcerated in mental hospitals after being labelled with diagnoses of "sluggish schizophrenia", a disease fabricated by Snezhnevsky and "Moscow school" of psychiatry. American psychiatrist Alan A. Stone stated that Western criticism of Soviet psychiatry aimed at Snezhnevsky personally, because he was essentially responsible for the Soviet concept of schizophrenia with a "sluggish type" manifestation by "reformerism" including other symptoms. One can readily apply this diagnostic scheme to dissenters. Snezhnevsky was long attacked in the West as an exemplar of psychiatric abuse in the USSR. The leading critics implied that Snezhnevsky had designed the Soviet model of schizophrenia and this diagnosis to make political dissent into a mental disease. He was charged with cynically developing a system of diagnosis which could be bent for political purposes, and he himself diagnosed or was involved in a series of famous dissident cases, including those of the biologist Zhores Medvedev, the mathematician Leonid Plyushch, and Vladimir Bukovsky whom Snezhnevsky diagnosed as schizophrenic on 5 July 1962. In 1980, the Special Committee on the Political Abuse of Psychiatry, established by the Royal College of Psychiatrists in 1978, charged Snezhnevsky with involvement in the abuse and recommended that Snezhnevsky, who had been honoured as a Corresponding Fellow of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, be invited to attend the College's Court of Electors to answer criticisms because he was responsible for the compulsory detention of this celebrated dissident, Leonid Plyushch. Instead Snezhnevsky chose to resign his Fellowship.
Because of this form of schizophrenia, Russia in the 1980s had three times as many schizophrenic patients per capita as the USA, two times as many schizophrenic patients as West Germany, Austria and Japan. There were not so many schizophrenic patients in any other country (of Western ones).
Political trend toward mass abuse onset
The campaign to declare political opponents mentally sick and to commit dissenters to mental hospitals began in the late 1950s and early 1960s. As Vladimir Bukovsky, commenting on the nascency of the political abuse of psychiatry, wrote, Nikita Khrushchev reckoned that it was impossible for people in a socialist society to have anti-socialist consciousness, and whenever manifestations of dissidence could not be justified as a provocation of world imperialism or a legacy of the past, they were merely the product of mental disease. In his speech published in the state newspaper Pravda on 24 May 1959, Khrushchev said:
A crime is a deviation from generally recognized standards of behavior frequently caused by mental disorder. Can there be diseases, nervous disorders among certain people in a Communist society? Evidently yes. If that is so, then there will also be offences, which are characteristic of people with abnormal minds. Of those who might start calling for opposition to Communism on this basis, we can say that clearly their mental state is not normal.
The now available evidence supports the conclusion that the system of political abuse of psychiatry was carefully designed by the KGB to rid the USSR from undesirable elements. According to several available documents and a message by a former general of the Fifth (dissident) Directorate of the Ukrainian KGB to Robert van Voren, political abuse of psychiatry as a systematic method of repression was developed by Yuri Andropov along with a selected group of associates. He became the KGB Chairman in May 1967. On 3 July 1967, he made a proposal to establish for dealing with the political opposition the KGB’s Fifth Directorate (ideological counterintelligence). At the end of July, the directorate was established and entered in its files cases of all Soviet dissidents including Andrei Sakharov and Alexander Solzhenitsyn. In 1968, Andropov as the KGB Chairman issued his order "On the tasks of State security agencies in combating the ideological sabotage by the adversary", calling for struggle against dissidents and their imperialist masters. He aimed to achieve "the destruction of dissent in all its forms" and insisted that the struggle for human rights had to be considered as a part of a wide-ranging imperialist plot to undermine the Soviet state’s foundation. Similar ideas can be found in the 1983 book Speeches and Writings by Yuri Andropov:
[w]hen analyzing the main trend in present-day bourgeois criticism of [Soviet] human rights policies one is bound to draw the conclusion that although this criticism is camouflaged with "concern" for freedom, democracy, and human rights, it is directed in fact against the socialist essence of Soviet society…
On 29 April 1969, Andropov submitted to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union an elaborated plan for creating a network of mental hospitals to defend the "Soviet Government and socialist order" from dissenters. The proposal by Andropov to use psychiatry for struggle against dissenters was implemented. On 15 May 1969, there was issued Decree No. 345–209 on "measures for preventing dangerous behavior (acts) on the part of mentally ill persons." This Decree ratified the practice of having undesirables hauled into detention by psychiatrists. Under this practice, the psychiatrists were told whom they should examine, and they might fetch these individuals with the assistance of the police or entrap them into coming to the hospital. The psychiatrists doubled as interrogators and as arresting officers. The doctors fabricated a diagnosis requiring internment, and no court judgment was required for confining the individual indefinitely.
By the end of the 1950s, the most commonly used method of punishing leaders of the political opposition became psychiatric commitment. In the 1960s and 1970s, the trials of dissenters and their referral for "treatment" to special psychiatric hospitals of the system of MVD came out into the open before the world public, and information about "psychiatric terror," which the leadership of the Serbsky Institute was flatly denying, began to appear. The bulk of psychiatric repression date from the late 1960s to the early 1980s.
Examination and hospitalization
Political dissidents were usually charged under article 70 (agitation and propaganda against the Soviet state) and 190-1 (dissemination of false fabrications defaming the Soviet state and social system) of the Criminal Code. Forensic psychiatrists were asked to examine those transgressors whose mental state the investigating officers had considered abnormal.
Practically in all cases, dissidents were examined in the Serbsky Central Research Institute for Forensic Psychiatry which conducted forensic-psychiatric expert evaluation of persons brought to justice under political articles. Certified, the persons were sent for involuntary treatment to special hospitals of the system of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
The accused had no right of appeal. The right was given to their relatives or other interested persons but they were not allowed to nominate psychiatrists to take part in the evaluation, because all psychiatrists were considered fully independent and equally credible before the law.
According to dissident poet Naum Korzhavin, the atmosphere at the Serbsky Institute in Moscow altered almost overnight when a Daniil Lunts became chief of the Fourth Department otherwise known as the Political Department. Previously, psychiatric departments had been regarded as a 'refuge' against being dispatched to the Gulag, but thenceforth that policy altered. The first reports of dissenters being hospitalized on non-medical grounds date from the early 1960s, not long after Georgi Morozov was appointed director of the Serbsky Institute. Both Morozov and Lunts were personally involved in numerous well-known cases and were notorious abusers of psychiatry for political purposes. Most prisoners, in Viktor Nekipelov’s words, characterized Daniil Lunts as "no better than the criminal doctors who performed inhuman experiments on the prisoners in Nazi concentration camps."
There was well-documented practice of using psychiatric hospitals as temporary prisons within two or three weeks around October Revolution Day and May Day to lock up "socially dangerous" persons who otherwise might protest in public or manifest other deviant behavior.
Cases of political abuse of psychiatry have been known since the 1940s and 1950s, including the case of Sergei Pisarev, a party official who was arrested after criticizing the work of the Soviet secret police in the context of the so-called Doctors' Plot, an anti-Semitic campaign propelled at Stalin's instructions which should have brought about a new terror wave in the Soviet Union and possibly the extermination of the remaining Jewish communes that had outlived the Second World War. Pisarev was committed to the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Leningrad which along with an analogous hospital in Sychevka has started functioning since the Second World War. After his discharge, Pisarev began a campaign against political abuse of psychiatry, concentrating himself on the Serbsky Institute which he viewed to be the seat of the trouble. As a consequence of his efforts, the Central Committee of the Communist Party constituted a committee which investigated the situation and came to the conclusion that the political abuse of psychiatry was actually taking place. The report, however, vanished in a desk drawer and never brought about any action taken.
In 1961, Pyotr Grigorenko started to openly criticize what he considered the excesses of the Khrushchev regime. He maintained that the special privileges of the political elite did not comply with the principles laid down by Lenin. Grigorenko formed a dissident group — The Group for the Struggle to Revive Leninism. Soviet psychiatrists sitting as legally constituted commissions to inquire into his sanity diagnosed him at least three times — in April 1964, August 1969, and November 1969. When arrested, Grigorenko was sent to Moscow's Lubyanka prison, and from there for psychiatric examination to the Serbsky Institute where the first commission, which included Snezhnevsky and Lunts, diagnosed him as suffering from the mental disease in the form of a paranoid delusional development of his personality, accompanied by early signs of cerebral arteriosclerosis. Lunts, reporting later on this diagnosis, mentioned that the symptoms of paranoid development were "an overestimation of his own personality reaching messianic proportions" and "reformist ideas." Grigorenko was irresponsible for his actions and was thereby forcibly committed to a special psychiatric hospital. While there, the government deprived him of his pension despite the fact that, by law, a mentally sick military officer was entitled to a pension. After six months, Grigorenko was found to be in remission and was released for outpatient follow-up. He required that his pension be restored. Although he began to draw pension again, it was severely cut. He became much more active in his dissidence, stirred other people to protest some of the State's actions and received several warnings from the KGB. As Grigorenko had followers in Moscow, he was lured to Tashkent, half a continent away. Again he was arrested and examined by psychiatric team. None of the manifestations or symptoms cited by the Lunts commission were found by the second commission held in Tashkent under the chairmanship of Fyodor Detengof. The diagnosis and evaluation made by the commission was that "Grigorenko's [criminal] activity had a purposeful character, it was related to concrete events and facts... It did not reveal any signs of illness or delusions." The psychiatrists reported that he was not mentally sick, but responsible for his actions. He had firm convictions which were shared by many of his colleagues and were not delusional. Having evaluated the records of his preceding hospitalization, they concluded that he had not been sick at that time either. The KGB brought Grigorenko back in Moscow and, three months later, arranged a second examination at the Serbsky Institute. Once again, these psychiatrists found that he had "a paranoid development of the personality" manifested by reformist ideas. The commission, which included Lunts and was chaired by Morozov, recommended that he be recommitted to a special psychiatric hospital for the socially dangerous. Eventually, after almost four years, he was transferred to a usual mental hospital.
In 1979 in New York, Grigorenko was examined by the team of psychologists and psychiatrists including Alan A. Stone, the then President of American Psychiatric Association. The team came to the conclusion that they could find no evidence of mental disease in Grigorenko and his history consistent with mental disease in the past. The conclusion was drawn up by Walter Reich. In 1981, Pyotr Grigorenko told about his psychiatric examinations and hospitalizations in his memoirs V Podpolye Mozhno Vstretit Tolko Krys (In The Underground One Can Meet Only Rats) translated into English under the title Memoirs in 1982. In 1991, a commission, composed of psychiatrists from all over the Soviet Union and led by Modest Kabanov, director of the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Institute in St Petersburg, spent six months reviewing the Grigorenko files, drew up 29 thick volumes of legal proceedings, and reversed the official diagnosis on Grigorenko in October 1991. In 1992, the official post-mortem forensic psychiatric commission of experts met at Grigorenko’s homeland removed the stigma of mental patient from him and confirmed that the debilitating treatment he underwent in high security psychiatric hospitals for many years was groundless. The 1992 psychiatric examination of Grigorenko was described by the Nezavisimiy Psikhiatricheskiy Zhurnal in its numbers 1–4 of 1992.
Viktor Rafalsky, a political prisoner, dissident and author of unpublished plays, novels, and short stories, was committed to Soviet psychiatric prisons in Lviv, Dnipropetrovsk, and Leningrad for 24 years because of belonging to a clandestine Marxist group (from 1954 to 1959), writing anti-Soviet prose (from 1962 to 1965), and possessing anti-Soviet literature (from 1968 to 1983). In the winter of 1987, he was discharged and pronounced sane. In 1988, Viktor Rafalsky published the first version of his memoirs Reportazh iz Niotkuda (Reportage from Nowhere) describing his confinement in Soviet psychiatric hospitals. In his memoirs, he writes, "I will say plain: when I got into a prison (it happened quite often), I, whether you believe or not, had a rest. So what was a prison in comparison with the horror of prison psikhushkas?! Some pages below, he adds, "In a prison, you can read, write, lastly do something to kill time. In prison psikhushkas, you have the right only to look at the ceiling: it is forbidden to keep paper, pencils, and even a book."
At the very end of 1963, the poet Joseph Brodsky was committed for observation to the Kashchenko psychiatric clinic in Moscow where he stayed for several days. A few weeks later, his second hospitalization took place: on 13 February he was arrested in Leningrad. Brought to trial for "pursuing a parasitic way of life", Brodsky was accused of being a poet and of not doing more "productive" work. There were two hearings of the trial dated 18 February and 13 March 1964. The judge ordered to send him "for an official psychiatric examination during which it will be determined whether Brodsky is suffering from some sort of psychological illness or not and whether this illness will prevent Brodsky from being sent to a distant locality for forced labor. Taking into consideration that from the history of his illness it is apparent that Brodsky has evaded hospitalization, it is hereby ordered that division No. 18 of the militia be in charge of bringing him to the official psychiatric examination." On 18 February, the Dzerzhinsky District Court sent Brodsky for psychiatric examination to "Pryazhka," Psychiatric Hospital No. 2 where he spent about three weeks, from 18 February to 13 March. In the mental hospitals, Brodsky was given "tranquilizing" injections, wakened in the middle of the night, immersed into a cold bath, wrapped in a wet sheet, and put next to the heater so that the sheet would cut into his body when it dried. These two stints at psychiatric establishments formed the experience underlying Gorbunov and Gorchakov written and called by Brodsky "an extremely serious work." In 1972, when the authorities considered Brodsky for exile and sought an expert opinion on his mental health, they consulted Snezhnevsky who, without examining him personally, diagnosed him as schizophrenic and concluded that he was "not valuable person at all and may be let go."
In 1965 in the West, strong public awareness that Soviet psychiatry could be subject to political abuse arose with publication of the book Ward 7 by Valery Tarsis, a writer born in 1906 in Kiev. He based the book upon his own experiences in 1963–1964 when he was detained in the Moscow Kashchenko psychiatric hospital for political reasons.
The fictionalised documentary Ward No. 7 by Tarsis was the first literary work to deal with the Soviet authorities' abuse of psychiatry. In a parallel with the story Ward No. 6 by Anton Chekhov, Tarsis implies that it is the doctors who are mad, whereas the patients are completely sane, although unsuited to a life of slavery. Individuals in ward No. 7 are not cured, but persistently maimed; the hospital is a jail and the doctors are gaolers and police spies. Most doctors know nothing about psychiatry, but make diagnoses arbitrarily and give all patients the same medication — an algogenic injection or the anti-psychotic drug Aminazin known in the USA under trade name Thorazine. Tarsis denounces Soviet psychiatry as pseudo-science and charlatanism and writes that, firstly, it has pretenses of curing the sickness of men's souls, but denies the existence of the soul; secondly, since there is no satisfactory definition of mental health, there can be no acceptable definition of mental disease in Soviet society.
In 1966, Tarsis was permitted to emigrate to the West, and was soon deprived of his Soviet citizenship. As the 1966 memorandum to the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union reported, "KGB continues arrangements for further compromising Tarsis abroad as a mentally ill person." Among all the victims of Soviet psychiatry, Tarsis was the sole exception in the sense that he did not emphasised the 'injustice' of confining 'sane dissidents' to psychiatric hospitals and did not thereby imply that the psychiatric confinement of 'insane patients' was proper and just.
Shortly after publishing Ward 7, a second case of political abuse of psychiatry gave rise to attention in Great Britain. Evgeni Belov, a young Moscow interpreter contracted by a group of four British students, made friends with them. At first he was positive about Soviet system, but gradually became more critical and began to voice demand for more freedom. Calling for a free press and free trade unions, Belov began to write letters to the Party. As a consequence, his membership in the Party was suspended and he was summoned to appear before a committee. He declined, and instead sought justice higher up by writing protest letters to Leonid Brezhnev himself. When British students returned from a short trip to Tokyo, Belov had vanished. To their shock, it emerged that he had been committed to a mental hospital. A campaign to get him out yielded no results. A British newspaper published a letter in which Belov's father stated that his son was really sick, and the campaign came to a grinding halt. However, the public interest had been activated.
Awareness in the West was also raised by the case of Alexander Esenin-Volpin, a son of the famous Russian poet Sergei Esenin and born in 1924. In 1946, he was first committed to the Leningrad Special Psychiatric Hospital for writing a poem considered anti-Soviet. During Khrushchev's reign, Esenin-Volpin was later hospitalized three times: in 1957, in 1959–1960 in the same the Leningrad Special Psychiatric Hospital and, finally, in 1962–1963. In 1968, Esenin-Volpin was again hospitalized, and for this once his case achieved the attention in the West. In February 1968, 99 Soviet mathematicians and scientists signed a protest letter to the Soviet officials demanding his release. After a wave of protests, he was discharged and permitted to immigrate to the USA where he obtained the position of professor of mathematics. In 2010, Alexander Magalif, who hospitalized Esenin-Volpin, recollected that he had seen a little mark made by a pencil in the corner of the referral to treatment of Esenin-Volpin: "not to discharge from the hospital without coordination with KGB."
In 1965, the writer Yuli Daniel was arrested due to his satirical anti-Stalinist works and outspoken protest at the human rights abuse in the USSR. Daniel was kept in a mental hospital of the Gulag where he was refused medical treatment in order to destroy his will.
Viktor Fainberg was one of the seven participants of the 1968 Red Square demonstration against the Soviet intervention into Czechoslovakia. He was committed for compulsory treatment to the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Leningrad where he was confined for five years. During his confinement, a psychiatrist working in the establishment, Marina Voikhanskaya, fell in love with him and helped him as much as she could. After his discharge, they married and emigrated to the United Kingdom. When they had divorced, Viktor moved to Paris and Marina remained in the United Kingdom.
In 1968, the human rights movement in the USSR focused directly on Soviet political psychiatry, organizing public protests and writing international bodies. In 1969, a group of about 14 activists including Sergei Kovalyov, a future Russian human rights ombudsman, constituted the Action Group for the Defence of Human Rights in the USSR. The group composed the first samizdat (self-published) human rights bulletin, the Chronicle of Current Events. Among the members of the Action Group were individuals who subsequently fell victim to psychiatric abuse themselves: the poet Natalya Gorbanevskaya who in 1968 demonstrated on Red Square against bringing Soviet tanks into Czechoslovakia; Vladimir Borisov who later was one of the founders of the independent labor movement in the Soviet Union; Vladimir Maltsev, a translator; and Leonid Plyushch, a Ukrainian cyberneticist who was committed to the Special Psychiatric Hospital of Dnepropetrovsk and was awfully tortured with neuroleptics. Later three senior Fellows of the Royal College of Psychiatrists examined Leonid Plyushch and "saw no indication of schizophrenia or other mental illness."
In 1968, Valeriya Novodvorskaya created an underground student organization whose purpose was to overthrow the Soviet state. On 5 December 1969, she was arrested in the Kremlin Palace of Congresses, where before the start of a performance of the opera October she was handing out and scattering leaflets written in verse form until she was approached by KGB men. She was later sentenced to indefinite detention in the prison psychiatric hospital in Kazan. Her experience in this hospital was described in her largest collection of writings entitled Po Tu Storonu Otchayaniya (Beyond Despair). Novodvorskaya was also committed in a mental hospital later, in 1978 as a member of the Free Interprofessional Association of Workers and as a person arrested "for insulting President" in September 1990; that time she was discharged after the 1991 putsch. In the early 1990s, psychiatrists of the Independent Psychiatric Association of Russia and G. N. Sotsevich proved the absence of mental illness in Novodvorskaya.
After the 1968 Red Square demonstration against the Soviet invasion into Czechoslovakia, August 1968 saw the arrest of Natalya Gorbanevskaya well known in the West due to her book Red Square at Noon describing the demonstration. A few days later, the Serbsky Institute found her non-accountable and made diagnosis of "deep psychopathy—the presence of mild, chronic schizophrenic process cannot be excluded." She was allowed to return to the care of her mother. In November 1969, a psychiatric commission again examined her, diagnosed "psychopathic personality with symptoms of hysteria and a tendency to decompensation", but considered that psychiatric hospitalization was not required. A month later, she was again arrested and sent to the Serbsky Institute for psychiatric examination in April 1970. The investigating commission chaired by Morozov found her non-responsible and suffering from "chronic, mental illness in the form of schizophrenia." The commission found in her the presence of changes in the thinking processes and in the critical and emotional faculties characteristic of schizophrenia. It was concluded that Gorbanevskaya took part in the Red Square demonstration in a state of the mental disease. In Paris, French psychiatrists at their request examined Gorbanevskaya and found her to be mentally normal. They concluded that in 1969–1972 she had been committed to a psychiatric hospital for political, not medical reasons.
On 29 May 1970, Zhores Medvedev, an internationally respected and prominent scientist, was forcibly taken from his apartment in Obninsk and committed to a mental hospital where he was held, without legitimate medical justification, until 17 June 1970. The leadership was instantly faced with the action of strong collective protest initiated by top Soviet scientists including Igor Tamm and Pyotr Kapitsa. Medvedev's release was achieved only after intense pressure from intellectuals and scientists both within and outside of the USSR. He was largely hospitalized because of the publication abroad of his book of Trofim Lysenko. In widely circulated books, Zhores Medvedev had criticized the "geneticist" Lysenko and had also expressed his straightforward disagreement with restrictions on communication with scientists abroad. He was removed from his position as head of a laboratory at the Institute of Medical Radiology and this removal was illegal, he said. The diagnosis in the case-notes was "incipient schizophrenia," the diagnosis made by the psychiatric commission was "psychopathic personality with paranoid tendencies." What happened to Medvedev was not a separate incident; rather, it was part, in Medvedev's words, of "the dangerous tendency of using psychiatry for political purposes, the exploitation of medicine in an alien role as a means of intimidation and punishment — a new and illegal way of isolating people for their views and convictions." This experience was reflected in Zhores Medvedev's and Roy Medvedev's book A Question of Madness: Repression by Psychiatry in the Soviet Union published by Macmillan in London in 1971.
In 1971, renowned Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov supported a protest of two political prisoners, V. Fainberg and V. Borisov, who announced a hunger strike against "compulsory therapeutic treatment with medications injurious to mental activity" in a Leningrad psychiatric institution. In 1984, after publishing an article by Andrei Sakharov in the United States urging a buildup of nuclear weapons in the West, Soviet officials declared him "a talented, but sick man." When sent into internal exile to Gorky "for his own peace of mind," he received the due medical attention: "Soviet medics are taking all necessary measures to restore his health." One day in a selected auditorium, when discussing the situation in the country, Snezhnevsky, in the words of some of his clinical staff, diagnosed Sakharov with sluggish schizophrenia in absentia.
Viktor Nekipelov, a well-known dissident poet, was arrested in 1973, sent to the Section 4 of the Serbsky Institute of Forensic Psychiatry for psychiatric evaluation, which lasted from 15 January to 12 March 1974, was judged sane (which he was), tried, and sentenced to two years' imprisonment. In 1976, he published in samizdat his book Institute of Fools: Notes on the Serbsky Institute based on his personal experience at Psychiatric Hospital of the Serbsky Institute and translated into English in 1980. In this account, he wrote compassionately, engagingly, and observantly of the doctors and other patients; most of the latters were ordinary criminals feigning insanity in order to be sent to a mental hospital, because hospital was a "cushy number" as against prison camps. According to the President of the Independent Psychiatric Association of Russia Yuri Savenko, Nekipelov's book is a highly dramatic humane document, a fair story about the nest of Soviet punitive psychiatry, a mirror that psychiatrists always need to look into. However according to Malcolm Lader, this book as an indictment of the Serbsky Institute hardly rises above tittle-tattle and gossip, and Nekipelov destroys his own credibility by presenting no real evidence but invariably putting the most sinister connotation on events. After publishing his book, he was sentenced to the maximum punishment for "anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda" of seven years in a labor camp and then five years in internal exile.
In November 1977, a group of unemployed and workers led by Vladimir Klebanov, a former coalminer from the Donbas region of the Ukraine, announced the formation in the Soviet Union of the Association of Free Trade Unions of Workers (AFTU) whose purposes were to meet obligations achieved by collective bargaining; to induce workers and other employees to join free trade union associations; to implement those decisions of the Association which concern the seeking of justice and the defense of rights; to educate Association members in the spirit of irreconcilability toward wastefulness, inefficiency, deception, bureaucracy, deficiencies, and a negligent attitude toward national wealth. These purposes show that AFTU was in all respects an organization whose right to exist is guaranteed by the international obligations of the Soviet Union. On 19 December 1977, Klebanov along with two other workers in Donetsk was arrested by the Soviet militia and released nine days later, after international protests against his incarceration. Worker Gavriil Yankov was incarcerated in Moscow mental hospital for two weeks. On 1 February 1978, AFTU publicly announced the institution of its organizational Charter. Several days later, Klebanov was again detained by Soviet police and sent from Moscow to psychiatric prison hospital in Donetsk. Group member Nikolaev and workers Pelekh and Dvoretsky were also placed under psychiatric detention.
By October 1978 it was apparent that arrests and repressions had resulted in the dissolution of AFTU. But the cause of trade union rights was to be invigorated by a new group, the Free Interprofessional Association of Workers known by its Russian acronym, SMOT, whose first press conference was held in Moscow on 28 October 1978. The objectives of SMOT were to defend its members in cases of violation of their rights in different spheres of their daily activities: political, domestic, religious, spiritual, cultural, social, and economic; to look into the legal basis of the workers' complaints; to ensure that these complains were brought to the notice of relevant organizations; to facilitate a quick solution to complaints of workers; and in cases of negative results, to publicize them widely before international and Soviet public. The leadership of SMOT was headed by a native of Leningrad electrician Vladimir Borisov incarcerated in Soviet mental hospitals because of his human rights activism for a total of nine years in 1960s and 1970s. In November and December 1978, Soviet police searched the homes of SMOT activists, and SMOT members Vladimir Borisov, Valeriya Novodvorskaya, Albina Yakoreva, and Lev Volokhonsky were arrested and detained by Soviet authorities. Both Borisov and Novodvorskaya were held in mental hospitals.
Struggle against abuse
In the 1960s, a vigorous movement grew up protesting against abuse of psychiatry in the USSR. Political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union was denounced in the course of the Congresses of the World Psychiatric Association in Mexico City (1971), Hawaii (1977), Vienna (1983) and Athens (1989). The campaign to terminate political abuse of psychiatry in the USSR was a key episode in the Cold War, inflicting irretrievable damage on the prestige of medicine in the Soviet Union.
Classification of the victims
Upon analysis of over 200 well-authenticated cases covering the period 1962–1976, Sidney Bloch and Peter Reddaway developed a classification of the victims of Soviet psychiatric abuse. They were classified as:
- advocates of human rights or democratization;
- would-be emigrants;
- religious believers;
- citizens inconvenient to the authorities.
The advocates of human rights and democratization, according to Bloch and Reddaway, made up about half the dissidents repressed by means of psychiatry. Nationalists made up about one-tenth of the dissident population dealt with psychiatrically.  Would-be emigrants constituted about one-fifth of dissidents victimized by means of psychiatry. People, detained only because of their religious activity, made up about fifteen per cent of dissident-patients. Citizens inconvenient to the authorities because of their “obdurate” complaints about bureaucratic excesses and abuses accounted for about five per cent of dissidents subject to psychiatric abuse.
Incomplete figures estimated due to some archival documents
In 1985, Peter Reddaway and Sidney Bloch in their book Soviet Psychiatric Abuse have provided documented data on some 500 cases.
According to the 1993 book by Russian psychiatrist Mikhail Buyanov, the harm inflicted by Soviet punitive psychiatry on the image of domestic medicine is, of course, great, but bears no comparison to the crimes of the Nazi doctors. Now, when all the passions have cooled, one can say that the zeal of Soviet psychiatrists inflicted suffering on up to 100 or 120 people of all 280 million citizens of the former Soviet Union, Buyanov writes. He adds that among the persons were many fanatical nationalists, religious sectarians, and political paranoiacs who after escaping to freedom corrupted the masses, сrammed their heads with nonsense, carried away immature people with their ideas through the connivance of the so-called progressive intelligentsia, and a result of it is wars, blood, and reciprocal hatred.
On basis of the available data and materials accumulated in the archives of the International Association on the Political Use of Psychiatry, one can confidently conclude that thousands of dissenters were hospitalized for political reasons. From 1994 to 1995, an investigative commission of Moscow psychiatrists explored the records of five prison psychiatric hospitals in Russia and discovered about two thousand cases of political abuse of psychiatry in these hospitals alone. In 2004, Anatoly Prokopenko said he was surprised at the facts obtained by him from the official classified top secret documents by the Central Committee of the CPSU, by the KGB, and MVD. According to his calculations based on what he found in the documents, about 15 thousand people were confined for political crimes in psychiatric prison hospitals of the MVD system. In 2005, Prokopenko, referring to the Document Fund of the Central Committee of CPSU and the prison records of the three hospitals — Sychyovskaya, Leningrad and Chernyakhovsk hospitals — to which human rights activists managed to get in 1991, drew the conclusion that psychiatry had punished about twenty thousand people for purely political reasons. But this is only a little part, Prokopenko said, and the data on how many people in total had been in all of sixteen prison hospitals and in one and a half thousand open type psychiatric hospitals are inaccessible to us because the secret parts of the achieves of the prison psychiatric hospitals and hospitals overall are inaccessible. The figure of fifteen or twenty thousand political prisoners in psychiatric hospitals of the MVD of the USSR was presented in the book Bezumnaya Psikhiatriya (Mad Psychiatry) by Prokopenko published in 1997 and republished in 2005.
An evidence of political abuse psychiatry in the USSR is based on Semyon Gluzman’s calculation indicating that the percentage of "the mentally ill" among those accused of the so-called anti-Soviet activity proved to be many times higher than among criminal offenders. The attention to political prisoners paid by Soviet psychiatrists exceeded by at least 40 times their attention to ordinary criminal offenders. 1–2 % of all the forensic psychiatric examinations carried out by the Serbsky Institute targeted those accused of anti-Soviet activity. The figure of convicted dissidents in penal institutions was 0.05% of the total of convicts. 1–2 % is greater than 0.05% by 40 times.
According to Viktor Luneyev, actual struggle against dissent was manyfold larger than it was registered in sentences, and we do not know how many persons were kept under surveillance of secret services, held criminally liable, arrested, sent to psychiatric hospitals, expelled from their work, restricted in their rights everyway. No objective counting of repressed persons is possible without fundamental analysis of archival documents. The difficulty of this method is that the required data are very diverse and are not in one archive. They are in the State Archive of the Russian Federation, in the archive of the Goskomstat of Russia, in the archives of the MVD of Russia, the FSB of Russia, the General Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation, in the Russian Military and Historical Archive, in archives of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, in urban and regional archives, as well as in archives of the former Soviet Republics that now are independent countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltics.
According to Russian psychiatrist Emmanuil Gushansky, the scale of psychiatric abuses in the past, the use of psychiatric doctrines by the totalitarian state are thoroughly concealed. Archives of the MVD, the USSR Health Ministry, the Serbsky Institute for Forensic Psychiatry that store evidences of psychiatric expansion and regulations, on which this expansion was based, still remain closed to researchers like a tomb, he says. Dan Healey has the same opinion that the abuses of Soviet psychiatry during the leadership of Stalin and more drastically after his decease in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and main archives are still classified. Hundreds of files on people who passed through forensic psychiatric examinations during the time of Stalin's rule at the Serbsky Institute are on the shelves of the highly classified archive in its basement where Gluzman saw the files in 1989. All of them marked only by numbers without names, surnames, any biographical data on the examinees are unresearched and inaccessible to researchers.
The scale of the application of methods of repressive psychiatry in the USSR is testified by inexorable figures and facts. The work by the commission of the top party leadership headed by Alexei Kosygin in 1978 resulted in the decision to build 80 psychiatric hospitals and 8 special ones in addition to existing ones. Their construction was to be completed by 1990. They were being built in Krasnoyarsk, Khabarovsk, Kemerovo, Kuibyshev, Novosibirsk, and other parts of the Soviet Union. In the course of the changes the country underwent in 1988, 5 prison hospitals were transferred to the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Health from the MVD system, and other 5 ones were shut down. Hurried covering of tracks began through mass rehabilitation of patients, a part of them was mentally crippled (only in the same year 800,000 patients were removed from the psychiatric registry). Only in Leningrad 60,000 people were rehabilitated in 1991 and 1992. In 1978, 4.5 million people through the country were on the psychiatric registry. Its scale was equal to the population of many civilized countries.
In Ukraine, a study of the origins of the political abuse of psychiatry was conducted for five years on the basis of the state archives. A total of 60 people were again surveyed. All they were citizens of Ukraine, convicted of political crimes and hospitalized on the territory of Ukraine. As it turned out, none of them was in need of any psychiatric treatment.
In the Commission for Rehabilitation of the Victims of Political Repression from 1993 to 1995, the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation on measures for preventing abuse of psychiatry was being prepared. For this purpose, Anatoly Prokopenko selected suitable archival documents, and Emmanuil Gushansky at the request of the head of a department of the Commission Vladimir Naumov drew up the report. It colligated both the archival data presented to Gushansky and materials received during the visit by the commission of the Independent Psychiatric Association of Russia jointly with him to several psychiatric hospitals with strict observation (former special hospitals of the MVD system). When materials for discussion in the Commission for Rehabilitation of the Victims of Political Repression have been prepared, the work has come to a standstill. The documents failed to reach the head of the Commission Alexander Yakovlev. The report on political abuse of psychiatry prepared by Gushansky with the aid of Prokopenko at the request of the Commission for Rehabilitation of the Victims of Political Repression has been unclaimed and denied publication even by the Nezavisimiy Psikhiatricheskiy Zhurnal. The Moscow Research Center for Human Rights headed by Boris Altshuler and Alexei Smirnov and the Independent Psychiatric Association of Russia whose president is Yuri Savenko were asked by Gushansky to publish the materials and archival documents on punitive psychiatry but showed no interest in doing so. Publishing such documents is dictated by the needs of present life and by fears that use of psychiatry for non-medical purposes can be repeated.
In 2000, the Commission for Rehabilitation of the Victims of Political Repression included in its report only the following four phrases of political abuse of psychiatry:
The Commission has also considered such a complex, socially relevant issue, as the use of psychiatry for political purposes. The collected documents and materials allow us to say that the extrajudicial procedure of admission to psychiatric hospitals was used for compulsory hospitalization of persons whose behavior was viewed by the authorities as "suspicious" from the political point of view. According to the incomplete data, hundreds of thousands of people have been illegally placed to psychiatric institutions of the country over the years of Soviet power. The rehabilitation of these people at best was, and are usually today due to gaps in legislation, limited to removing them from the psychiatric registry.
In the 1988 and 1989, about two million people were removed from the psychiatric registry at the request of Western psychiatrists that was one of their conditions for the admission of Soviet psychiatrists to the World Psychiatric Association.
In 1990, Psychiatric Bulletin of the Royal College of Psychiatrists published the article "Compulsion in psychiatry: blessing or curse?" by Russian psychiatrist Anatoly Koryagin. It contains analysis of the abuse of psychiatry and eight arguments by which the existence of a system of political abuse of psychiatry in the USSR cаn easily be demonstrated. As Koryagin wrote, in a dictatorial State with a totalitarian regime, such as the USSR, the laws have at all times served not the purpose of self-regulation of the life of society but have been one of the major levers by which to manipulate the behavior of subjects. Every Soviet citizen has constantly been straight considered state property and been regarded not as the aim, but as a means to achieve the rulers' objectives. From the perspective of state pragmatism, a mentally sick person was regarded as a burden to society, using up the state's material means without recompense and not producing anything, and even potentially capable of inflicting harm. Therefore, the Soviet State never considered it reasonable to pass special legislative acts protecting the material and legal part of the patients' life. It was only instructions of the legal and medical departments that stipulated certain rules of handling the mentally sick and imposing different sanctions on them. A person with a mental disorder was automatically divested of all rights and depended entirely on the psychiatrists' will. Practically anybody could undergo psychiatric examination on the most senseless grounds and the issued diagnosis turned him into a person without rights. It was this lack of legal rights and guarantees that advantaged a system of repressive psychiatry in the country.
According to American psychiatrist Oleg Lapshin, Russia until 1993 did not have any specific legislation in the field of mental health except uncoordinated instructions and articles of laws in criminal and administrative law, orders of the USSR Ministry of Health. In the Soviet Union, any psychiatric patient could be hospitalized by request of his headman, relatives or instructions of a district psychiatrist. In this case, patient’s consent or dissent mattered nothing. The duration of treatment in a psychiatric hospital also depended entirely on the psychiatrist. All of that made the abuse of psychiatry possible to suppress those who opposed the political regime, and that created the vicious practice of ignoring the rights of the mentally ill.
According to Yuri Savenko, the president of the Independent Psychiatric Association of Russia (the IPA), punitive psychiatry arises on the basis of the interference of three main factors:
- The ideologizing of science, its breakaway from the achievements of world psychiatry, the party orientation of Soviet forensic psychiatry.
- The lack of legal basis.
- The total nationalization of mental health service.
Their interaction system is principally sociological: the presence of the Penal Code article on slandering the state system inevitably results in sending a certain percentage of citizens to forensic psychiatric examination. Thus, it is not psychiatry itself that is punitive, but the totalitarian state uses psychiatry for punitive purposes with ease.
According to Larry Gostin, the root cause of the problem was the State itself. The definition of danger was radically extended by the Soviet criminal system to cover "political" as well as customary physical types of "danger". As Bloch and Reddaway note, there are no objective reliable criteria to determine whether the person’s behavior will be dangerous, and approaches to the definition of dangerousness greatly differ among psychiatrists.
Richard Bonnie, a professor of law and medicine at the University of Virginia School of Law, mentioned the deformed nature of the Soviet psychiatric profession as one of the explanations for why it was so easily bent toward the repressive objectives of the state, and pointed out the importance of a civil society and, in particular, independent professional organizations separate and apart from the state as one of the most substantial lessons from the period.
According to Darrel Regier, the political abuse of psychiatry in the USSR was sustained by the existence of a classification developed in the Soviet Union and used to organize psychiatric treatment and care. In this classification, there were categories with diagnoses that could be given to political dissenters and led to the harmful involuntary medication. Norman Sartorius, a former president of the World Psychiatric Association, has a similar opinion that political abuse of psychiatry in the former Soviet Inion was facilitated by the fact that the national classification included categories that could be employed to label dissenters, who could then be forcibly incarcerated and kept in psychiatric hospitals for "treatment".
According to Moscow psychiatrist Alexander Danilin, the so-called "nosological" approach in the Moscow psychiatric school established by Snezhnevsky boiles down to the ability to make the only diagnosis, schizophrenia; psychiatry is not science but such a system of opinions and people by the thousands are falling victims to these opinions—millions of lives were crippled by virtue of the concept "sluggish schizophrenia" introduced some time once by an academician Snezhnevsky, whom Danilin called a state criminal.
St Petersburg academic psychiatrist professor Yuri Nuller notes that the concept of Snezhnevsky’s school allowed psychiatrists to consider, for example, schizoid psychopathy and even schizoid character traits as early, delayed in their development, stages of the inevitable progredient process, rather than as personality traits inherent to the individual, the dynamics of which might depend on various external factors. The same also applied to a number of other personality disorders. It entailed the extremely broadened diagnostics of sluggish (neurosis-like, psychopathy-like) schizophrenia. Despite a number of its controversial premises and in line with the traditions of then Soviet science, Snezhnevsky’s hypothesis has immediately acquired the status of dogma which was later overcome in other disciplines but firmly stuck in psychiatry. Snezhnevsky’s concept, with its dogmatism, proved to be psychologically comfortable for many psychiatrists, relieving them from doubt when making a diagnosis. That carried a great danger: any deviation from a norm evaluated by a doctor could be regarded as an early phase of schizophrenia, with all ensuing consequences. It resulted in the broad opportunity for voluntary and involuntary abuses of psychiatry. But Snezhnevsky did not take civil and scientific courage to reconsider his concept which clearly reached a deadlock.
According to American psychiatrist Walter Reich, the misdiagnoses of dissidents resulted from some characteristics of Soviet psychiatry that were distortions of standard psychiatric logic, theory, and practice.
According to Semyon Gluzman, abuse of psychiatry to suppress dissent is based on condition of psychiatry in a totalitarian state. Psychiatric paradigm of a totalitarian state is culpable for its expansion into spheres which are not initially those of psychiatric competence. Psychiatry as a social institution, formed and functioning in the totalitarian state, is incapable of not being totalitarian. Such psychiatry is forced to serve the two differently directed principles: care and treatment of mentally ill citizens, on the one hand, and psychiatric repression of people showing political or ideological dissent, on the other hand. In the conditions of the totalitarian state, independent-minded psychiatrists appeared and may again appear, but these few people cannot change the situation in which thousands of others, who were brought up on incorrect pseudoscientific concepts and fear of the state, will sincerely believe that the uninhibited, free thinking of a citizen is a symptom of madness. Gluzman specifies the following six premises for the unintentional participation of doctors in abuses:
- The specificity, in the totalitarian state, of the psychiatric paradigm tightly sealed from foreign influences.
- The lack of legal conscience in most citizens including doctors.
- Disregard for fundamental human rights on the part of the lawmaker and law enforcement agencies.
- Declaratory nature or the absence of legislative acts that regulate providing psychiatric care in the country. The USSR, for example, adopted such an act only in 1988.
- The absolute state paternalism of totalitarian regimes, which naturally gives rise to the dominance of the archaic paternalistic ethical concept in medical practice. Professional consciousness of the doctor is based on the almost absolute right to make decisions without the patient's consent (i.e. there is disregard for the principle of informed consent to treatment or withdrawal from it).
- The fact, in psychiatric hospitals, of frustratingly bad conditions, which refer primarily to the poverty of health care and inevitably lead to the dehumanization of the personnel including doctors.
Gluzman says that there, of course, may be a different approach to the issue expressed by Michel Foucault. According to Michael Perlin, Foucault in his book Madness and Civilization documented the history of using institutional psychiatry as a political tool, researched the expanded use of the public hospitals in the 17th century in France and came to the conclusion that "conﬁnement [was an] answer to an economic crisis… reduction of wages, unemployment, scarcity of coin" and, by the 18th century, the psychiatric hospitals satisﬁed "the indissociably economic and moral demand for conﬁnement."
In 1977, British psychiatrist David Cooper asked Foucault the same question which Claude Bourdet had formerly asked Viktor Fainberg during a press conference given by Fainberg and Plyushch: when the USSR has the whole penitentiary and police apparatus, which could take charge of anybody, and which is perfect in itself, why do they use psychiatry? Foucault answered it was not a question of a distortion of the use of psychiatry but that was its fundamental project. In the discussion Confinement, Psychiatry, Prison, Foucault states the cooperation of psychiatrists with the KGB in the Soviet Union was not abuse of medicine, but an evident case and "condensation" of psychiatry’s "inheritance", an "intensification, the ossification of a kinship structure that has never ceased to function." Foucault believed that the abuse of psychiatry in the USSR of the 1960s was a logical extension of the invasion of psychiatry into the legal system. In the discussion with Jean Laplanche and Robert Badinter, Foucault says that criminologists of the 1880—1900s started speaking surprisingly modern language: "The crime cannot be, for the criminal, but an abnormal, disturbed behavior. If he upsets society, it's because he himself is upset". This led to the twofold conclusions. First, "the judicial apparatus is no longer useful." The judges, as men of law, understand such complex, alien legal issues, purely psychological matters no better than the criminal. So commissions of psychiatrists and physicians should be substituted for the judicial apparatus. And in this vein, concrete projects were proposed. Second, "We must certainly treat this individual who is dangerous only because he is sick. But, at the same time, we must protect society against him." Hence comes the idea of mental isolation with a mixed function: therapeutic and prophylactic. In the 1900s, these projects have given rise to very lively responses from European judicial and political bodies. However, they found a wide field of applications when the Soviet Union became one of the most common but by no means exceptional cases.
According to American psychiatrist Jonas Robitscher, psychiatry has been playing a part in controlling deviant behavior for three hundred years. Vagrants, "originals," eccentrics, and homeless wanderers who did little harm but were vexatious to the society they lived in were, and sometimes still are, confined to psychiatric hospitals or deprived of their legal rights. Some critics of psychiatry consider the practice as a political use of psychiatry and regard psychiatry as promoting timeserving.
As Vladimir Bukovsky and Semyon Gluzman point out, it is difficult for the average Soviet psychiatrist to understand the dissident’s poor adjustment to Soviet society. This view of dissidence has nothing surprising about it—conformity reigned in Soviet consciousness; a public intolerance of non-conformist behavior always penetrated Soviet culture; and the threshold for deviance from custom was similarly low.
An example of the low threshold is a point of Donetsk psychiatrist Pekhterev, who argues that psychiatrists speak of the necessity of adapting oneself to society, estimate the level of man’s social functioning, his ability to adequately test the reality and so forth. In Pekhterev's words, these speeches hit point-blank on the dissidents and revolutionaries, because all of them are poorly functioning in society, are hardly adapting to it either initially or after increasing requirements. They turn their inability to adapt themselves to society into the view that the company breaks step and only they know how to help the company restructure itself. The dissidents regard the cases of personal maladjustment as a proof of public ill-being. The more such cases, the easier it is to present their personal ill-being as public one. They bite the society’s hand that feed them only because they are not given a right place in society. Unlike the dissidents, the psychiatrists destroy the hardly formed defense attitude in the dissidents by regarding "public well-being" as personal one. The psychiatrists extract teeth from the dissidents, stating that they should not bite the feeding hand of society only because the tiny group of the dissidents feel bad being at their place. The psychiatrists claim the need to treat not society but the dissidents and seek to improve society by preserving and improving the mental health of its members. After reading the book Institute of Fools by Viktor Nekipelov, Pekhterev concluded that allegations against the psychiatrists sounded from the lips of a negligible but vociferous part of inmates who when surfeiting themselves with cakes pretended to be sufferers.
According to the response by Robert van Voren, Pekhterev in his article condescendingly argues that the Serbsky Institute was not so bad place and that Nekipelov exaggerates and slanders it, but Pekhterev, by doing so, misses the main point: living conditions in the Serbsky Institute were not bad, those who passed through psychiatric examination there were in a certain sense "on holiday" in comparison with the living conditions of the Gulag; and all the same, everyone was aware that the Serbsky Institute was more than the "gates of hell" from where people were sent to specialized psychiatric hospitals in Chernyakhovsk, Dnepropetrovsk, Kazan, Blagoveshchensk, and that is not all. Their life was transformed to unimaginable horror with daily tortures by forced administration of drugs, beatings and other forms of punishment. Many went crazy, could not endure what was happening to them, some even died during the "treatment" (for example, a miner from Donetsk Alexey Nikitin). Many books and memoirs are written about the life in the psychiatric Gulag and every time when reading them a shiver seizes us. The Soviet psychiatric terror in its brutality and targeting the mentally ill as the most vulnerable group of society had nothing on the Nazi euthanasia programs. The punishment by placement in a mental hospital was as effective as imprisonment in Mordovian concentration camps in breaking persons psychologically and physically. The recent history of the USSR should be given a wide publicity to immunize society against possible repetitions of the Soviet practice of political abuse of psychiatry. The issue remains highly relevant.
According to St Petersburg psychiatrist Vladimir Pshizov, with regard to punitive psychiatry, the nature of psychiatry is of such a sort that using psychiatrists against opponents of authorities is always tempting for the authorities, because it is seemingly possible not to take into account an opinion by the person who received a diagnosis. Therefore, the issue will always remain relevant. While we do not have government policy of using psychiatry for repression, psychiatrists and former psychiatric nomenklatura retained the same on-the-spot reflexes.
As Ukrainian psychiatrist Ada Korotenko notes, the use of punitive psychiatry allowed of avoiding the judicial procedure during which the accused might declare the impossibility to speak publicly and the violation of their civil rights. Making a psychiatric diagnosis is insecure and can be based on a preconception. Moreover, while diagnosing mental illness, subjective fuzzy diagnostic criteria are involved as arguments. The lack of clear diagnostic criteria and clearly defined standards of diagnostics contributes to applying punitive psychiatry to vigorous and gifted citizens who disagree with authorities. At the same time, most psychiatrists incline to believe that such a misdiagnosis is less dangerous than not diagnosing mental illness.
K. Fulford, A. Smirnov, and E. Snow state: "An important vulnerability factor, therefore, for the abuse of psychiatry, is the subjective nature of the observations on which psychiatric diagnosis currently depends." The concerns about political abuse of psychiatry as a tactic of controlling dissent have been regularly voiced by American psychiatrist Thomas Szasz, and he mentioned that these authors, who correctly emphasized the value-laden nature of psychiatric diagnoses and the subjective character of psychiatric classifications, failed to accept the role of psychiatric power. Musicologists, drama critics, art historians, and many other scholars also create their own subjective classifications; however, lacking state-legitimated power over persons, their classifications do not lead to anyone’s being deprived of property, liberty, or life. For instance, plastic surgeon’s classification of beauty is subjective, but the plastic surgeon cannot treat his or her patient without the patient’s consent, therefore, there cannot be any political abuse of plastic surgery. The bedrock of political medicine is coercion masquerading as medical treatment. What transforms coercion into therapy are physicians diagnosing the person’s condition a "illness," declaring the intervention they impose on the victim a "treatment," and legislators and judges legitimating these categorizations as "illnesses" and "treatments." In the same way, physician-eugenicists advocated killing certain disabled or ill persons as a form of treatment for both society and patient long before the Nazis came to power. Szasz argued that the spectacle of the Western psychiatrists loudly condemning Soviet colleagues for their abuse of professional standards was largely an exercise in hypocrisy. Psychiatric abuse, such as people usually associated with practices in the former USSR, was connected not with the misuse of psychiatric diagnoses, but with the political power built into the social role of the psychiatrist in democratic and totalitarian societies alike. Psychiatrically and legally fit subjects for involuntary mental hospitalization had always been "dissidents." It is the contents and contours of dissent that has changed. Before the American Civil War, dissent was constituted by being a Negro and wanting to escape from slavery. In Soviet Russia, dissent was constituted by wanting to "reform" Marxism or emigrate to escape from it. As Szasz put it, "the classification by slave owners and slave traders of certain individuals as Negroes was scientific, in the sense that whites were rarely classified as blacks. But that did not prevent the "abuse" of such racial classification, because (what we call) its abuse was, in fact, its use." The collaboration between psychiatry and government leads to what Szasz calls the "Therapeutic State", a system in which disapproved actions, thoughts, and emotions are repressed ("cured") through pseudomedical interventions. Thus suicide, unconventional religious beliefs, racial bigotry, unhappiness, anxiety, shyness, sexual promiscuity, shoplifting, gambling, overeating, smoking, and illegal drug use are all considered symptoms or illnesses that need to be cured.
As Michael Robertson and Garry Walter suppose, psychiatric power in practically all societies expands on the grounds of public safety, which, in the view of the leaders of the USSR, was best maintained by the repression of dissidence.
According to Gwen Adshead, a British forensic psychotherapist at the Broadmoor Hospital, the question is what is meant by the word "abnormal." Evidently it is possible for abnormal to be identified as "socially inappropriate." If that is the case, social and political dissent is turned into a symptom by the medical terminology, and thereby becomes an individual’s personal problem, not a social matter.
According to Russian psychiatrist Emmanuil Gushansky, psychiatry is the only medical specialty in which the doctor is given the right to violence for the benefit of the patient. The application of violence must be based on the mental health law, must be as much as possible transparent and monitored by representatives of the interests of persons who are in need of involuntary examination and treatment. While being hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital for urgent indications, the patient should be accompanied by his relatives, witnesses, or other persons authorized to control the actions of doctors and law-enforcement agencies. Otherwise, psychiatry becomes an obedient maid for administrative and governmental agencies and is deprived of its medical function. It is the police that must come to the aid of citizens and is responsible for their security. Only later, after the appropriate legal measures for social protection have been taken, the psychiatrist must respond to the queries of law enforcement and judicial authorities by solving the issues of involuntary hospitalization, sanity, etc. In Russia, all that goes by opposites. The psychiatrist is vested with punitive functions, is involved in involuntary hospitalization, the state machine hides behind his back, actually manipulating the doctor. The police are reluctant to investigate offences committed by the mentally ill. After receiving the information about their disease, the bodies of inquiry very often stop the investigation and do not bring it to the level of investigative actions. Thereby psychiatry becomes a cloak for the course of justice and, by doing so, serves as a source for the rightlessness and stigmatization of both psychiatrists and persons with mental disorders. The negative attitude to psychiatrists is thereby supported by the state machine and is accompanied by the aggression against the doctors, which increases during the periods of social unrest.
Vladimir Bukovsky, well known for his struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, explained that using psychiatry against dissidents was usable to the KGB because hospitalization did not have an end date, and, as a result, there were cases when dissidents were kept in psychiatric prison hospitals for 10 or even 15 years.
In the opinion of the Moscow Helsinki Group chairwoman Lyudmila Alexeyeva, the attribution of a mental illness to a prominent figure who came out with a political declaration or action is the most significant factor in the assessment of psychiatry during the 1960–1980s. The practice of forced confinement of political dissidents in psychiatric facilities in the former USSR and Eastern Europe destroyed the credibility of psychiatric practice in these countries. There is little doubt that the capacity for using psychiatry to enforce social norms and even political interests is immense. When psychiatric profession is discredited in one part of the world, psychiatry is discredited throughout the world. Now psychiatry is vulnerable because many of its notions have been questioned, and the sustainable pattern of mental life, of boundaries of mental norm and abnormality has been lost, director of the Moscow Research Institute for Psychiatry Valery Krasnov says, adding that psychiatrists have to seek new reference points to make clinical assessments and new reference points to justify old therapeutical interventions.
As Emmanuil Gushansky states, today subjective position of a Russian patient toward a medical psychologist and psychiatrist is defensive in nature and prevents the attempt to understand the patient and help him assess his condition. Such a position is related to constant, subconscious fear of psychiatrists and psychiatry. This fear is caused by not only abuse of psychiatry, but also constant violence in the totalitarian and post-totalitarian society. The psychiatric violence and psychiatric arrogance as one of manifestations of such violence is related to the primary emphasis on symptomatology and biological causes of a disease, while ignoring psychological, existential, and psychodynamic factors. Gushainsky notices that the modern Russian psychiatry and the structure of providing mental health care are aimed not at protecting the patient's right to an own place in life, but at discrediting such a right, revealing symptoms and isolating the patient.
The psychiatrist became a scarecrow attaching psychiatric labels. He is feared, is not confided, is not taken into confidence in the secrets of one’s soul and is asked to provide only medications. Psychiatric labels, or stigmas, have spread so widely that there is no such thing as the media that does not call a disliked person schizo and does not generalize psychiatric assessments to phenomena of public life. The word psikhushka entered everyday vocabulary. All persons who deviate from the usual standards of thought and behavior are declared mentally ill, with an approving giggling of public. Not surprisingly, during such a stigmatization, people with real mental disorders fear publicity like the plague. Vilnius psychologist Oleg Lapin has the same point that politicians and the press attach psychological, psychiatric and medical labels; he adds that psychiatry has acquired the new status of normalizing life that was previously possessed by religion. Formerly, one could say: you are going against God or God is with us; now one can say: I behave reasonably, adequately, and you do not behave in that way. In 2007, Alexander Dugin, a professor at the Moscow State University and adviser to State Duma speaker Sergei Naryshkin, presented opponents of Vladimir Putin's policy as mentally ill by saying, "There are no longer opponents of Putin's policy, and if there are, they are mentally ill and should be sent to prophylactic health examination."
Robert van Voren noted that after the fall of the Berlin Wall, it became apparent that the political abuse of psychiatry in the USSR was only the tip of the iceberg, the sign that much more was basically wrong. This much more realistic image of Soviet psychiatry showed up only after the Soviet regime began to loosen its grip on society and later lost control over the developments and in the end entirely disintegrated. It demonstrated that the actual situation was much sorer and that many individuals had been affected. Millions of individuals were treated and stigmatized by an outdated biologically oriented and hospital-based mental health service. Living conditions in clinics were bad, sometimes even terrible, and violations of human rights were rampant. According to the data of a census published in 1992, the mortality of the ill with schizophrenia exceeded that of the general population by 4–6 times for the age of 20–39 years, by 3–4 times for the age of 30–39 years, by 1.5–2 times for the age over 40 years (larger values are for women).
According to Robert van Voren, although for several years, especially after the implosion of the USSR and during the first years of Boris Yeltsin's rule, the positions of the Soviet psychiatric leaders were in jeopardy, now one can firmly conclude that they succeeded in riding out the storm and retaining their powerful positions. In addition, they also succeeded in avoiding an inflow of modern concepts of delivering mental health care and a fundamental change in the structure of psychiatric services in Russia. On the whole, in Russia, the impact of mental health reformers has been the least. Even the reform efforts made in such places as St. Petersburg, Tomsk, and Kaliningrad have faltered or were encapsulated as centrist policies under Putin brought them back under control.
Throughout the post-communist period, the pharmaceutical industry has mainly been an obstacle to reform. Aiming to explore the vast market of the former USSR, they used the situation to make professionals and services totally dependent on their financial sustenance, turned the major attention to the availability of medicines rather than that of psycho-social rehabilitation services, and stimulated corruption within the mental health sector very much.
At the turn of the century, the psychiatric reform that had been implemented by Franco Basaglia in Italy became known and was publicly declared to be implemented in Russia, with the view of retrenchment of expenditures. But when it became clear that even more money was needed for the reform, it got bogged down in the same way the reform of the army and many other undertakings did. Russia is decades behind the countries of the European Union in mental health reform, which has already been implemented or is being implemented in them. Until Russian society, Gushansky says, is aware of the need for mental health reform, we will live in the atmosphere of animosity, mistrust and violence. Many experts believe that problems spread beyond psychiatry to society as a whole. As Robert van Voren supposes, the Russians want to have their compatriots with mental disorders locked up outside the city and do not want to have them in community. Despite the 1992 Russian Mental Health Law, coercive psychiatry in Russia remains generally unregulated and fashioned by the same trends toward hyperdiagnosis and overreliance on institutional care characteristic of the Soviet period. In the Soviet Union, there had been an increase of the bed numbers because psychiatric services had been used to treat dissidents.
In 2005, the Russian Federation had one of the highest levels of psychiatric beds per capita in Europe at 113.2 per 100,000 population, or more than 161,000 beds. In 2014, Russia has 104.8 beds per 100,000 population and no actions have been taken to arrange new facilities for outpatient services. Persons who do not respond well to treatment at dispensaries can be sent to long-term social care institutions (internats) wherein they remain indefinitely. The internats are managed by oblast Social Protection ministries. Russia had 442 psychoneurologic internats by 1999, and their number amounted to 505 by 2013. The internats provided places for approximately 125,000 people in 2007. In 2013, Russian psychoneurologic internats accommodated 146,000 people, according to the consolidated data of the Department of Social Protection of Moscow and the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the Russian Federation. It is supposed that the number of beds in internats is increasing at the same rate with which the number of beds is decreasing in psychiatric hospitals. At his press conference in 2008, Semyon Gluzman said that the surplus in Ukraine of hospitals for inpatient treatment of the mentally ill was a relic of the totalitarian communist regime and that Ukraine did not have epidemic of schizophrenia but somehow Ukraine had about 90 large psychiatric hospitals including the Pavlov Hospital where beds in its children's unit alone were more than in the whole of Great Britain.
In Ukraine, public opinion did not contribute to the protection of citizens against possible recurrence of political abuse of psychiatry. There were no demonstrations and rallies in support of the mental health law. But there was a public campaign against developing the civilized law and against liberalizing the provision of psychiatric care in the country. The campaign was initiated and conducted by relatives of psychiatric patients. They wrote to newspapers, yelled in busy places and around them, behaved in the unbridled way in ministerial offices and corridors. Once Gluzman saw through a trolleybus window a group of 20-30 people standing near a window of the Cabinet of Ministers with red flags, portraits of Lenin and Stalin and the slogan coarsely written on the white cardboard: "Get Gluzman psychiatry off from Ukraine!" Activists of the dissident movement far from the nostalgia for the past also participated in the actions against changes in the mental health system. But in general, it should be remembered that all these protest actions have been activated by nomenklatura psychiatrists.
In the Soviet times, mental hospitals were frequently created in former monasteries, barracks, and even concentration camps. Deinstitutionalization has not touched many of the hospitals, and persons still die inside them. In 2013, 70 persons died in a fire just outside Novgorod and Moscow. Living conditions are often insufficient and sometimes horrible: 12 to 15 patients in a big room with bars on the windows, no bedside tables, often no partitions, not enough toilets. The number of outpatient clinics designed for the primary care of the mentally disordered stopped increasing in 2005 and was reduced to 277 in 2012 as against 318 in 2005. Stigma linked to mental disease is at the level of xenophobia. The Russian public perceive the mentally sick as harmful, useless, incurable, and dangerous. The social stigma is maintained not only by the general public but also by psychiatrists.
Soviet mentality has endured into the present day. For instance, in spite of the removal of homosexuality from the nomenclature of mental disorders, 62.5% of 450 surveyed psychiatrists in the Rostov Region view it as an illness, and up to three quarters view it as immoral behavior. The psychiatrists sustain the ban on gay parades and the use of veiled schemes to lay off openly lesbian and gay persons from schools, child care centers, and other public institutions. The trend to consider homosexuality as a mental disorder was supported by the Independent Psychiatric Association of Russia in 2005 when its president Savenko expressed their joint surprise at the proposal by the Executive Committee of the American Psychiatric Association to exclude homosexuality as a mental disorder from manuals on psychiatry, referred the proposal to antipsychiatric actions, and stated that ideological, social and liberal reasoning for the proposal was substituted for scientific one. In 2014, Savenko changed his mind about homosexuality, and he and Perekhov in their joint paper criticized and referred the trend to consider homosexuality as a mental disorder to Soviet mentality.
In 1994, there was organized a conference concerned with the theme of political abuse of psychiatry and attended by representatives from different former Soviet Republics — from Russia, Belarus, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and some of the Central Asian Republics. Dainius Puras made a report on the situation within the Lithuanian Psychiatric Association, where discussion had been held but no resolution had been passed. Yuri Nuller talked over how in Russia the wind direction was gradually changing and the systematic political abuse of psychiatry was again being denied and degraded as an issue of "hyperdiagnosis" or "scientific disagreement." It was particularly noteworthy that Tatyana Dmitrieva, the Director of the Serbsky Institute, was a proponent of such belittlement. This was not so queer, because she was a close friend of the key architects of "political psychiatry."
In the early 1990s, Tatyana Dmitrieva, the Director of the Serbsky Center, spoke the required words of repentance for political abuse of psychiatry which had had unprecedented dimensions in the Soviet Union for discrediting, intimidation and suppression of the human rights movement carried out primarily in this institution. Her words were widely broadcast abroad but were published only in the St. Petersburg newspaper Chas Pik within the country. However, in her 2001 book Aliyans Prava i Milosediya (The Alliance of Law and Mercy), Dmitrieva wrote that there were no psychiatric abuses and certainly no more than in Western countries. Moreover, the book makes the charge that professor Vladimir Serbsky and other intellectuals were wrong not to cooperate with the police department in preventing revolution and bloodsheds and that the current generation is wrong to oppose the regime. In 2007, Dmitrieva asserted that the practice of "punitive psychiatry" had been grossly exaggerated, while nothing wrong had been done by the Serbsky Institute. After that an official at the Serbsky Institute declared "patient" Vladimir Bukovsky, who was then going to run for the President of the Russian Federation, undoubtedly "psychopathic".
While speaking of the Serbsky Center, Yuri Savenko alleges that "practically nothing has changed. They have no shame at the institute about their role with the Communists. They are the same people, and they do not want to apologize for all their actions in the past." Attorney Karen Nersisyan agrees: "Serbsky is not an organ of medicine. It’s an organ of power."
In his article of 2002, Alan A. Stone, who as a member of team had examined Pyotr Grigorenko and found him mentally healthy in 1979, disregarded the findings of the World Psychiatric Association and the later avowal of Soviet psychiatrists themselves and put forward the academically revisionist theory that there was no political abuse of psychiatry as a tool against pacific dissidence in the former USSR. He asserted that it was time for psychiatry in the Western countries to reconsider the supposedly documented accounts of political abuse of psychiatry in the USSR in the hope of discovering that Soviet psychiatrists were more deserving of sympathy than condemnation. In Stone’s words, he believes that Snezhnevsky was wrongly condemned by critics. According to Stone, one of the first points the Soviet psychiatrists who have been condemned for unethical political abuse of psychiatry make is that the revolution is the greatest good for the greatest number, the greatest piece of social justice, and the greatest beneficence imaginable in the twentieth century. In the Western view, the ethical compass of the Soviet psychiatrists begins to wander when they act in the service of this greatest beneficence.
According to St Petersburg psychiatrist Vladimir Pshizov, a disastrous factor for domestic psychiatry is that those who had committed the crime against humanity were allowed to stay on their positions until they can leave this world in a natural way. Those who retained their positions and influence turned domestic psychiatry from politically motivated one to criminally motivated one because the sphere of interests of this public has been reduced to making a business of psychopharmacologic drugs and taking possession of the homes of the ill. In Soviet times, all the heads of departments of psychiatry, all the directors of psychiatric research institutes, all the head doctors of psychiatric hospitals were the CPSU nomenklatura, which they remained so far. The representative of nomenklatura in psychiatry had the scheme of career that is simple and often stereotyped: for one to two years, he run errands as a resident, then joined the party and became a partgrouporg. His junior colleagues (usually non-partisan ones) collected and processed material for his dissertation. Its review of literature, particularly in a research institute for psychiatry, was often written by patients, because only they knew foreign languages, and their party comrades were not up to it, the natural habitat did not stimulate learning a foreign language.
Robert van Voren also says Russian psychiatry is now being headed by the same psychiatrists who was heading psychiatry in Soviet times. Since then Russian psychiatric system has not almost changed. In reality, we still see a sort of the Soviet psychiatry that was in the late 1980s. Russian psychiatrists do not have access to specialized literature published in other countries and do not understand what is world psychiatry. Staff training has not changed, literature is inaccessible, the same psychiatrists teach new generations of specialists. Those of them who know what is world psychiatry and know it is not the same as what is happening in Russia are silent and afraid. The powerful core of the old nomenklatura in psychiatry was concentrated in Moscow, and it was clear that the struggle inside their fortress would be not only difficult, but also it would be a waste of time, energy and resources, so the Global Initiative on Psychiatry avoided Moscow almost completely for all the years.
Many of the current leaders of Russian psychiatry, especially those who were related to the establishment in Soviet period, have resiled from their avowal read at the 1989 General Assembly of the WPA that Soviet psychiatry had been systematically abused for political purposes. Among such leaders who did so is Aleksandr Tiganov, a pupil of Snezhnevsky, full member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the director of its Mental Health Research Center, and the chief psychiatrist of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. In 2011, when asked whether ill or healthy were those examined because of their disagreements with authority, Tiganov answered, "These people suffered from sluggish schizophrenia and were on the psychiatric registry." According to Tiganov, it was rumored that Snezhnevsky took pity on dissenters and gave them a diagnosis required for placing in a special hospital to save them from a prison, but it is not true, he honestly did his medical duty. In 2007, Mikhail Vinogradov, one of the leading staff members of the Serbsky Center, strongly degraded the human rights movement of the Soviet era in every possible way and tried to convince that all political dissidents who had been to his institution were indeed mentally ill. In his opinion, "now it is clear that all of them are deeply affected people." In 2012, Vinogradov said the same, "Do you talk about human rights activists? Most of them are just unhealthy people, I talked with them. As for the dissident General Grigorenko, I too saw him, kept him under observation, and noted oddities of his thinking. But he was eventually allowed to go abroad, as you know… Who? Bukovsky? I talked with him, and he is a completely crazy character. But he too was allowed to go abroad! You see, human rights activists are people who, due to their mental pathology, are unable to restrain themselves within the standards of society, and the West encourages their inability to do so." In the same year, he offered to restore Soviet mental health law and said it "has never been used for political persecution." Human rights activists who claim it did, in Vinogradov’s words, "are not very mentally healthy."
Russian psychiatrist Fedor Kondratev not only denied accusations that he was ever personally engaged in Soviet abuses of psychiatry; he stated publicly that the very conception of the existence of Soviet-era "punitive psychiatry" was nothing more than: "the fantasy [vymysel] of the very same people who are now defending totalitarian sects. This is slander, which was [previously] used for anti-Soviet ends, but is now being used for anti-Russian ends." As Alexander Podrabinek writes, psychiatrists of punitive conscription are relatively indifferent to the public's indignation over illegal use of psychiatry both in Soviet times and now. They do not notice this public, allowing themselves to ignore any unprofessional opinion. According to Valery Krasnov and Isaak Gurovich, official representatives of psychiatry involved in its political abuse never acknowledged the groundlessness of their diagnostics and actions. The absence of the acknowledgement and the absence of an analysis of made errors cast a shadow upon all psychiatrists in the USSR and, especially, in Russia.
In 2004, Savenko stated that the passed law on the state expert activity and the introduction of the profession of forensic expert psychiatrist actually destroyed adversary-based examinations and that the Serbsky Center turned into the complete monopolist of forensic examination, which it had never been under Soviet rule. Formerly, the court could include any psychiatrist in a commission of experts, but now the court only chooses an expert institution. The expert has the right to participate only in commissions that he is included in by the head of his expert institution, and can receive the certificate of qualification as an expert only after having worked in a state expert institution for three years. The Director of the Serbsky Center Dmitrieva was, at the same time, the head of the forensic psychiatry department which is the only one in the country and is located in her Center. No one had ever had such a monopoly.
According to Savenko, the Serbsky Center has long labored to legalize its monopolistic position of the Main expert institution of the country. The ambition and permissiveness—which, due to proximity to power, allow the Serbsky Center to get in touch over the telephone with the judges and explain to them who is who and what is the guideline, although the judges themselves have already learned it—have turned out to be a considerable drop in the level of the expert reports on many positions. Such a drop was inevitable and foreseeable in the context of the Serbsky Center efforts to eliminate adversary character of the expert reports of the parties, then to maximally degrade the role of the specialist as a reviewer and critic of the presented expert report, and to legalize the state of affairs. Lyubov Vinogradova believes there has been a continuous diminution in patients' rights as independent experts are now excluded from processes, cannot speak in court and can do nothing against the State experts.
On 28 May 2009, Yuri Savenko wrote to the then President of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev an open letter, in which Savenko asked Medvedev to submit to the State Duma a draft law prepared by the Independent Psychiatric Association of Russia to address the sharp drop in the level of forensic psychiatric examinations, which Savenko attributed to the lack of competition within the sector and its increasing nationalization. The open letter says that the level of the expert reports has dropped to such an extent that it is often a matter of not only the absence of entire sections of the report, even such as the substantiation of its findings, and not only the gross contradiction of its findings to the descriptive section of the report, but it is often a matter of concrete statements which are so contrary to generally accepted scientific terms that doubts about the disinterestedness of the experts arise. According to the letter, courts, in violation of procedural rules, do not analyze the expert report, its coherence and consistency in all its parts, do not check experts’ findings for their accuracy, completeness, and objectivity.
On 15 June 2009, the working group chaired by the Director of the Serbsky Center Tatyana Dmitrieva sent the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation a joint application whose purport was to declare appealing against the forensic expert reports of state expert institutions illegal and prohibit courts from receiving lawsuits filed to appeal against the reports. The reason put forward for the proposal was that the appeals against the expert reports were allegedly filed "without regard for the scope of the case" and that one must appeal against the expert report "only together with the sentence." In other words, according to Yuri Savenko, all professional errors and omissions are presented as untouchable by virtue of the fact that they were infiltrated into the sentence. That is cynicism of administrative resources, cynicism of power, he says.
The draft of the application to the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation was considered in the paper "Current legal issues relevant to forensic-psychiatric expert evaluation" by Elena Shchukina and Sergei Shishkov focusing on the inadmissibility of appealing against the expert report without regard for the scope of the evaluated case. While talking about appealing against "the reports", the authors of the paper, according to lawyer Dmitry Bartenev, mistakenly identify the reports with actions of the experts (or an expert institution) and justify the impossibility of the "parallel" examination and evaluation of the actions of the experts without regard for the scope of the evaluated case. Such a conclusion made by the authors appears clearly erroneous because abuse by the experts of rights and legitimate interests of citizens including trial participants, of course, may be a subject for a separate appeal.
According to the report read by the president of the St Petersburg branch of the Citizens Commission on Human Rights Roman Chorny at the XIII Congress of the IPA concerning antipsychiatry, a big problem is the fact that a significant number of people who received their diagnosis from psychiatrists in the Soviet era for their participation in the dissident movement remains not rehabilitated to the full. Some of them remained unrehabilitated till their death, for example engineer Vadim Lashkin, who wrote in the 1970s the letter in defense of Alexander Solzhenitsyn. Chorny's appearance at the Congress was followed by the trial against the Citizens Commission on Human Rights in St Petersburg under Russian Criminal Code Article 282 used in trials for extremism and in the prosecutor’s demand to declare allegedly anti-psychiatric rhetoric about the hospitalizations of dissidents in the USSR, Nazi Germany euthanasia of the mentally ill, lobotomy, adverse effects of psychiatric medication to be extremistic.
According to the warning made in 2010 by Yuri Savenko at the same Congress, prof. Anatoly Smulevich, author of the monographs Problema Paranoyi (The Problem of Paranoia) (1972) and Maloprogredientnaya Shizofreniya (Continuous Sluggish Schizophrenia) (1987), which had contributed to the hyperdiagnosis of "sluggish schizophrenia", again began to play the same role he played before. Recently, under his influence therapists began to widely use antidepressants and antipsychotics but often in inadequate cases and in inappropriate doses, without consulting psychiatrists. This situation has opened up a huge new market for pharmaceutical firms, with their unlimited capabilities, and the flow of the mentally ill to internists.
According to the commentary by the Independent Psychiatric Association of Russia on the 2007 text by Vladimir Rotstein, a doctrinist of Snezhnevsky's school, there are sufficient patients with delusion of reformism in psychiatric inpatient facilities for involuntary treatment. In 2012, delusion of reformism was mentioned as a symptom of mental disorder in Psychiatry. National Manual edited by Tatyana Dmitrieva, Valery Krasnov, Nikolai Neznanov, Valentin Semke, and Alexander Tiganov. In the same year, Vladimir Pashkovsky in his paper reported that he diagnosed 4.7 percent of 300 patients with delusion of reform. As Russian sociologist Alexander Tarasov notes, you will be treated in a hospital so that you and all your acquaintances get to learn forever that only such people as Anatoly Chubais or German Gref can be occupied with reforming in our country; and you are suffering from "syndrome of querulousness" if in addition you wrote to the capital city complaints, which can be written only by a reviewing authority or lawyer.
According to Doctor of Legal Sciences Vladimir Ovchinsky, regional differences in forensic psychiatric expert reports are striking. For example, in some regions of Russia, 8 or 9 percent of all examinees are pronounced sane; in other regions up to 75 percent of all examinees are pronounced sane. In some regions less than 2 percent of examinees are declared schizophrenics; in other regions up to 80 percent of examinees are declared schizophrenics.
In April 1995, the State Duma considered the first draft of a law that would have established a State Medical Commission with a psychiatrist to certify the competence of the President, the Prime Minister, and high federal political officials to fulfill the responsibilities of their positions. In 2002, Ukrainian psychiatrist Ada Korotenko stated that today the question was raised about the use of psychiatry to settle political accounts and establish psychiatric control over people competing for power in the country. Obviously, one will find supporters of the feasibility of such a filter, she said, though is it worthwhile to substitute experts’ medical reports for elections? In 2003, the suggestion of using psychiatry to prevent and dismiss officials from their positions was supported by Alexander Podrabinek, whose book Punitive Medicine had contributed to struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union. He suggested that people who seek high positions or run for the legislature should bring from the psychiatric dispensary a reference that they are not on the psychiatric registry and should be subjected to psychiatric examination in the event of inappropriate behavior. Concerned about the problem, authorities ruled that Article 29 of the Russian Mental Health Law regarding involuntary hospitalization in a mental hospital should not be applied to senior officials and the judiciary on the ground that they are vested with parliamentary or judicial immunity. A psychiatrist who violates this rule can be deprived of his diploma and sentenced to imprisonment.
Documents and memoirs
The evidence for the misuse of psychiatry for political purposes in the Soviet Union was documented in a number of articles and books. Several national psychiatric associations examined and acted upon this documentation. The United States Government Printing Office published documents on political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union in 1972, 1975, 1976, 1984, and 1988. From 1987 to 1991, the International Association on the Political Use of Psychiatry published forty-two numbers of Documents on the Political Abuse of Psychiatry in the USSRarchived by the Columbia University Libraries in archival collection Human Rights Watch Records: Helsinki Watch, 1952–2003, Series VII: Chris Panico Files, 1979–1992, USSR, Psychiatry, International Association on the Political Use of Psychiatry, Box 16, Folder 5–8 (English version) and Box 16, Folder 9–11 (Russian version). In 1992, the British Medical Association published some documents on the subject in the book Medicine Betrayed: The Participation of Doctors in Human Rights Abuses. A number of various documents and reports were published in Information Bulletins by the Working Commission to Investigate the Use of Psychiatry For Political Purposes, Chronicle of Current Events by the Moscow Helsinki Group and in the books Punitive Medicine by Podrabinek, Bezumnaya Psikhiatriya (Mad Psychiatry) by Anatoly Prokopenko, Reckoning With Moscow: A Nuremberg Trial for Soviet Agents and Western Fellow Travelers by Vladimir Bukovsky, Sovietskaya Psikhiatriya—Zabluzhdeniya i Umysel (Soviet Psychiatry: Fallacies and Wilfulness) by Ada Korotenko and Natalia Alikina, and Kaznimye Sumasshestviem (The Executed by Madness).
The widely known sources including published and written memoirs by victims of psychiatric arbitrariness convey moral and physical sufferings experienced by the victims in special psychiatric hospitals of the USSR. In 1965, Valery Tarsis published in the West his book Ward 7: An Autobiographical Novel based upon his own experiences in 1963–1964 when he was detained in the Moscow Kashchenko psychiatric hospital for political reasons. The book was the first literary work to deal with the Soviet authorities' abuse of psychiatry. In 1968, the Russian poet Joseph Brodsky wrote Gorbunov and Gorchakov, a forty-page long poem in thirteen cantos consisting of lengthy conversations between two patients in a Soviet psychiatric prison as well as between each of them separately and the interrogating psychiatrists. The topics vary from the taste of the cabbage served for supper to the meaning of life and Russia's destiny. The poem was translated into English by Harry Thomas. The experience underlying Gorbunov and Gorchakov was formed by two stints of Brodsky at psychiatric establishments. In 1970, Natalya Gorbanevskaya published her book Polden: Delo o Demonstratsii 24 Avgusta 1968 Goda na Krasnoy Ploshchadi (Noon: The Case on the Demonstration of 25 August 1968 at the Red Square) translated into English under the title Red Square at Noon. Some parts of the book describe special psychiatric hospitals and psychiatric examinations of dissidents. In 1971, Zhores Medvedev and Roy Medvedev published their joint book A Question of Madness: Repression by Psychiatry in the Soviet Union describing the hospitalization of Zhores Medvedev for political purposes and the Soviet practice of diagnosing political oppositionists as the mentally ill. In 1976, Viktor Nekipelov published in samizdat his book Institute of Fools: Notes on the Serbsky Institute documenting his personal experience at Psychiatric Hospital of the Serbsky Institute. In 1980, the book was translated and published in English. Only in 2005, the book was published in Russia.
In 1977, British playwright Tom Stoppard wrote the play Every Good Boy Deserves Favour that criticized the Soviet practice of treating political dissidence as a form of mental illness. The play is dedicated to Viktor Fainberg and Vladimir Bukovsky, two Soviet dissidents expelled to the West. In 1978, the book I Vozvrashchaetsa Veter… (And the Wind Returns…) by Vladimir Bukovsky, describing dissident movement, their struggle or freedom, practices of dealing with dissenters, and dozen years spent by Bukovsky in Soviet labor camps, prisons and psychiatric hospitals, was published and later translated into English under the title To Build a Castle: My Life as a Dissenter. In 1979, Leonid Plyushch published his book Na Karnavale Istorii (At History’s Сarnival) in which he described how he and other dissidents were committed to psychiatric hospitals. At the same year, the book was translated into English under the title History's Carnival: A Dissident's Autobiography. In 1981, Pyotr Grigorenko published his memoirs V Podpolye Mozhno Vstretit Tolko Krys (In Underground One Can Meet Only Rats), which included the story of his psychiatric examinations and hospitalizations. In 1982, the book was translated into English under the title Memoirs. In 1983, Evgeny Nikolaev’s book Predavshie Gippokrata (The betrayal of Hippocrates), when translated from Russian into German under the title Gehirnwäsche in Moskau (Brainwashing in Moscow), first came out in München and told about psychiatric detention of its author for political reasons. In 1984, the book under its original title was first published in Russian which the book had originally been written in. In the 1983 novel Firefox Down by Craig Thomas, captured American pilot Mitchell Gant is imprisoned in a KGB psychiatric clinic "associated with the Serbsky Institute", where he is drugged and interrogated to force him to reveal the location of the Firefox aircraft, which he has stolen and flown out of Russia. In 1987, Robert van Voren published his book Koryagin: A man Struggling for Human Dignity telling about psychiatrist Anatoly Koryagin who resisted political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union. In 1988, Reportazh iz Niotkuda (Reportage from Nowhere) by Viktor Rafalsky was published. In the publication, he described his confinement in Soviet psychiatric hospitals. In 1993, Valeriya Novodvorskaya published her collection of writings Po Tu Storonu Otchayaniya (Beyond Despair) in which her experience in the prison psychiatric hospital in Kazan was described. In 1996, Vladimir Bukovsky published his book Moskovsky Protsess (Moscow trial) containing an account of developing the punitive psychiatry based on documents that were being submitted to and considered by the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The book was translated into English in 1998 under the title Reckoning With Moscow: A Nuremberg Trial for Soviet Agents and Western Fellow Travelers. In 2001, Nikolay Kupriyanov published his book GULAG-2-SN which has the foreword by Anatoly Sobchak, covers repressive psychiatry in Soviet Army, and tells about humiliations Kupriyanov underwent in the psychiatric departments of the Northern Fleet hospital and the Kirov Military Medical Academy. In 2002, St. Petersburg forensic psychiatrist Vladimir Pshizov published his book Sindrom Zamknutogo Prostranstva (Syndrome of Closed Space) describing the hospitalization of Viktor Fainberg. 2003 saw the book Moyа Sudba i Moyа Borba protiv Psikhiatrov (My Destiny and My Struggle against Psychiatrists) by Anatoly Serov who worked as a lead design engineer before he was committed to a psychiatric hospital. In 2010, Alexander Shatravka published his book Pobeg iz Raya (Escape from Paradise) in which he described how he and his companions were caught after they illegally crossed the border between Finland and the Soviet Union to escape from the latter country and, as a result, were confined to Soviet psychiatric hospitals and prisons. In his book, he also described methods of brutal treatment of prisoners in the institutions.
The use of psychiatry for political purposes in the USSR was discussed in two television documentaries—They Chose Freedom produced by Vladimir V. Kara-Murza in 2005 and Prison Psychiatry produced by Anatoly Yaroshevsky of NTV in the same year—and in the TV interview Psychiatric Practices in the Soviet Union produced by C-SPAN on 17 July 1989 with the participation of William Farrand, Peter Reddaway, Darrel Regier, who were members of the US delegation during its visit to Soviet psychiatric facilities in February of 1989.
- Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union
- The Protest Psychosis: How Schizophrenia Became a Black Disease
- BMA 1992, p. 66; Bonnie 2002; Finckenauer 1995, p. 52; Gershman 1984; Helmchen & Sartorius 2010, p. 490; Knapp 2007, p. 406; Kutchins & Kirk 1997, p. 293; Lisle 2010, p. 47; Merskey 1978; Society for International Development 1984, p. 19; US GPO (1972, 1975, 1976, 1984, 1988); Voren (2002, 2010a, 2013)
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- Kovalyov 2007.
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- Gluzman 2009a; Gluzman 2013b; Voren 2013, p. 8; Fedenko 2009; see some documents in Pozharov 1999; Soviet Archives 1970
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- NPZ 2005.
- Voren 2010a; Helmchen & Sartorius 2010, p. 491
- Gluzman (2009b, 2010a)
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- Podrabinek 1980, p. 63.
- Savenko 2005a.
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- BMA 1992, p. 65.
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- Vasilenko 2004, p. 29; Chernosvitov 2002, p. 50
- Keukens & Voren 2007.
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- Demina 2008.
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- Savenko 2009a.
- Voren 2010b, p. 101.
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- Reich 1983.
- Tobin 2013.
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- Healey 2011.
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- Stone 2002.
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- Stone 1985, p. 12.
- US GPO 1984, p. 74.
- Reich (1979, 1980a, 1980b)
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- Grigorenko 1982.
- Rich 1991.
- BMA 1992, p. 73.
- Korotenko & Alikina 2002, p. 23.
- Savenko 2004a; Savenko 2009b
- Struk 1993, p. 308.
- Korotenko & Alikina 2002, p. 219.
- Rafalsky 1995.
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- Korotenko & Alikina 2002, p. 240.
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- Szasz 1991.
- Szasz 1991; The New Leader 1964
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- Tarsis 1965.
- Voren 2010b, p. 140.
- Marsh 1986, p. 208.
- Parr 1981, p. 137.
- Soviet Archives 1966, P238/132.
- Szasz 1978.
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- Magalif 2010.
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- Wilson & Bachkatov 1992, p. 156.
- Savenko 2007; Savenko 2009b
- Shaw, Bloch & Vickers 1972.
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- Leichter 1979, p. 232.
- Jacobson 1972, p. 22.
- Ziolkowski 1998, p. 95.
- Wing & Mechanic 2009, p. 178.
- Medvedev & Medvedev 1971.
- Sakharov's Telegram 1971.
- Christenson 1999, p. 29.
- Gluzman 2013a.
- Lader 1980.
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- Jena 2008, p. 86.
- Nekipelov 1980; Keefer & Pavlychko 1998, p. 312
- Savenko 2005b.
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- Karatnycky, Motyl & Sturmthal 1980, p. 57.
- Karatnycky, Motyl & Sturmthal 1980, p. 58.
- Fernando 2003, p. 160.
- Bloch & Reddaway 1985, p. 30.
- Bloch & Reddaway 1985, p. 31.
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- Bloch & Reddaway 1985, p. 33.
- Finlayson 1987.
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- Baburin 2004.
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- Prokopenko 2005, p. 187.
- Adler & Gluzman 1992.
- Luneyev 2005, p. 373.
- Luneyev 2005, p. 378.
- Gushansky (1999, 2010a)
- Healey 2014.
- Gluzman 2013b.
- Gluzman 2009a.
- Sobchak 2005, pp. 6–7.
- Voren 2009b.
- Gushansky 2005, p. 34.
- Gushansky 2005, p. 33.
- Commission for Rehabilitation of the Victims 2000.
- Arizona Republic 1988; Buyanov 1993, p. 191; Prokopenko (1997, p. 159, 2005, p. 191); Szasz 1998, p. 196; Tarasov 2006; US GPO 1988, p. 28; Vasilenko 2004, p. 34
- Koryagin 1990.
- Lapshin 2003.
- Savenko (2005a, 2009b)
- Gostin 1986.
- Bloch & Reddaway 1977, p. 29.
- Moran 2010.
- Regier 2011, p. 75.
- Sartorius 2010.
- Danilin 2008.
- Nuller 2008, p. 17.
- Nuller 2008, p. 18.
- Gluzman 2012, p. xxvii.
- Perlin 2006.
- Foucault & Kritzman 1990, p. 182.
- Taylor 2008, p. 129.
- Fernando, Ndegwa & Wilson 1998, p. 37.
- Foucault, Laplanche & Badinter (1977, 1989, p. 168, 2006)
- Foucault, Laplanche & Badinter (1977, 1989, p. 169, 2006)
- Robitscher 1980, pp. 326–327.
- Bloch & Reddaway 1985, p. 40.
- Pekhterev 2013.
- Voren 2013c.
- Trehub 2013; Zakal 2013
- Valovitch 2003.
- Korotenko & Alikina 2002, p. 77.
- Korotenko & Alikina 2002, p. 47.
- Fulford, Smirnov & Snow 1993.
- Adshead 2003.
- Szasz 1994.
- Szasz 2001, p. 497.
- Gosden 2001, p. 220; Szasz 1994
- Costigan 2004, p. 17.
- Robertson & Walter 2013, p. 86.
- Gushansky 2010b.
- Davidoff 2013.
- NPZ 2004.
- Voren & Bloch 1989, p. 13.
- Gushansky 2000, p. 112–119.
- Peters 2014.
- Sokolov 2007; Pasko 2007
- Voren 2010b, p. 476.
- Ivanova 1992.
- Voren 2010b, p. 477.
- Voren 2013, p. 24.
- Savenko 2010, pp. 13–17.
- Gushansky 2010c.
- Clark 2014.
- Bonnie 2002.
- Mundt, Frančišković & Gurovich 2012.
- Jenkins, Lancashire & McDaid 2007.
- Savenko & Perekhov 2014.
- Reiter 2013.
- NPZ 2008.
- Gluzman press conference 2008.
- Gluzman 2013с.
- Savenko & Vinogradova 2005.
- Voren 2009a, p. 188.
- Svetova 2007.
- Savenko 2004b.
- Savenko 2004b; Svetova 2007
- Gorelik 2003; Savenko 2004b
- Blomfield 2007b.
- Glasser 2002.
- Munro 2002b.
- Stone (1984, 1985, p. 72, 2008)
- Pshizov 2006.
- abbreviation expansion: organizer of a party group
- Polyakovskaya & Gorelik 2013.
- Voren 2012.
- Dudley, Silove & Gale 2012, p. 237.
- Vyzhutovich 2011.
- Savenko 2007.
- Mishina 2012.
- RSN 2012; NG 2012
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- Podrabinek 2014.
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- Savenko & Bartenev 2010.
- Savenko 2009c, p. 5–6.
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- Chorny 2010, p. 18–24.
- Baburin 2001; Safonova 1999
- NPZ 2012.
- NPZ 2007b.
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- Pashkovsky 2012.
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- Asriyants & Chernova 2010; NPZ 2007a
- Bloch 1980.
- US GPO (1972, 1975, 1976, 1984, 1988)
- Voren 2010b, p. 490.
- Human Rights Watch 1952–2003.
- BMA 1992.
- Voren 2010b, p. 148.
- Podrabinek 1979; Podrabinek 1980; Bernstein 1980
- Prokopenko 1997.
- Bukovsky 1998.
- Korotenko & Alikina 2002.
- Artyomova, Rar & Slavinsky 1971.
- Gluzman 1991.
- Barańczak 1990, p. 212.
- Gorbanevskaya 1970a.
- Gorbanevskaya 1970b.
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- Savenko 2005b; Nekipelov 2005
- Billington 2009; Complete Review 2009; Spencer 2010; National Theatre 2010; Franks 2008
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- Bukovsky 1978b.
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- Nikolaev 1983.
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- Thomas 1983.
- Voren 1987.
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- Kupriyanov (2001, 2005)
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- Baburin 2004; Serov 2003
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- They Chose Freedom 2013.
- Prison Psychiatry 2005.
- Psychiatric Practices in the Soviet Union 1989.
- Soviet Archives, collected by Vladimir Bukovsky. Выписка из протокола № 151 заседания Политбюро ЦК КПСС от 22 января 1970 года [The extract from the minutes No. 151 of the meeting of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union of 22 January 1970]; 22 January 1970 [archived 14 May 2012; Retrieved 6 March 2014]. Russian.
- Soviet Archives, collected by Vladimir Bukovsky. О мерах в связи с антисоветскими материалами в английской печати (Тарсиса): Решение Президиума ЦК КПСС № 238/132 от 8 апреля 1966 по записке Николая Степановича Захарова и Романа Андреевича Руденко от 14 февраля 1966 и записке Андрея Андреевича Громыко от 5 апреля 1966 [On measures in connection with anti-Soviet materials (by Tarsis) in the British press: The resolution by the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union No. 238/132 of 8 April 1966 in response to the note by Nikolai Zakharov and Roman Rudenko of 14 February 1966 and in response to the note by Andrei Gromyko of 5 April 1966]; 8 April 1966 [archived 9 March 2012; Retrieved 23 January 2014]. Russian.
- Human Rights Watch Records, Record Group 7: Helsinki Watch, 1952–2003 (Bulk, 1978–1994) HR# 0002. [archived 12 March 2012].
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Government publications and official reports
- Abuse of psychiatry for political repression in the Soviet Union: Hearing, Ninety-second Congress, second session, Part 1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.
- Abuse of psychiatry for political repression in the Soviet Union: Hearing, Ninety-second Congress, second session, Volume 2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.
- Abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union: hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, House of Representatives, Ninety-eighth Congress, first session, September 20, 1983. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.
- British Medical Association. Medicine betrayed: the participation of doctors in human rights abuses. Zed Books; 1992. ISBN 1-85649-104-8.
- Commission for Rehabilitation of the Victims of Political Repression. Доклад Комиссии при Президенте Российской Федерации по реабилитации жертв политических репрессий о ходе исполнения Закона Российской Федерации «О реабилитации жертв политических репрессий» [The report by the Commission under the President of the Russian Federation for rehabilitation of the victims of political repression on the course of executing the Law of the Russian Federation "On rehabilitation of the victims of political repression"]. Moscow: 2000. Russian.
- International Association on the Political Use of Psychiatry, Working Group on the Internment of Dissenters in Mental Hospitals. Soviet Political Psychiatry: The Story of the Opposition. London: International Association on the Political Use of Psychiatry, Working Group on the Internment of Dissenters in Mental Hospitals; 1983.
- Psychiatric abuse of political prisoners in the Soviet Union: testimony by Leonid Plyushch: hearing before the Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, Ninety-fourth Congress, second session, March 30, 1976. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.
- Society for International Development. Development: Seeds of change, village through global order. Society for International Development; 1984. p. 19.
- U.S. Department of State, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Report of the U.S. Delegation to Assess Recent Changes in Soviet Psychiatry. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 1989 [Retrieved 5 February 2011];15(4 Suppl):1–79. doi:10.1093/schbul/15.suppl_1.1. PMID 2638045.
- Reform and human rights: the Gorbachev record. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.
- Global Initiative on Psychiatry. Report of the U.S. Delegation to Assess Recent Changes in Soviet Psychiatry (Russian translation); 2009 [Retrieved 5 February 2011]. Russian.
- Albats, Yevgenia. KGB: state within a state. I.B.Tauris; 1995. ISBN 1-85043-995-8.
- Andrew, Christopher; Mitrokhin, Vasili. The sword and the shield: the Mitrokhin archive and the secret history of the KGB. Basic Books; 1999. ISBN 0-465-00310-9.
- Applebaum, Anne. Gulag: a history. Doubleday; 2003. ISBN 0-7679-0056-1.
- Artyomova, A.; Rar, L.; Slavinsky M. [А. Артёмова; Л. Рар; М. Славинский]. Казнимые сумасшествием: Сборник документальных материалов о психиатрических преследованиях инакомыслящих в СССР [The executed by madness: a collection of documentary materials about psychiatric persecutions of dissenters in the USSR]. Frankfurt am Main: Посев [Seeding]; 1971. Russian.
- Ball, Terence; Farr, James. After Marx. CUP Archive; 1984. ISBN 0-521-27661-6.
- Barańczak, Stanisław. Breathing under water and other East European essays. Harvard University Press; 1990. ISBN 0-674-08125-0.
- Birstein, Vadim J.. The perversion of knowledge: the true story of the Soviet science. Westview Press; 2004. ISBN ISBN 0-8133-4280-5.
- Bleikher, Vadim [Вадим Блейхер]. Эпонимические термины в психиатрии, психотерапии и медицинской психологии. Словарь [Dictionary of eponymous terms in psychiatry, psychotherapy and medical psychology]. Kiev: Головное издательство Издательского объединения «Вища школа» [Headquarters publishers of Publishing Association "Higher school"]; 1984. Russian.
- Bloch, Sidney; Reddaway, Peter. Russia's political hospitals: The abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union. Victor Gollancz Ltd; 1977. ISBN 0-575-02318-X.
- Bloch, Sidney; Reddaway, Peter. Soviet psychiatric abuse: the shadow over world psychiatry. Westview Press; 1985. ISBN 0-8133-0209-9.
- Brintlinger, Angela; Vinitsky, Ilya. Madness and the mad in Russian culture. University of Toronto Press; 2007. ISBN 0-8020-9140-7.
- Brodsky, Joseph; Haven, Cynthia. Joseph Brodsky: conversations. Univ. Press of Mississippi; 2002. ISBN 1-57806-528-3.
- Bukovsky, Vladimir [Владимир Буковский]. И возвращается ветер… [And the wind returns…]. New York: Хроника [Chronicle]; 1978a. Russian.
- Bukovsky, Vladimir. To build a castle: my life as a dissenter. Deutsch; 1978b.
- Bukovsky, Vladimir [Владимир Буковский]. Московский процесс [Moscow trial]. Paris—Moscow: Издательство «Русская мысль—МИК» ["Russian Thought—MIK" Publishing house]; 1996. Russian. ISBN 5-87902-071-1.
- Bukovsky, Vladimir. Reckoning With Moscow: A Nuremberg Trial for Soviet Agents and Western Fellow Travelers. Regnery Publishing, Incorporated, An Eagle Publishing Company; 1998. ISBN 0895263890.
- Bursten, Ben. Psychiatry on trial: fact and fantasy in the courtroom. McFarland; 2001. ISBN 0-7864-1078-7.
- Buyanov, Mikhail [Михаил Буянов]. Тяжёлые люди [Troubling people]. Moscow: Российское общество медиков-литераторов [Russian Society of Medical Literary Men]; 1993. Russian.
- Calloway, Paul. Russian/Soviet and Western psychiatry: a contemporary comparative study. Wiley; 1993. ISBN 0-471-59574-8.
- Caute, David. The dancer defects: the struggle for cultural supremacy during the Cold War. Oxford University Press; 2005. ISBN 0-19-927883-0.
- Chernosvitov, Evgeny [Евгений Черносвитов]. Социальная медицина: Учебное пособие для вузов [Social medicine: a manual for higher schools]. Moscow: Юнити-Дана [Unity-Dana]; 2002. Russian. ISBN 5238003447.
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- Costigan, Lucy. Social Awareness in Counselling. iUniverse; 2004. ISBN 0-595-75523-2.
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- Dmitrieva, Tatyana [Татьяна Дмитриева]. Альянс права и милосердия: о проблеме защиты прав человека в психиатрии [The alliance of law and mercy: on the issue of human rights protection in psychiatry]. Mоscow: Nauka; 2001. Russian. ISBN 5020226645.
- Dmitrieva, Tatyana; Krasnov, Valery; Neznanov, Nikolai; Semke, Valentin; Tiganov, Alexander [Татьяна Дмитриева, Валерий Краснов, Николай Незнанов, Валентин Семке, Александр Тиганов] (eds.). Психиатрия: Национальное руководство [Psychiatry: National manual]. Moscow: ГЭОТАР-Медиа [GEOTAR-Media]; 2012. Russian. ISBN 5970420301.
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- Fedor, Julie. Russia and the Cult of State Security: The Chekist Tradition, From Lenin to Putin. Routledge; 2011. ISBN 1136671862.
- Fernando, Suman. Cultural diversity, mental health and psychiatry: The struggle against racism. Psychology Press; 2003. ISBN 1583912533.
- Fernando, Suman; Ndegwa, David; Wilson, Melba. Forensic Psychiatry, Race and Culture. Psychology Press; 1998. ISBN 0415153220.
- Finckenauer, James. Russian youth: law, deviance, and the pursuit of freedom. Transaction Publishers; 1995. ISBN 1-56000-206-9.
- Foucault, Michel; Kritzman, Lawrence. Politics, philosophy, culture: interviews and other writings, 1977–1984. Routledge; 1990. ISBN 0-415-90149-9.
- Gorbanevskaya, Natalia [Наталья Горбаневская]. Полдень: Дело о демонстрации 25 августа 1968 года на Красной площади [Noon: The case on the demonstration of 25 August 1968 at the Red Square]. Frankfurt-on-Main: Посев [Seeding]; 1970a. Russian.
- Gorbanevskaya, Natalia. Red Square at Noon. Holt, Rinehart and Winston; 1970b. ISBN 0-03-085990-5.
- Gosden, Richard. Punishing the Patient: How Psychiatrists Misunderstand and Mistreat Schizophrenia. Melbourne: Scribe Publications; 2001. ISBN 0-908011-52-0.
- Grigorenko, Pyotr [Пётр Григоренко]. В подполье можно встретить только крыс... [In the underground one can meet only rats...]. Детинец [Detinets]: Нью-Йорк [New York]; 1981. Russian.
- Grigorenko, Pyotr. Memoirs. New York: Norton; 1982. ISBN 0-393-01570-X.
- Grigorenko, Elena; Ruzgis, Patricia; Sternberg, Robert. Psychology of Russia: past, present, future. Nova Publishers; 1997. ISBN 1-56072-389-0.
- Hegarty, Angela; Leonard, Siobhan. Human rights: 21st century. Routledge; 1999. ISBN 1-85941-393-5.
- Helmchen, Hanfried; Sartorius, Norman. Ethics in Psychiatry: European Contributions. Springer; 2010. ISBN 90-481-8720-6.
- Hunt, Kathleen. Abandoned to the state: cruelty and neglect in Russian orphanages. Human Rights Watch; 1998. ISBN 1-56432-191-6.
- Jacobson, Julius. Soviet communism and the socialist vision. Transaction Publishers; 1972. ISBN 0-87855-005-4.
- Jena, S.P.K.. Behaviour Therapy: Techniques, Research and Applications. Sage Publications; 2008. ISBN 0-7619-3624-6.
- Kadarkay, Árpád. Human rights in American and Russian political thought. University Press of America; 1982.
- Karatnycky, Adrian; Motyl, Alexander; Sturmthal, Adolf. Workers' rights, East and West: a comparative study of trade union and workers' rights in Western democracies and Eastern Europe. Transaction Publishers; 1980. ISBN 0-87855-867-5.
- Katona, Cornelius; Robertson, Mary. Psychiatry at a glance. Wiley-Blackwell; 2005. ISBN 1-4051-2404-0.
- Keefer, Janice; Pavlychko, Solomea. Two lands, new visions: stories from Canada and Ukraine. Coteau Books; 1998. ISBN 1-55050-134-8.
- Knapp, Martin. Mental health policy and practice across Europe: the future direction of mental health care. McGraw-Hill International; 2007. ISBN 0-335-21467-3.
- Korolenko, Caesar; Dmitrieva, Nina [Цезарь Короленко; Нина Дмитриева]. Социодинамическая психиатрия [Sociodynamic Psychiatry]. Moscow: Академический проект [Academic Project]; 2000. Russian. ISBN 5829100150.
- Korotenko, Ada; Alikina, Natalia [Ада Коротенко; Наталия Аликина]. Советская психиатрия: Заблуждения и умысел [Soviet psychiatry: fallacies and wilfulness]. Kiev: Издательство «Сфера» [Publishing house "Sphere"]; 2002. Russian. ISBN 966-7841-36-7.
- Kupriyanov, Nikolai [Николай Куприянов]. ГУЛАГ–2–СН [GULAG–2–SN]. St Petersburg: Вертикаль, АБРИС [Vertical, ABRIS]; 2001. Russian. ISBN 5-85333-051-9.
- Kutchins, Herb; Kirk, Stuart. Making us crazy. DSM: the psychiatric bible and the creation of mental disorders. Free Press; 1997. ISBN 0-684-82280-6.
- Leichter, Howard. A comparative approach to policy analysis: health care policy in four nations. CUP Archive; 1979. ISBN 0-521-29601-3.
- Lisle, Angela. Reflexive Practice. Xlibris Corporation; 2010. ISBN 1-4500-9197-0.
- Luneyev, Viktor [Виктор Лунеев]. Преступность XX века: Мировые, региональные и российские тенденции [20th century criminality: Worldwide, regional and Russian trends]. Wolters Kluwer Russia; 2005. Russian. ISBN 5-466-00098-1.
- Malterud, Kirsti; Hunskaar, Steinar. Chronic myofascial pain: a patient-centered approach. Radcliffe Publishing; 2002. ISBN 1-85775-947-8.
- Marsh, Rosalind. Soviet fiction since Stalin: science, politics and literature. Taylor & Francis; 1986. ISBN 0-7099-1776-7.
- Matvejević, Predrag. Between exile and asylum: an eastern epistolary. Central European University Press; 2004. ISBN 963-9241-85-7.
- McCauley, Martin. Gorbachev. Pearson Education; 1998. ISBN 0-582-43758-X.
- Medvedev, Žores; Medvedev, Roj. A Question of Madness: Repression by Psychiatry in the Soviet Union. Macmillan; 1971.
- Metzl, Jonathan. The Protest Psychosis: How Schizophrenia Became a Black Disease. Beacon Press; 2010. ISBN 0-8070-8592-8.
- Munro, Robin. Dangerous minds: political psychiatry in China today and its origins in the Mao era. Human Rights Watch; 2002. ISBN 1-56432-278-5.
- Nekipelov, Viktor. Institute of fools: notes from the Serbsky (translated by Marco Carynnyk and Marta Horban). Orion Books Limited; 1980. ISBN 0575028920.
- Nekipelov, Viktor [Виктор Некипелов]. Институт дураков [The Institute of Fools]. Барнаул [Barnaul]: Изд-во организации «Помощь пострадавшим от психиатров» [Publishing house of the "Help for the Victims of Psychiatry" Organization]; 2005. Russian.
- Nikolaev, Evgeny. Gehirnwäsche in Moskau [Brainwashing in Moscow]. München: Klaus Schulz Verlag; 1983. German. ISBN 3-8162-0501-1.
- Nikolaev, Evgeny [Евгений Николаев. Предавшие Гиппократа [The betrayal of Hippocrates]. London: Overseas Publications Interchange Ltd; 1984. Russian. ISBN 0-903868-81-4.
- Noll, Richard. The encyclopedia of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Infobase Publishing; 2007. ISBN 0-8160-6405-9.
- Novodvorskaya, Valeriya [Валерия Новодворская]. По ту сторону отчаяния [Beyond Despair]. Moscow: Издательство «Новости» [Publishing house "News"]; 1993. Russian.
- Nuller, Yuri [Юрий Нуллер]. Структура психических расстройств [The Structure of Mental Disorders]. Kyiv: Сфера [Sphere]; 2008. Russian. ISBN 966-8782-44-5. p. 17–18.
- Nuti, Leopoldo. The crisis of détente in Europe: from Helsinki to Gorbachev, 1975–1985. Taylor & Francis; 2009. ISBN 0-415-46051-4.
- Parr, Leslie. Science of the Times: a New York times survey. New York Times Books; 1981. ISBN 0-8129-0761-2.
- Plyushch, Leonid [Леонид Плющ]. На карнавале истории [At history’s carnival]. London: Overseas Publications Interchange; 1979a. Russian.
- Plyushch, Leonid. History's carnival: a dissident's autobiography. Collins and Harvill Press; 1979b. ISBN 0-00-262116-9.
- Podrabinek, Alexander [Александр Подрабинек]. Карательная медицина [Punitive medicine]. New York: Издательство «Хроника» [Khronika Press]; 1979. Russian.
- Podrabinek, Alexander. Punitive medicine. Karoma Publishers; 1980. ISBN 0-89720-022-5.
- Pospielovsky, Dimitry. Soviet Anti-Religious Campaigns and Persecutions: Vol. 2 of A History of Soviet Atheism in Theory and Practice, and the Believer. New York: St Martin's Press; 1988. ISBN 0312009054.
- Prokopenko, Anatoly [Анатолий Прокопенко]. Безумная психиатрия: секретные материалы о применении в СССР психиатрии в карательных целях [Mad psychiatry: classified materials on the use of psychiatry in the USSR for punitive purposes]. Moscow: "Совершенно секретно" ["Top Secret"]; 1997. Russian. ISBN 5-85275-145-6.
- Pshizov, Vladimir [Владимир Пшизов]. Синдром замкнутого пространства (Записки судебного психиатра) [Syndrome of closed space (Notes by the forensic psychiatrist)]. St Petersburg: 2002. Russian. ISBN 9785724302425.
- Pukhovsky, Nikolai [Николай Пуховский]. Очерки общей психопатологии шизофрении [Essays on the general psychopathology of schizophrenia]. Moscow: Академический проект [Academic Project]; 2001. Russian. ISBN 5-8291-0154-8.
- Reddaway, Peter. Uncensored Russia: protest and dissent in the Soviet Union: the unofficial Moscow journal, a Chronicle of current events. American Heritage Press; 1972.
- Reddaway, Peter; Glinski, Dmitri. The tragedy of Russia's reforms: market bolshevism against democracy. US Institute of Peace Press; 2001. ISBN 1-929223-06-4.
- Regier, Darrel . The Conceptual Evolution of DSM-5. American Psychiatric Pub; 2011. ISBN 1585623881.
- Rejali, Darius. Torture and Democracy. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2009. ISBN 0-691-14333-1.
- Robertson, Michael; Walter, Garry. Ethics and Mental Health: The Patient, Profession and Community. CRC Press; 2013. ISBN 1444168649.
- Robitscher, Jonas. The powers of psychiatry. Boston: Houghton Mifflin; 1980. ISBN 0395282225.
- Semple, David; Smyth, Roger; Burns, Jonathan. Oxford handbook of psychiatry. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2005. ISBN 0-19-852783-7.
- Serov, Anatoly [Анатолий Серов]. Моя судьба и моя борьба против психиатров [My destiny and my struggle against psychiatrists]. Moscow: Экслибрис-Пресс [Ex libris-Press]; 2003. Russian. ISBN 5-88161-128-4.
- Shatravka, Alexandr [Александр Шатравка]. Побег из рая [Escape from paradise]. New York: Liberty Publishing House; 2010. Russian. ISBN 978-1-932686-62-3.
- Stone, Alan. Law, Psychiatry, and Morality: Essays and Analysis. American Psychiatric Pub; 1985. ISBN 0-88048-209-5.
- Struk, Danilo. Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Vol. 4. London: University of Toronto Press Incorporated; 1993. ISBN 0-8020-3009-2.
- Szasz, Thomas. Cruel compassion: Psychiatric control of society's unwanted. Syracuse University Press; 1998. ISBN 0815605102.
- Szasz, Thomas. Ideology and insanity: Essays on the psychiatric dehumanization of man. Syracuse University Press; 1991. ISBN 0815602561.
- Taylor, Chloe. The Culture of Confession from Augustine to Foucault: A Genealogy of the 'Confessing Animal'. Routledge; 2008. ISBN 0203890566. p. 129.
- Tarsis, Valeriĭ. Ward 7: an autobiographical novel. Dutton; 1965.
- Thomas, Craig. Firefox Down. New York: Bantam Books; 1983. ISBN 0-553-17095-3.
- Tiganov, Alexandr [Александр Тиганов]. Руководство по психиатрии [A manual on psychiatry]. Vol. 1. Moscow: Медицина [Medicine]; 1999. Russian. ISBN 5-225-02676-1.
- Vasilenko, N.Y. [Н.Ю. Василенко]. Основы социальной медицины [Fundamentals of social medicine]. Vladivostok: Издательство Дальневосточного университета [Publishing house of Far Eastern Federal University]; 2004. Russian.
- Veenhoven, Willem; Ewing, Winifred; Samenlevingen, Stichting. Case studies on human rights and fundamental freedoms: a world survey. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; 1975. ISBN 90-247-1780-9.
- Vitaliev, Vitali. Dateline freedom. Hutchinson; 1991. ISBN 0-09-174677-9.
- Voren, Robert van. Koryagin: a man struggling for human dignity. Second World Press; 1987. ISBN 90-71271-07-2.
- Voren, Robert van. On dissidents and madness: From the Soviet Union of Leonid Brezhnev to the "Soviet Union" of Vladimir Putin. Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi Publishers; 2009a. ISBN 978-90-420-2585-1.
- Voren, Robert van. Cold war in psychiatry: human factors, secret actors. Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi Publishers; 2010b. ISBN 90-420-3048-8.
- Voren, Robert van. Psychiatry as a tool of coercion in post-Soviet countries. The European Parliament; 2013. doi:10.2861/28281. ISBN 978-92-823-4595-5. Russian text: Voren, Robert van [Роберт ван Ворен]. Психиатрия как средство репрессий в советских и постсоветских странах [Psychiatry as a tool of coercion in post-Soviet countries]. Вестник Ассоциации психиатров Украины [The Herald of the Ukrainian Psychiatric Association]. 2013;(5). Russian.
- Voren, Robert van; Bloch, Sidney. Soviet psychiatric abuse in the Gorbachev era. International Association on the Political Use of Psychiatry; 1989. ISBN 90-72657-01-2.
- West, Donald; Green, Richard. Sociolegal control of homosexuality: a multi-nation comparison. Springer; 1997. ISBN 0-306-45532-3.
- Wilson, Andrew; Bachkatov, Nina. Russia Revised: Alphabetical Key to the Soviet Debacle and the New Republics. Deutsch; 1992. ISBN 0-233-98783-5.
- Wing, John; Mechanic, David. Reasoning about Madness. Transaction Publishers; 2009. ISBN 1-4128-1057-4.
- Zdravkovska, Smilka; Duren, Peter. Golden years of Moscow mathematics. AMS Bookstore; 1993. ISBN 0-8218-9003-4.
- Zharikov, Nikolai; Tyulpin, Yuri [Николай Жариков; Юрий Тюльпин]. Психиатрия: Учебник [Psychiatry: a textbook]. Moscow: Медицина [Medicine]; 2000. Russian. ISBN 5-225-04189-2.
- Ziolkowski, Margaret. Literary exorcisms of Stalinism: Russian writers and the Soviet past. Camden House; 1998. ISBN 1-57113-179-5.
Journal articles and book chapters
- 15 лет Независимому психиатрическому журналу [15th anniversary of the Independent Psychiatric Journal]. Nezavisimiy Psikhiatricheskiy Zhurnal [The Independent Psychiatric Journal]. 2005 [Retrieved 24 July 2011];(4). Russian.
- Взгляд на реформу психиатрической помощи на XIII съезде НПА России [The view to the reform of psychiatric care at the XIII Congress of the IPA of Russia]. Nezavisimiy Psikhiatricheskiy Zhurnal [The Independent Psychiatric Journal]. 2008 [Retrieved 18 February 2014];(№ 2):15–19. Russian.
- Выступления П.Д. Тищенко, Б.Г. Юдина, А.И. Антонова, А.Г. Гофмана, В.Н. Краснова, Б.А. Воскресенского [Speeches by P.D. Tishchenko, B.G. Yudin, A.I. Antonov, A.G. Gofman, V.N. Krasnov, B.A. Voskresensky]. Nezavisimiy Psikhiatricheskiy Zhurnal [The Independent Psychiatric Journal]. 2004 [Retrieved 14 January 2012];(2). Russian.
- Лиц со статусом неприкосновенности не надо лечить без их письменного согласия? [Persons with the status of immunity should not be treated without their consent having been taken?]. Nezavisimiy Psikhiatricheskiy Zhurnal [The Independent Psychiatric Journal]. 2007a [Retrieved 18 February 2014];(№ 4):86. Russian.
- Проблема социальной опасности психически больных [The problem of the social danger of the mentally ill]. Nezavisimiy Psikhiatricheskiy Zhurnal [The Independent Psychiatric Journal]. 2007b [Retrieved 18 February 2014];(№ 4):12–17. Russian.
- Судебный процесс против Гражданской комиссии по правам человека в Санкт-Петербурге [The trial against the Citizens Commission on Human Rights in St Petersburg]. Nezavisimiy Psikhiatricheskiy Zhurnal [The Independent Psychiatric Journal]. 2012 [Retrieved 24 July 2011];(3):83. Russian.
- The trial of Iosif Brodsky: A transcript. The New Leader. 31 August 1964;(47):6–7.
- Цитатник номера [Quote set of the issue]. Вестник Ассоциации психиатров Украины [The Herald of the Ukrainian Psychiatric Association]. 2013;(5). Russian.
- Adler, Nanci; Gluzman, Semyon [Нэнси Адлер, Семён Глузман]. Пытка психиатрией. Механизм и последствия [Torture by psychiatry. Mechanism and consequences]. Обозрение психиатрии и медицинской психологии имени В.М. Бехтерева. 1992;(3):138–152.
- Adshead, Gwen. Symposium on psychiatric ethics. Commentary on Szasz. Journal of Medical Ethics. August 2003;29(4):230-232. doi:10.1136/jme.29.4.230.
- Alexéyeff, S.. Abuse of psychiatry as a tool for political repression in the Soviet Union. The Medical Journal of Australia. 31 January 1976;1(5):122–123. PMID 1263959.
- Bernstein, Norman. Punitive Medicine. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 21 November 1980;244(20):2354. doi:10.1001/jama.1980.03310200078038.
- Bloch, Sidney. The political misuse of Soviet psychiatry: Honolulu and beyond. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. June 1980 [Retrieved 19 February 2013];14(2):109–114. doi:10.3109/00048678009159364. PMID 6107077.
- Bloch, Sidney. Psychiatry as ideology in the USSR. Journal of Medical Ethics. September 1978;4(3):126–131. doi:10.1136/jme.4.3.126. PMID 691016.
- Bonnie, Richard. Political Abuse of Psychiatry in the Soviet Union and in China: Complexities and Controversies. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. 2002 [Retrieved 24 February 2011];30(1):136–144. PMID 11931362.
- Bonnie, Richard; Polubinskaya, Svetlana. Unraveling Soviet psychiatry. The Journal of Contemporary Legal Issues. 1999 [Retrieved 15 June 2013];10:279–298.
- Clark, Fiona. Is psychiatry being used for political repression in Russia?. The Lancet. 11 January 2014;383(9912):114–115. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62706-3. PMID 24422214.
- Chodoff, Paul. Ethical conflicts in psychiatry: the Soviet Union vs. the U.S.. Hospital and Community Psychiatry. September 1985;36(9):925–928. PMID 4065851.
- Chorny, Roman [Роман Чорный]. Позиция гражданской комиссии по правам человека [The stand of the Citizens Commission on Human Rights]. Nezavisimiy Psikhiatricheskiy Zhurnal [The Independent Psychiatric Journal]. 2010 [Retrieved 16 December 2012];(4):18–24. Russian.
- Danilin, Alexander [Александр Данилин]. Тупик [Deadlock]. Russkaya Zhizn. 28 March 2008 [Retrieved 21 April 2011]. Russian.
- Dmitriev, Dmitry [Дмитрий Дмитриев]. Книжная полка Дмитрия Дмитриева [The bookshelf of Dmitry Dmitriev]. Novy Mir [New World]. 2002 [Retrieved 30 January 2013];(7). Russian.
- Finlayson, James. Political Abuse of Psychiatry with a Special Focus on the USSR: Report of a meeting held at the Royal College of Psychiatrists on 18 November 1986. The Psychiatric Bulletin. [Retrieved 23 January 2012];11:144–145. doi:10.1192/pb.11.4.144.
- Foucault, Michel; Laplanche, Jean; Badinter, Robert. L'angoisse de juger [The anxiety of judging]. Le Nouvel Observateur. 30 May 1977;(655):92–126. French.
- Foucault, Michel; Laplanche, Jean; Badinter, Robert. The anxiety of judging. In: Lotringer, Sylvere (ed.). Foucault Live: Collected Interviews, 1961–1984. Semiotext(e); 1989. p. 157–178.
- Foucault, Michel [Мишель Фуко]; Laplanche, Jean [Жан Лапланш]; Badinter, Robert [Робер Бадантер]. Страх судить. Смертная казнь: преступная личность или опасная система? [Capital punishment. The anxiety of judging: criminal personality or dangerous system?]. Альманах "Неволя" ["Bondage" Almanac]. 2006;(9). Russian.
- Fulford, K.; Smirnov, A.; Snow, E.. Concepts of disease and the abuse of psychiatry in the USSR. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 1993 [Retrieved 23 January 2012];162(6):801–810. doi:10.1192/bjp.162.6.801.
- Gershman, Carl. Psychiatric abuse in the Soviet Union. Society. 1984;21(5):54–59. doi:10.1007/BF02695434. PMID 11615169.
- Gluzman, Semyon. A personal testament. In: Dudley, Michael; Silove, Derrick; Gale, Fran (eds.). Mental Health and Human Rights: Vision, Praxis, and Courage. Oxford University Press; 2012. ISBN 0199213968. p. xxv–xxvii.
- Gluzman, Semyon [Семён Глузман]. Снежневский [Snezhnevsky]. Вестник Ассоциации психиатров Украины [The Herald of the Ukrainian Psychiatric Association]. 2013;(6):79–80. Russian.
- Gluzman, Semyon [Семён Глузман]. История психиатрических репрессий [The history of psychiatric repression]. Вестник Ассоциации психиатров Украины [The Herald of the Ukrainian Psychiatric Association]. 2013b;(2). Russian.
- Gluzman, Semyon [Семён Глузман]. Психиатрия: Что делать? [Psychiatry: What to do?]. Новости медицины и фармации [Medicine and Pharmacy News]. 2013c;14(465). Russian.
- Gluzman, Semyon. Abuse of psychiatry: analysis of the guilt of medical personnel. Journal of Medical Ethics. 1991;17(Supplement):19–20. doi:10.1136/jme.17.Suppl.19. PMID 1795363.
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