Political censorship exists when a government attempts to conceal, fake, distort, or falsify information that its citizens receive by suppressing or crowding out political news that the public might receive through news outlets. In the absence of neutral and objective information, people will be unable to dissent with the government or political party in charge. The term also extends to the systematic suppression of views that are contrary to those of the government in power. The government often possesses the power of the army and the secret police, to enforce the compliance of journalists with the will of the authorities to spread the story that the ruling authorities want people to believe. At times this involves bribery, defamation, imprisonment, and even assassination.
Journalist prison census
Political censorship in practice
Over the course of history, many nations and political organisations have utilised political censorship and propaganda in order to manipulate the public. The Ancien régime, for example, is well known for having implemented censorship.
In 1851, Napoleon III declared himself emperor. The wealthier citizens immediately saw in him a way to protect their privileges, that were put in danger by the French Revolution of 1848, which threatened to re-organise the social hierarchy. This was a time when all sorts of cultural productions was censored, from newspapers to plays.
Independent journalism did not exist in the Soviet Union until Mikhail Gorbachev became its leader; all reporting was directed by the Communist Party. Pravda, the predominant newspaper in the Soviet Union, had a near-monopoly. Foreign newspapers were available only if they were published by Communist Parties sympathetic to the Soviet Union.
In 1973, a military coup took power in Uruguay, and the State employed censorship. For example, writer Eduardo Galeano was imprisoned and later was forced to flee. His book Open Veins of Latin America was banned by the right-wing military government, not only in Uruguay, but also in Chile and Argentina.
Many countries' campaign finance laws restrict speech on candidates and political issues. In Citizens United v. FEC, the United States Supreme Court found that many such restrictions are an unconstitutional form of censorship.
Political self-censorship is a major issue in most media outlets. Most media outlets, for example CNN, Channel News Asia, and NDTV tend to have apparent liberal biases, whilst some others, most famously Fox News and Times Now have noticeable conservative biases.
- "CPJ's 2008 prison census: Online and in jail".
- The Commissar vanishes (The Newseum)
- COSTA, Iná Camargo (2001) Political Theater in Brazil. Trans/Form/Ação [online], vol.24, n.1 [cited 2011-12-25], pp. 113-120. Available in: link. ISSN 0101-3173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-31732001000100008.
- "10 most censored countries". The Committee to Protect Journalists.