List of political parties in New Zealand
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politics and government of
New Zealand national politics feature a pervasive party system. Usually, all members of Parliament's unicameral House of Representatives belong to a political party. Independent MPs occur relatively rarely. While two primary parties do indeed dominate the political landscape, the country now more closely resembles a multi-party state, where smaller groups can reasonably expect to play a role in government. As of August 2011, eight parties have representatives in Parliament.
Political parties in New Zealand evolved towards the end of the nineteenth century out of interest groups and personal cliques. Most historians regard the Liberal Party, which began its rule in 1891, as the first real party in New Zealand politics. During the long period of Liberal Party control the party's more conservative opponents founded the Reform Party, forming the original duopoly in the New Zealand parliament.
Gradually, Liberal and Reform found themselves working together more often, mostly in opposition to the growing Labour Party. After Labour eventually won office in 1935, the Liberals and Reform came together to form the National Party. Labour and National currently exist as the two main parties of New Zealand politics.
Over the years, a number of "third parties" or so-called "minor parties" developed, notably the Social Credit Party, the New Zealand Party, the Values Party, and the Alliance. However, the "first past the post" electoral system meant that regardless of how many votes a party gained nation-wide, it could not win a seat without a plurality in a particular electorate (voting district). Under such conditions, these parties mostly performed poorly in terms of making an impact in Parliament.
With the introduction of the Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) electoral system for the 1996 elections, however, it became much easier for smaller parties to enter parliament; but more difficult to gain election as a non-party independent. Since the change to MMP, about one third of the seats in Parliament have been held by MPs representing parties other than Labour and National. In the years before MMP, by contrast, there were sometimes no such MPs at all.
Registration of parties
Political parties in New Zealand can be either registered or unregistered. Registered parties must have five-hundred paying members, each eligible to vote in general elections.
If a party registers, it may submit a party list, enabling it to receive party votes in New Zealand's MMP electoral system. Unregistered parties can only nominate candidates for individual electorates.
Parties currently in the New Zealand House of Representatives
The order in which political parties appear in this list corresponds to the number of MPs they currently have. Note that political parties within the House declare their existence to the Speaker, and do not need to be registered outside of the House.
|National Party||John Key||A centre-right, socially liberal party with some conservative elements. The largest party in Parliament, it has traditionally been Labour's main opponent.
It supports a mixed economy market, lower taxation, and less legislative interference.
|Labour Party||David Cunliffe||A centre-left, socially progressive party. It is the oldest party in New Zealand and has been traditionally National's main opponent. It is currently the second largest party in Parliament.||34|
|Green Party||Metiria Turei and
|A Green party with strong left-wing environmentalist influences. It also promotes highly progressive social policies.||14|
|New Zealand First||Winston Peters||A centrist, populist, and nationalist party. Its primary goals are reducing immigration, reducing Treaty of Waitangi payments,
increasing sentences for crime, and buying back former state assets.
|Māori Party||Tariana Turia and
|A party based around New Zealand's indigenous Māori minority. It crystallised in 2004 around Tariana Turia,
a former minister of the Labour Party. It promotes what it sees as the rights and interests of Māori.
|ACT||John Banks||A classically liberal party that promotes free market economics, low taxation, reduced government expenditure,
and increased punishments for crime. It sees itself as promoting accountability and transparency in government.
|Mana Party||Hone Harawira||A party based around New Zealand's indigenous Māori minority that primarily supports Māori Nationalist and Socialist policies.||1|
|United Future||Peter Dunne||A moderately centrist party formerly with a strong Christian background: it describes itself as based around "common sense".
It has a particular focus on policies concerning the family and social issues.
This party was registered prior to the 31st of May 2013, but was de-registered after failing to retain 500 members (see the relevant section of the party entry).
Registered parties outside of Parliament
Parties listed in alphabetical order:
|Alliance||Victor Billot and
|A left-wing party supporting the welfare state, free education, environmental protection, and Māori interests.
The Progressive Party (see below) formed as a splinter-group from the Alliance when Jim Anderton, former Alliance leader, left.
|Conservative Party of New Zealand||Colin Craig||A socially conservative party advocating stricter law and order policies, repealing of the ETS and binding referenda.|
|NZ Democrats||Stephnie de Ruyter||A party based around the idea of Social Credit. The party formerly formed part of the Alliance (see above);
previously, as the Social Credit Party, was one of the older surviving parties in New Zealand.
|Legalise Cannabis Party||Michael Appleby||A party which (as its name suggests) supports the legalisation of cannabis.
This remains the core of its platform, although it also comments on other issues that it considers related.
|Libertarianz||Richard McGrath||A libertarian party dedicated to laissez-faire capitalism and keeping government as small as possible.|
Parties listed in alphabetical order:
|1Law4All Party||A party aimed at overturning the Treaty of Waitangi|
|Aotearoa NZ Youth Party||Robert Terry|
|Communist League||Unknown||A communist party aligned with the Pathfinder tendency. The party was originally called the Socialist Action League, but changed its name when it rejected Trotskyism and adopted a pro-Cuba stance. The party stands a small number of candidates in general elections.|
|Focus NZ||Joe Carr and Ken Rintoul||A party aimed at representing rural New Zealand.|
|Hapu Party||David Rankin||A Māori-based party established to challenge the Māori Party.|
|Human Rights Party||Unknown||A small party focused on human rights and social justice.|
|Join Australia Movement Party||Robin Caithness||A party advocating union with Australia|
|New Economics Party||Deirdre Kent and Phil Stevens||A party advocating reform of the banking and currency system.|
|Nga Iwi Morehu Movement||Unknown||A small Maori-based party which has been active in a number of elections|
|OurNZ Party||Kelvyn Alp and Rangitunoa Black||A party advocating a new currency, binding referenda, and a written constitution.|
|Pirate Party of New Zealand||Kirk Twist||An copyright reform party based on the Swedish Pirate Party, with a focus on other technologcial issues, like net neutrality|
|Sovereignty Party||Tony Corbett||Unknown. Has applied for broadcasting allocation for the 2011 election|
|Thrive New Zealand||David Ding||Party logo registered in August 2013. Advocating Direct Democracy via an online tool called RealVoice|
|Workers Party||Rebecca Broad||Formerly known as the Anti-Capitalist Alliance. A coalition of socialists and anti-globalisation activists.|
Parties which held seats
|Christian Democrats||1995–1998||1995–1996||A Christian party established by sitting National MP Graeme Lee. After briefly establishing the Christian Coalition (see above) with the Christian Heritage Party, the Christian Democrats secularised themselves, adopting the name "Future New Zealand". Future New Zealand merged with United (see below) to form United Future New Zealand.|
|Christian Heritage NZ||1990–2006||1999||A party based around Christian conservative values. It supported policies to strengthen marriage and opposed abortion and same-sex unions.|
|Country Party||? – ?||1928–1938||A party established by members of the Farmers' Union to promote the interests of the rural sector. It reflected to an extent social credit monetary theory, and believed that farmers were not treated fairly by banks and the corporate world.|
|Democratic Labour Party||1940–1943||1940–1943||A splinter from the Labour Party led by dissident MP John A. Lee. Lee, a socialist and social creditist, believed that the Labour Party had moved too far from its left-wing roots. The Labour Party hierarchy had expelled him after he repeatedly criticised its leadership.|
|Future New Zealand||1994–1995||1994–1995||A short-lived party established by Peter Dunne after he left the Labour Party. It integrated into the United New Zealand party. Not to be confused with a later party of the same name.|
|Independent Political Labour League||1905–1910||1908–1910||A small and short-lived left-wing party. It was the second organised party to win a seat in Parliament, with David McLaren winning the seat of Wellington East. In Parliament, the IPLL co-operated with the governing Liberal Party.|
|Labour Party (original)||1910–1912||1910–1912||A short-lived successor to the Independent Political Labour League. It functioned as one of the more moderate workers' parties, opposing more radical groups like the Socialist Party. It should not be confused with the modern Labour Party, although a certain degree of continuity links the two.|
|Liberal Party||1891–1927||1891–1927||New Zealand's first real political party. It provided the country with a number of prominent Prime Ministers, including John Ballance and Richard Seddon. With much of its traditional support undercut by the growing Labour Party, the remnants of the Liberals (known as the United Party) eventually merged with the Reform Party to form the modern National Party.|
|Liberal Party||1992 – 1996?||1992||A short-lived splinter from the National Party, formed by Hamish McIntyre and Gilbert Myles, two dissident National MPs who disagreed with the economic policies of Ruth Richardson. The Liberal Party quickly joined the Alliance, which the two saw as the principal opponent of Richardson and her ideological allies.|
|Mana Wahine Te Ira Tangata||1998–2001||1998–1999||A short-lived Māori feminist party established by Alliance (Mana Motuhake) defector Alamein Kopu. The party contested only one general election before vanishing.|
|Mauri Pacific||1999–2001||1999||A party established by several New Zealand First MPs shortly after a coalition between New Zealand First and the National Party broke down. Mauri Pacific remained allied to the National government, giving it crucial support, but none of the party's MPs gained re-election in the 1999 elections.|
|NewLabour Party||1989–1991||1989–1991||A left-wing party established by former Labour MP Jim Anderton. It contested one election before joining with several other parties to establish the Alliance.|
|Pacific Party||2008–2010||2008–2008||A small party established by Taito Phillip Field aimed at advancing Pacific Peoples, as well as Christian and family values and social justice.|
|Progressive Party||2002-2012||2002-2011||A left-wing party with a focus on job creation and regional development, formed by Jim Anderton after the breakup of the Alliance.|
|Reform Party||1909–1936||1909–1936||New Zealand's second major political party, established as a more conservative opponent to the Liberal Party. Its founder, William Massey, became its most prominent leader. It eventually merged with its former rivals, the Liberals, to form the modern National Party.|
|Social Credit Party||1953–1986||1966 – 1969
1979 – 1987
|New Zealand's "third party" between the 1960s and the 1980s. The Social Credit Party espoused the theory of social credit, a type of monetary reform, although much of its support represented protest votes rather than support of its policies. It has since renamed itself, becoming the Democratic Party.|
|Social Democratic Party||1913–1916||1913–1916||An early left-wing party established at a "Unity Congress" in July 1913 as an attempt to bring together the various labour groups of the time. The party eventually amalgamated with the modern Labour Party.|
|Socialist Party (i)||1901–1913||? – 1913||One of the more prominent Marxist parties in early New Zealand, strongly associated with the Federation of Labour (the "Red Fed"). It eventually merged with the more moderate United Labour Party to form the Social Democratic Party.|
|United New Zealand||1995–2000||1995–2000||A centrist party established by moderate MPs from both National and Labour. The party did not achieve electoral success, with only one of the seven founding MPs managing to remain in parliament. United later merged with the Future New Zealand party to form the modern United Future New Zealand.|
|United Labour Party||1912–1913||1912–1913||A reformed continuation of the original Labour Party. The party existed only a short time before merging with the Socialist Party to form the Social Democratic Party, although a faction rejected the new SDP as too extreme and attempted to continue on under the United Labour Party banner.|
|United Party||1927–1936||1927–1936||A party formed from the remnants of the Liberal Party. United governed between 1928 and 1935, initially with Labour support and later in coalition with the Reform Party. It eventually merged with Reform to establish the modern National Party.|
Parties which never held seats
|99 MP Party||2005–2006||A party primarily focused on reducing the total number of MPs from 120 to 99. It also believed that all constitutional changes should be put to a referendum.|
|Asia Pacific United Party||? – ?||A party which attempted to gain support from Asian and Pacific Islander immigrants. It contested the 1996 and 1999 elections, but has since dissolved.|
|Bill and Ben Party||2008–2010||A joke party run by Bill and Ben, hosts of the TV show Pulp Sport.|
|Christian Coalition||1996–1997||A brief alliance of the Christian Democrats and the Christian Heritage Party. It narrowly missed entering parliament in the 1996 election, and disbanded shortly afterwards.|
|Communist Party||1929–1994||Probably New Zealand's most prominent and long-lived communist organisation. The party generally pursued hard-line doctrines, successively following Stalin's Soviet Union, Mao Zedong's China, and Enver Hoxha's Albania. In 1993, the party moderated its stance, adopting Trotskyism. It later merged with another party to form the group now known as Socialist Worker.|
|Co-operative Party||1942 – ?||A short-lived party established by Albert Davy, a prominent anti-socialist political organiser. It was primarily a breakaway from the larger People's Movement, and Davy rejoined the Movement the year after the Co-operative Party was established.|
|Democrat Party||1934 – ?||A party established to promote the interests of the commercial sector and to oppose "socialist" legislation. The party contested the 1935 elections, but failed to win any seats. Ironically, the votes which the Democrats took from the governing coalition may have assisted the victory of the left-wing Labour Party that year. The Democrat Party should not be confused with the modern Democratic Party.|
|Destiny New Zealand||2003–2007||A party based around the Destiny Church, a Christian religious organisation. The party mostly campaigned on a family values platform, and strongly opposed legislative changes such as the creation of same-sex civil unions and the legalisation of prostitution.|
|Direct Democracy Party||2005–2009||A party which seeks to increase the participation of ordinary citizens in the political process. It advocates a system of referendums similar to that used by Switzerland.|
|Equal Values Party||2005 – ?||A left-wing party active during the 2005 election. It supported free education and healthcare, an increase to social welfare benefits, and the establishment of compulsory superannuation schemes.|
|Ethnic Minority Party||1996–1997||A party focused around New Zealand's immigrant community, particularly Chinese and Indians. The popularity of New Zealand First, a party which opposed immigration, was a significant factor in its creation. It merged into United New Zealand, but little trace of it remains today.|
|Family Party||2007–2010||A small Christian party established by the former Destiny New Zealand.|
|Family Rights Protection Party||2005–2007||A party established by a group of Pacific Islanders who claim that larger parties are taking the support of Pacific Islanders for granted, and do not do enough to help them.|
|Freedom Party||2005 – ?||A party established by two former members of ACT New Zealand. Its policies were intended to be similar to those of ACT, but the party's founders said that the Freedom Party will be more democratic and accountable to its members.|
|Future New Zealand||1998–2002||A reconfiguration of the former Christian Democrat Party. Future New Zealand retained the same family values principles as the Christian Democrats, but abandoned the explicit religious basis. Future New Zealand merged with United New Zealand to form the modern United Future New Zealand.|
|Green Society||? – ?||A small environmentalist party. The Green Society believed that a true green party needed to be focused solely on the environment, and believed that the Green Party (then part of the Alliance) and the Progressive Green Party were both mistaken to take sides in economic and social debates.|
|Imperial British Conservative Party||1974 – ?||A joke party founded by Ian Brackenbury Channell, better known as "The Wizard of New Zealand". True to its name, it claimed to support imperialism, British people, and conservatism.|
|Kiwi Party||2007–2012||A revival of the Christian Democrats / Future New Zealand brand. The party advocates
more representative direct democracy through referenda and a return to the "Judeo-Christian ethic in democracy".
|Liberal Party||1963 – ?||A party which campaigned in the 1963 elections on a platform of reducing the size of the government, introducing a written constitution, and restoring the upper house of Parliament.|
|Mana Māori Movement||1993 – 2005?||A party based around New Zealand's indigenous Māori inhabitants, founded by Eva Rickard, a prominent Māori activist and a former Mana Motuhake candidate.|
|Mana Motuhake||1979? – 2005?||The most prominent Māori-based party until the creation of the modern Māori Party. Mana Motuhake held a number of seats as part of the Alliance (see above), but most of its support has now been incorporated into the Māori Party.|
|McGillicuddy Serious Party||1983–1999||A joke party intended to satirise politics in general. Among other deliberately absurd policies it advocated the "Great Leap Backwards", a project to reverse the industrial revolution and to re-establish a medieval way of life.|
|National Front||1968? – 2008||A far right party which wished to stop non-white immigration, reintroduce capital punishment and conscription, withdraw from international organisations such as the United Nations, and nullify the Treaty of Waitangi. It is sometimes accused of being a neo-Nazi group, and although the party denies this it is openly racist.|
|National Socialist Party||1969 – ?||A party founded by prominent far-right activist Colin King-Ansell. It is sometimes considered the first noteworthy far-right party in New Zealand.|
|Natural Law Party||1995 – 2001?||A party which based its principles on the concept of natural law as promoted by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in his theory of Transcendental Meditation. It drew most of its support from the New Age movement.|
|New Citizen Party||2010 - 2012||A short-lived party formed to represent Chinese New Zealanders. It came third in the 2011 Botany by-election, but dissolved before contesting a general election.|
|New Democratic Party||1972 – ?||A short-lived splinter group of the Social Credit Party, founded by ousted Social Credit leader John O'Brien. It placed fifth in the 1972 elections, but failed to win any seats.|
|New World Order Party||2008 – 2011||A party promoting global peace through a unified World Government|
|New Zealand Liberals||2008 – ?||A small party modelled on the old New Zealand Liberal Party and the UK Liberal Democrats. It advocates constitutional reform, republicanism, and civil rights.|
|New Zealand Party||1983–1986||A party established by property tycoon Bob Jones to promote free market economic policies and liberal social policies. It gained twelve percent of the vote in its first election, but then vanished almost completely. Some regard the modern ACT party as the New Zealand Party's ideological successor, but not everyone accepts this view.|
|No Commercial Airport at Whenuapai Airbase Party||2008||A local party which grew out of the movement opposing a commercial airport at Auckland's Whenuapai airbase.|
|One New Zealand Party||1999–2006||A small party modelled on Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party in Australia. It opposes all special policies towards Māori.|
|Outdoor Recreation NZ||2001–2007||A party dedicated to promoting the interests of the hunting, fishing, and shooting communities. Outdoor Recreation New Zealand contested the 2005 election under the banner of the United Future party, although the parties did not actually merge. This working arrangement met with disappointing results.|
|Patriot Party||? – 2005||A small Auckland-based party established by Sid Wilson, a senior member of the National Front. The party later merged back into the Front, with Wilson becoming the Front's new leader.|
|People's Choice Party||1999 – ?||A small party which was registered for the 1999 elections, but which is currently unregistered. It campaigned against MMP and in favour of reducing the size of Parliament.|
|People's Movement||1940s||A right-wing organisation which supported reductions in the size of government and a reform of the party system. It was a strong supporter of individualism, saying that the government of the time was advocating the subordination of the individual to the state.|
|Phoenix Party||1960s – 1970s||A small Dunedin-based grouping, founded by Gerald Williams, who saw the then Labour Party as moribund and in need of a phoenix-like resurrection. Williams became an effective propagandist, penning campaign literature disguised as parodies of well-known songs. He later transferred his efforts to the Values Party.|
|Progressive Green Party||1995 – ?||An environmentalist party established in opposition to the generally left-wing policies of the larger Green Party. It contested only one election before vanishing, although many of its members became active in the National Party.|
|Reform New Zealand||2011||A right-wing party advocating free market economics, low taxation, and reduced government.|
|Representative Party||2008||A self-proclaimed centrist party aiming at contesting the electorate vote.|
|Republican Party (i)||1967–1974||A party established to promote the creation of a New Zealand Republic. It was founded by left-wing activist Bruce Jesson, and was the product of the Republican Association, an anti-royal protest group founded by Jesson in 1966.|
|Republican Party (ii)||1995–2002||A party established to promote the creation of a New Zealand Republic. The party contested the 1999 elections, but only won 250 votes. Should not be confused with The Republic of New Zealand Party or the Republican Movement of Aotearoa New Zealand.|
|Residents Action Movement||2003–2010||A left-wing party aiming to bring together social liberals, community activists, social democrats and left-wing radicals.|
|Socialist Party||1930 – ?||A party established by former members of the New Zealand Marxian Association, a Marxist group. Its founders created it as an alternative to the mainstream labour movement, claiming that the Labour Party had moved too far from its left-wing roots. The Socialist Party eventually became the modern World Socialist Party.|
|Socialist Unity Party||1966 – ?||A splinter group of the Communist Party (see above). It formed around Communist Party members who rejected their party's decision to take China's side in the Sino-Soviet split. The Socialist Unity Party became one of the more prominent communist parties in New Zealand.|
|South Island Party||? – 2002||A regionalist party which called for more autonomy for the South Island, the less populous of New Zealand's two main islands. It drew support predominantly from Otago and Southland.|
|Te Tawharau||1999–2007||A Māori party which split off from the Mana Māori Movement. It lapsed with the formation of the Māori Party.|
|The Republic of New Zealand Party||2005 - 2009||A party focused on establishing a Republic in New Zealand. It also supports the adoption of a written constitution, the holding of referendums on major issues, and the abolition of race-specific government institutions.|
|Values Party||1972–1990||Sometimes called the world's first national-level green party. Elements of the Values Party eventually contributed to the formation of the modern Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand.|
|WIN Party||2004–2006||A single-issue party devoted to overturning the recently introduced smoking ban in bars and restaurants.|
- Politics of New Zealand
- List of political parties by country
- Socialism in New Zealand
- Liberalism in New Zealand
- Elections New Zealand (more information on the election systems)