Political boss

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1869 tobacco label featuring Boss Tweed

A boss, in politics, is a person who wields the power over a particular political region or constituency. Bosses may dictate voting patterns, control appointments, and wield considerable influence in other political processes. They do not necessarily hold public office themselves. In fact, most historical bosses did not, at least during the times of their greatest influence.

Bosses were a major part of the political landscape during the 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States. One of the most powerful of these was James A. Farley who was the chief dispenser of Democratic Party patronage during Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal administration. Farley parlayed his position as Democratic National Committee boss into a run for the Democratic nomination for President in 1940. Farley had been elected to public office only once, to the New York State Assembly, an office that he held for only one year: 1922-23. In the South, charismatic populist politicians like Huey Long commanded large networks of supporters. Similar practices existed in the northern cities, particularly New York City, where Boss Tweed (arguably the most infamous political boss) wielded control over the powerful Democratic political machine. In Denver, Colorado during the 1890s there was Jefferson Randolph "Soapy" Smith who operated as the Republican party boss and political fixer.

Charles Brayton exercised great influence over the politics of turn of the 20th century Rhode Island and was an example of bossism within the Republican Party. Analogues could be found in most other urban area settings such as Chicago and the political racket of E. H. Crump in Memphis, Tennessee.

The HBO television series Boardwalk Empire focuses on Enoch "Nucky" Thompson (based on the historical Enoch L. Johnson), a Republican Party boss who rose to prominence and controlled Atlantic City, New Jersey during the Prohibition period of the 1920s and 1930s.

Bossism is generally associated with corruption and organized crime and has often been regarded as subversive to the democratic process. Nevertheless, it has been common practice since the Roman Republic, and remains fairly widespread today, particularly in undeveloped nations. An element of bossism remains in most political environments, albeit arguably to a far lesser extent than it once did.

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