- see Particularism
Political particularism is a concept used in political sciences. It describes "the ability of policymakers to further their careers by appealing to narrow interests rather than the wider interests of the country". It is often characterized by its opponents as the politics of group identity that trumps universal rights and therefore the rights of minorities or any other kind of “other.” Though in reality, particularism is not "trumping" Natural and legal rights (i.e. universal rights), but about the representation of interests.
In a political system governed by particularism, sooner or later, the decisive factor of politics becomes religious and ethnic identity and the interests of the communities defined by these bonds – instead of the ideas and values of political pluralism with its emphasis on universal rights, separation of religion and the government and an ethic of religious and ethnic tolerance.
- Alejandro Gaviria; Ugo Panizza; Ernesto Stein; Jessica Seddon (March 2000). "Political Institutions and Growth Collapses". Retrieved January 14, 2009.
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