List of political parties in India
India has a multi-party system with predominance of small regional parties. Political parties that wish to contest local, state or national elections are required to be registered by the Election Commission of India (ECI). Registration with ECI does not ensure recognition as a party. A recognized party has more privileges than a registered unrecognized party. In order to gain recognition in a state, the party must have had political activity for at least five continuous years, and send at least 4% of the state's quota to the Lok Sabha (India's Lower house), or 3.33% of members to the Legislative Assembly of that state. These conditions are deemed to have failed if a member of the Lok Sabha or the Legislative Assembly of the State becomes a member of that political party after his election. If a party is recognised in four or more states, it is declared as a "National party" by the EC. Otherwise, it is known as a "State Party".
All parties contesting the elections have to choose a symbol from a list of available symbols offered by the EC. All 29 states of the country along with the union territories of Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi have an elected government unless President's rule is imposed under certain conditions.
Number of political parties
As on 12 March 2014, following is the count of political parties in India which are registered with the Election Commission of India:
|Total Registered Parties||1687|
A registered party is recognised as a National Party only if it fulfils any of the following three conditions:
- The party wins 2% of seats in the Lok Sabha (11 seats) from at least 3 different States.
- At a General Election to Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly, the party polls 6% of votes in four States and in addition it wins 4 Lok Sabha seats.
- A party gets recognition as State Party in four or more States.
Both national and state parties have to fulfill these conditions for all subsequent Lokshabha or State elections. Else, they lose their status.
|S.No.||Name||Symbol||Symbol (Image)||Year of
Lok Sabha Seats
|1||Bharatiya Janata Party||Lotus||1980||Amit Shah||282 / 543|
|2||Indian National Congress||Hand||1885||Sonia Gandhi||44 / 543|
|3||Communist Party of India (Marxist)||Hammer, Sickle and Star||1964||Prakash Karat||9 / 543|
|4||Communist Party of India||Ears of Corn and Sickle||1925||Suravaram Sudhakar Reddy||1 / 543|
|5||Bahujan Samaj Party||Elephant (In all States/U.T.s except in
the State of Assam, where its candidates will have to choose a symbol from out of the list of free symbols specified by the Commission)
|1984||Mayawati||0 / 543|
|6||Nationalist Congress Party||Clock||1999||Sharad Pawar||6 / 543|
List of state parties
If a party is recognised as a state party by the Election Commission, it can reserve a symbol for its exclusive use in the state. The following are a list of recognised state parties as of 12 January 2014:
A political party shall be treated as a recognised political party in a State, if and only if the political party fulfills any of the following conditions:
- At General Elections or Legislative Assembly elections, the party has won 3% of seats in the legislative assembly of the State ( subject to a minimum of 3 seats).
- At a Lok Sabha General Elections, the party has won 1 Lok sabha seat for every 25 Lok Sabha seat allotted for the State.
- At a General Election to Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly, the party has polled minimum of 6% of votes in a State and in addition it has won 1 Lok Sabha or 2 Legislative Assembly seats.
- At a General Election to Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly, the party has polled 8% of votes in a State.
Unrecognized Political Parties by Election Commission of India(State wise list)
- Subrata K. Mitra and V.B. Singh. 1999. Democracy and Social Change in India: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National Electorate. New Delhi: Sage Publications. ISBN 81-7036-809-X (India HB) ISBN 0-7619-9344-4 (U.S. HB).
- Subrata K. Mitra, Mike Enskat, Clemens Spiess (eds.). 2004. Political Parties in South Asia. Greenwood: Praeger.
- "Registration of Political Parties". FAQs. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- "Names of Recognised National and State Parties, Registered-unrecognised parties". Election Commission of India. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 15, 2014.
- Data collect from ECI 19-01-2013
- ElectoralLaws-VOL I
- ElectoralLaws-VOL II
- Election Commission of India
- Indian Politician Directory
- JMWT Real Education
- Four parties risk losing national status