Political party strength in Michigan

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The tables below indicate the political party affiliation of elected officials in the U.S. State of Michigan from statehood through January 2011.[1]

Officials listed include: Governors, Lieutenant Governors, Secretaries of State, Attorneys General and State Treasurers.[2] The tables also indicate the historical party composition in the State Senate, State House of Representatives, the names and party affiliations of Michigan's U.S. Senators, and the party composition of Michigan's delegations to the U.S House of Representatives. For years in which a presidential election was held, the tables show which party's nominees received the State's electoral votes.

The parties are indicated as follows:       Democratic (D),       Republican (R), and       Whig (W), with purple       designating a tie between two parties.

19th century – from statehood in 1837 to 1899[edit]

Year Executive offices State Legislature United States Congress Electoral College votes
Governor Lieutenant Governor Secretary of State Attorney General Treasurer State Senate State House U.S. Senator (Class I) U.S. Senator (Class II) U.S. Representatives
1837 Stevens T. Mason (D) Edward Mundy (D) Kintzing Pritchette (D)[3] Peter Morey (D)[4] Appointed Office 16 50 Lucius Lyon (D) John Norvell (D) 1D
1838 Randolph Manning (D)[5]
1839 17 52 Vacant 1D
1840 William Woodbridge (W)[6] James Wright Gordon (W) Thomas Rowland (W)[7] Augustus Porter (W) Harrison/Tyler (W)
1841 James Wright Gordon (W)[8] Thomas J. Drake (W) Zephaniah Platt 17 52 William Woodbridge (W) 1W
1842 John S. Barry (D) Origen D. Richardson (D) Robert P. Eldredge (D) [9]
1843 Elon Farnsworth (D) 18 53 3D
1844 Polk/Dallas (D)
1845 Henry N. Walker (D)[10] 18 53 Lewis Cass (D) 3D
1846 Alpheus Felch (D)[6] William L. Greenly (D) Gideon O. Whittemore
1847 William L. Greenly (D)[8] Charles P. Bush (D) Edward Mundy (D) 22 66 Alpheus Felch (D) 3D
1848 Epaphroditus Ransom (D) William M. Fenton (D) George Washington Peck (D)[11] George V. N. Lothrop (D) Thomas Fitzgerald (D) Cass/Butler (D)
1849 22 66 Lewis Cass (D) 2D, 1W
1850 John S. Barry (D) George R. Redfield (D)[12] Bernard C. Whittemore (D)[13][14][15]
1851 Charles H. Taylor (D)[16] William Hale (D) 22 63 2W, 1D
1852 Robert McClelland[17] Calvin Britain (D) Pierce/King (D)
1853 Andrew Parsons (D) William Graves (D)[18] 32 71 Charles E. Stuart (D) 4D
Andrew Parsons (D)[8] George Griswold (D)
1854
1855 Kinsley S. Bingham (R) George Coe (R) John McKinney (R)[19] Jacob M. Howard (R) Silas M. Holmes (R) [20] 25R, 7D 48R, 24D 3R, 1D
1856 Fremont/Dayton ( R)
1857 29R, 3D 63R, 17D Zachariah Chandler (R) 4R
1858
1859 Moses Wisner (R) Edmund B. Fairfield (R) Nelson G. Isbell (R)[21] John McKinney (R) 24R, 8D 56R, 25D Kinsley S. Bingham (R) 3R, 1D
1860
1861 Austin Blair (R) James M. Birney (R) James B. Porter (R) [22] Charles Upson (R) John Owen (R)[23] 30R, 2D 72R, 11D 4R Lincoln/Hamlin (R)
Joseph R. Williams (R)
1862 Henry T. Backus (R) Jacob M. Howard (R)
1863 Charles S. May (R) Albert Williams (R)[24] 18R, 14D 60R, 39D 5R, 1D
1864 Lincoln/Johnson (R)
1865 Henry H. Crapo (R) Ebenezer O. Grosvenor (R) 21R, 11D 73R, 27D 6R
1866
1867 Dwight May (R) Oliver L. Spaulding (R)[25] William L. Stoughton (R) Ebenezer O. Grosvenor (R) 30R, 1D 79R, 21D 6R
1868 Grant/Colfax (R)
1869 Henry P. Baldwin (R) Morgan Bates (R) Dwight May (R) 27R, 5D 75R, 25D 6R
1870
1871 Daniel Striker (R)[26] Victory P. Collier (R)[27] 27R, 5D 71R, 29D Thomas W. Ferry (R) 5R, 1D
1872 Grant/Wilson (R)
1873 John J. Bagley (R) Henry H. Holt (R) Byron D. Ball (R)[28] 31R, 1D 95R, 5D 9R
1874 Isaac Marston (R)[29]
1875 Ebenezer G. D. Holden (R)[30] Andrew J. Smith (R)[31] William B. McCreery (R)[32] 17R, 15D 54R, 46D Isaac P. Christiancy (R) 6R, 3D
1876 Hayes/Wheeler (R)
1877 Charles Croswell (R) Alonzo Sessions (R) Otto Kirchner (R) 23R, 9D 75R, 25D 8R, 1D
1878
1879 William Jenney (R)[33] Benjamin D. Pritchard (R)[34] 23R, 9D 75R, 25D Zachariah Chandler (R) 9R
1880 Henry P. Baldwin (R)
1881 David Jerome (R) Moreau S. Crosby (R) Jacob J. Van Riper (R)[35] 30R, 2D 86R, 14D Omar D. Conger (R) 9R Garfield/Arthur (R)
1882
1883 Josiah Begole (D) Harry A. Conant (R)[36] Edward H. Butler (R)[37] 19R, 13D 62R, 38D Thomas W. Palmer (R) 5R, 6D
1884 Blaine/Logan (R)
1885 Russell Alger (R) Archibald Buttars (R) Moses Taggart (R) [38] 18R, 14D 52R, 48D 4R, 7D
1886
1887 Cyrus G. Luce (R) James H. MacDonald (R) Gilbert R. Osmun (R)[39] George L. Maltz (R)[40] 22R, 10D 63R, 37D Francis B. Stockbridge (R) 6R, 5D
1888 Harrison/Morton (R)
1889 William Ball (R) Stephen V. R. Trowbridge (R)[41] 24R, 8D 70R, 30D James McMillan (D) 9R, 2D
1890 Benjamin W. Huston(R)[42]
1891 Edwin B. Winans (D) John Strong (D) Daniel E. Soper (D)[43] Adolphus A. Ellis (D)[44] Frederick Braastad (D)[45] 15R, 17D 34R, 66D 3R, 8D
1892 Robert R. Blacker (D)[46] Harrison/Reid (R), 9 votes
Cleveland/Stevenson (D), 5 votes)
1893 John T. Rich (R) J. Wight Giddings (R) John W. Jochim (R)[47][48] Joseph F. Hambitzer (R)[48][49] 22R, 10D 69R,31 D 7R, 5D
1894 Washington Gardner (R)[50] James M. Wilkinson (R) [48] John Patton, Jr. (R)
1895 Alfred Milnes (R) Fred A. Maynard (R)[48][51] 32R, 0D 99R, 1D Julius C. Burrows (R) 12R
1896 Joseph R. McLaughlin (R) McKinley/Hobart (R)
1897 Hazen S. Pingree (R) Thomas B. Dunstan (R) George A. Steel (R)[52] 26R, 6D 81R, 19D 10R, 2D
1898
1899 Orrin W. Robinson (R) Justus S. Stearns (R)[53] Horace M. Oren (R)[54] 27R, 5D 92R, 8 D 12R
Year Governor Lieutenant Governor Secretary of State Attorney General Treasurer State Senate State House U.S. Senator (Class I) U.S. Senator (Class II) U.S. Representatives Electoral College votes
Executive offices State Legislature United States Congress

20th century – 1900 to 1964[edit]

Year Executive offices State Legislature United States Congress Electoral College votes
Governor Lieutenant Governor Secretary of State Attorney General Treasurer Auditor Highway Commissioner State Senate State House U.S. Senator (Class I) U.S. Senator (Class II) U.S. Representatives
1900 Hazen S. Pingree (R) Orrin W. Robinson (R) Justus S. Stearns (R) Horace M. Oren (R) George A. Steel[55] Roscoe D. Dix (R) No such office 27R, 5D[56] 92R, 8D Julius C. Burrows (R) James McMillan (R) 12 R McKinley/Roosevelt (R)
1901 Aaron T. Bliss (R) Fred M. Warner (R)[57] Daniel M. McCoy (R)[48] Perry F. Powers (R) 31R, 1D 90R, 10D 12 R
1902
1903 Alexander Maitland (R) Charles A. Blair (R)[58] 31R, 1D 100R Russell A. Alger (R) 11 R, 1 D
1904 Roosevelt/Fairbanks (R)
1905 Fred M. Warner (R) George A. Prescott (R)[59] John E. Bird (R)[60] Frank P. Glazier (R) James B. Bradley (R) Horatio Earle (R) 32R 95R, 5D 12 R
1906
1907 Patrick H. Kelley (R) 32R 95R, 5D William A. Smith (R) 12 R
1908 John T. Rich (R) Taft/Sherman (R)
1909 Frederick C. Martindale (R)[61] Albert Sleeper (R) Oramel B. Fuller (R) Townsend A. Ely (R) 32R 98R, 2D 12 R
1910 Franz C. Kuhn (R)[62]
1911 Chase Osborn (R) John Q. Ross (R) 28R, 4D 88R, 12D Charles E. Townsend (R) 10 R, 2 D
1912 Roger I. Wykes (R)[63] Roosevelt/Johnson (P)
1913 Woodbridge Nathan Ferris (D) Grant Fellows (R)[64] John W. Harrer (R) Frank F. Rogers (R) 27R, 5D 65R, 35 10 R, 2 D, 2 P
1914
1915 Luren Dickinson (R) Coleman C. Vaughan (R) [65] 29R, 3D 95R, 5D 11 R, 2 D
1916 Hughes/Fairbanks (R)
1917 Albert Sleeper (R) Alex Groesbeck (R) Samuel Odell 27R, 5D 88R, 12F 11 R, 2 D
1918
1919 32R 98R, 2R Truman H. Newberry (R) 12 R, 1 D
1920 Frank E. Gorman (R)[66] Harding/Coolidge (R)
1921 Alex Groesbeck (R) Thomas Read (R) Charles J. DeLand (R)[67] Merlin Wiley (R)[68] 32R 100R 13 R
1922
1923 Andrew B. Dougherty (R)[69] 32R 95R, 5D Woodbridge N. Ferris (D) James J. Couzens (R) 12 R, 1 D
1924 Coolidge/Dawes (R)
1925 George W. Welsh (R) Frank D. McKay[70] 32R 100R 13 R
1926 Clare Retan (R)[71]
1927 Fred Green (R) Luren Dickinson (R) John S. Haggerty (R)[72] William W. Potter 32R 98R, 2D 13 R
1928 Wilber Marion Brucker (R) Arthur H. Vandenberg (R) Hoover/Curtis (R)
1929 Grover C. Dillard (R) 32R 98R, 2D 13 R
1930
1931 Wilber Marion Brucker (R) Frank Fitzgerald (R)[73] Paul W. Voorhies (R)[74] Howard C. Lawrence (R) 32R, 1D 98R, 2D 13 R
1932 Roosevelt/Garner (D)
1933 William Comstock (D) Allen E. Stebbins (D) Patrick H. O’Brien (D)[75] Theodore I. Fry (D) John K. Stack Jr. (D) Murray Van Wagoner (D) 15R 17D 45R, 55D 7 R, 10 D
1934 Clarke W. Brown
1935 Frank Fitzgerald (R) Thomas Read (R) Orville E. Atwood (R)[76] Harry S. Toy (R)[77] John J. O'Hara (R) 11R, 21D 51R, 49D 11 R, 6 D
1936 David H. Crowley (R)[78] Roosevelt/Garner (D)
1937 Frank Murphy (D) Leo J. Nowicki (D) Leon D. Case (D)[79] Raymond Wesley Starr (D)[80] George T. Gundry (D) 15R, 17D 40R, 60D Prentiss M. Brown (D) 11 R, 6 D
1938
1939 Frank Fitzgerald (R)|[81] Luren Dickinson (R) Harry Kelly (R)[82] Thomas Read (R) Miller Dunckel (D) Vernon J. Brown (R) 23R, 9D 73R, 27D 12 R, 5 D
Luren Dickinson (R)[8] Matilda Dodge Wilson (R)
1940 Wilkie/McNary (R)
1941 Murray Van Wagoner (D) Frank Murphy (D) Herbert J. Rushton (R)[83] Theodore I. Fry (D) G. Donald Kennedy (R) 22R, 10D 68R, 32D 11 R, 6 D
1942
1943 Harry Kelly (R) Eugene C. Keyes (R) Herman H. Dignan (R)[84] D. Hale Brake (R) Lloyd B. Reid (D) 25R, 7D 74R, 26D Homer S. Ferguson (R) 12 R, 5 D
1944 Charles M. Zeigler (R) Roosevelt/Truman (D)
1945 Vernon J. Brown (R) John R. Dethmers (R) John D. Morrison (R) 24R, 8D 66R, 34D 11 R, 6 D
1946 Foss O. Eldred (R)[85]
1947 Kim Sigler (R) Eugene C. Keyes (R) Fred M. Alger, Jr. (R)[86] Eugene F. Black (R)[87] Murl K. Aten (R) 28R, 4D 95R, 5D 14 R, 3 D
1948 Dewey/Warren (R)
1949 G. Mennen Williams (D) John W. Connolly (D) Stephen John Roth (D)[88] 23R, 9D 61R, 39D 13 R, 4 D
1950 12 R, 5 D
1951 William C. Vandenberg (R) Frank G. Millard (R)[89] John B. Martin (R) 25R, 7D 61R, 39D Blair Moody (D) 12 R, 5 D
1952 Eisenhower/Nixon (R)
1953 Clarence A. Reid (R) Owen Cleary (R)[90] 24R, 8D 66R, 34D Charles E. Potter (R) 13 R, 5 D
1954
1955 Philip A. Hart (D) James M. Hare (D)[91] Thomas M. Kavanagh (D)[92] Sanford A. Brown (D) Victor Targonski (D) 23R, 11D 59R, 51D Patrick V. McNamara (D) 11 R, 7 D
1956 Eisenhower/Nixon (R)
1957 Frank S. Szymanski (D) John C. Mackie (D) 23R, 11D 61R, 49D 12 R, 6 D
1958 Paul L. Adams (D)
1959 John Swainson (D) Otis M. Smith (D) 12R, 22D 55R, 55D Phil Hart (D) 11 R, 7 D
1960 Kennedy/Johnson (D)
1961 John Swainson (D) T. John Lesinski (D) Billie S. Farnum (D) 22R, 12D 56R, 54D 11 R, 7 D
1962 Frank J. Kelley (D)
1963 George W. Romney (R)[93] 23R, 11D 58R, 52D 11 R, 8 D
1964 Johnson/Humphrey (D)
Governor Lieutenant Governor Secretary of State Attorney General Treasurer Auditor Highway Commissioner State Senate State House U.S. Senator (Class I) U.S. Senator (Class II) U.S. Representatives Electoral College votes
Executive offices State Legislature United States Congress

In 1963, the Michigan Constitution was rewritten, modifying the statewide elected positions.

20th century – 1965 to 1999[edit]

Year Executive offices State Legislature United States Congress Electoral College votes
Governor Lieutenant Governor Secretary of State Attorney General State Senate State House U.S. Senator (Class I) U.S. Senator (Class II) U.S. Representatives
1965 George W. Romney (R)[93] William Milliken (R) James M. Hare (D)[91] Frank J. Kelley (D) 15R, 23D 37R, 73D Phil Hart (D) Patrick V. McNamara (D) 7 R, 12 D
1966 Robert P. Griffin (R)
1967 20R, 18D 56R, 54D 12 R, 7 D
1968 Humphrey/Muskie (D)
1969 William Milliken (R)[94] vacant 20R, 18D 53R, 57D 12 R, 7 D
1970 Thomas F. Schweigert (R)
1971 James H. Brickley (R) Richard H. Austin (D) 19R, 19D 52R, 58D 12 R, 7 D
1972 Nixon/Agnew (R)
1973 19R, 19D 50R, 60D 12 R, 7 D
1974
1975 James Damman (R) 14R, 24D 44R, 66D 7 R, 12 D
1976 Ford/Dole (R)
1977 14R, 24D 42R, 68D Donald W. Riegle, Jr. (D) 8 R, 11 D
1978
1979 James H. Brickley (R) 14R, 24D 40R, 70D Carl Levin (D) 6 R, 13 D
1980 Reagan/Bush (R)
1981 14R, 24D 46R, 64D 7 R, 12 D
1982
1983 James Blanchard (D) Martha Griffiths (D) 18R, 20D 47R, 63D 6 R, 12 D
1984 Reagan/Bush (R)
1985 20R, 18D 53R, 57D 7 R, 11 D
1986
1987 20R, 18D 46R, 64D 7 R, 11 D
1988 Bush/Quayle (R)
1989 20R, 18D 49R, 61D 7 R, 11 D
1990
1991 John Engler (R) Connie Binsfeld (R) 20R, 18D 49R, 61D 7 R, 11 D
1992 Clinton/Gore (D)
1993 22R, 16D R55, D55 6 R, 10 D
1994
1995 Candice Miller (R) 22R, 16D 56R, 53D Spencer Abraham (R) 7 R, 9 D
1996 Clinton/Gore (D)
1997 22R, 16D 52R, 58D 6 R, 10 D
1998
1999 Dick Posthumus (R) Jennifer Granholm (D) 23R, 15D 58R, 52D 6 R, 10 D
Year Governor Lieutenant Governor Secretary of State Attorney General State Senate State House U.S. Senator (Class I) U.S. Senator (Class II) U.S. Representatives Electoral College votes
Executive offices State Legislature United States Congress

21st century[edit]

Year Executive offices State Legislature United States Congress Electoral College votes
Governor Lieutenant Governor Secretary of State Attorney General State Senate State House U.S. Senator (Class I) U.S. Senator (Class II) U.S. Representatives
2000 John Engler (R) Dick Posthumus (R) Candice Miller (R) Jennifer Granholm (D) 23R, 15D 58R, 52D Spencer Abraham (R) Carl Levin (D) 10D, 6R Gore/Lieberman (D)
2001 22R, 14D 57R, 52D Debbie Stabenow (D) 9D, 7R
2002
2003 Jennifer Granholm (D) John D. Cherry (D) Terri Lynn Land (R) Mike Cox (R) 22R, 16D 62R, 48D 9R, 6D
2004 Kerry/Edwards (D)
2005 22R, 16D 58R, 52D
2006
2007 21R, 17D 58D, 52R
2008 Obama/Biden (D)
2009 22R, 16D 67D, 43R 8D, 7R
2010
2011 Rick Snyder (R) Brian Calley (R) Ruth Johnson (R) Bill Schuette (R) 26R, 12D 63R, 47D 9R, 6D
2012 Obama/Biden (D)
2013 59R, 51D 9R, 5D
Year Governor Lieutenant Governor Secretary of State Attorney General State Senate State House U.S. Senator (Class I) U.S. Senator (Class II) U.S. Representatives Electoral College votes
Executive offices State Legislature United States Congress

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Party organization and machinery in Michigan since 1890, By Arthur Chester Millspaugh (1917) The Johns Hopkins Press Baltimore
  • Livingstone's history of the Republican party, A history of the Republican party from its foundation to the close of the campaign of 1900

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Until 1851, elections were held in odd number years; since that time, they have been held in even number years, on the first Tuesday in November, coincident with other national and state elections. Winners are now sworn in on January 1. Governors were elected to two year terms from 1837 until 1966 when the term was set at four years. Effective with the 2003 retirement of John Engler, governors are subject to a lifetime term limit of two four year terms.
  2. ^ State Treasurers are listed for the time period when it was an elective office, (1850–1963).
  3. ^ Kintzing Prichette Find A Grave.
  4. ^ Richard I. Bonner, (1909), Memoirs of Lenawee County, Michigan, Vol. 1, Western Historical Association, p. 611.
  5. ^ A Democrat until 1854, Manning became a Republican because of the Republican Party's anti slavery position. Biographies: Randolph Manning, Michigan Supreme Court Historical Society.
  6. ^ a b Resigned to take an elected seat in the U.S. Senate.
  7. ^ Chapter 15: politics in mid-nineteenth-century Michigan., (1995) The Free Library, William B. Eerdmans Publishing.
  8. ^ a b c d As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  9. ^ "American biographical history of eminent and self-made men ... Michigan volume", page 8, Collection: Michigan County Histories and Atlases, University of Michigan Digital Library.
  10. ^ Stephen D. Bingham, Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators, pages 665–666, University of Michigan Digital Library
  11. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Peck". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  12. ^ Bingham, Stephen D. "Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators. Pub. pursuant to act 59, 1887". p. 547. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  13. ^ First elected treasurer
  14. ^ "Former officials". 
  15. ^ "Michigan County Histories Early history of Michigan with biographies of state officers". p. 718. "Democrat" 
  16. ^ Bingham, Stephen D. "Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators. Pub. pursuant to act 59, 1887". p. 629. 
  17. ^ After a new state constitution was drafted in 1850, McClelland was elected to a single one-year term in 1851. He was then re-elected to a full two-year term in 1852 but resigned to become United States Secretary of the Interior.
  18. ^ Bingham, Stephen D. "Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators. Pub. pursuant to act 59, 1887". p. 304. 
  19. ^ Democrat, then Republican after 1854 Bingham, Stephen D. "Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators. Pub. pursuant to act 59, 1887". p. 452. 
  20. ^ Ran on the first Republican state ticket in 1854 Bingham, Stephen D. "Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators. Pub. pursuant to act 59, 1887". p. 349. 
  21. ^ Republican after 1854, Whig before that.Bingham, Stephen D. "Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators. Pub. pursuant to act 59, 1887". p. 373. 
  22. ^ Bingham, Stephen D. "Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators. Pub. pursuant to act 59, 1887". p. 530. 
  23. ^ "The Election To-Morrow.; Names Of The Candidates Before The People. New-York. Massachusetts. Illinois. Michigan. Iowa. New-Jersey. Minnesota. Wisconsin. Delaware". The New York Times. 1860-11-05. 
  24. ^ Report of the Attorney General By Michigan. Attorney General's Dept
  25. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Sparky to Spelts". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  26. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Strickler to Strommen". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  27. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Colemer to Collini". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  28. ^ Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and register of important events
  29. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=R5kUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=isaac+marston+michigan+politician&source=bl&ots=XEeT6TXIsh&sig=M19G40iwPej1vvAcIH5feAvBAgg&hl=en&ei=rMInTdmpNIXAngfxk9HdAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=isaac%20marston%20michigan%20politician&f=false
  30. ^ Grand Rapids and Kent County, Michigan: historical account
  31. ^ POLITICAL CONVENTIONS.; MICHIGAN. THE REPUBLICAN STATE CONVENTION AT LANSING THE STATE TICKET AND PLATFORM , The New York Times, August 27, 1874
  32. ^ MICHIGAN FOR ALGER.; THE STATE'S DELEGATES TO THE CHICAGO CONVENTION , The New York Times, May 8, 1888
  33. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Jenkins-husband to Jenning". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  34. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Princehouse to Procter". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  35. ^ http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=micounty;cc=micounty;idno=bad6019.0002.001;size=l;frm=frameset;seq=095
  36. ^ http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=micounty;cc=micounty;idno=bad6021.0001.001;size=l;frm=frameset;seq=194
  37. ^ Livingstone's history of the Republican party: A history of the Republican p 369 534
  38. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Tagaloa to Talbird". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  39. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Osbourn to Ostrowsky". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  40. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Malony to Manly". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  41. ^ Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators. Pub. pursuant to act 59, 1887.Author: Bingham, S. D. (Stephen D.) – p 645 [1]
  42. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Hurliman to Hutchings". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  43. ^ Cleveland, Giover (1890-12-07). "Delaware And Hudson Canal.; Close Of Navigation After A Most Prosperous Season". The New York Times. 
  44. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Ellis". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  45. ^ "Cleveland's Name Cheered.; Enthusiastic Convention Of The Michigan Democrats". The New York Times. 1890-09-11. 
  46. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Blackburne to Blackton". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  47. ^ Removed from office.Political Graveyard
  48. ^ a b c d e [2]
  49. ^ Removed from office Political Graveyard
  50. ^ Initially appointed to fill vacancy; later elected in his own right.
  51. ^ Indicted on 48 charges of embezzlement Political graveyard
  52. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Stebe to Steel". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  53. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Stearns". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  54. ^ [3]
  55. ^ http://www.legislature.mi.gov/(S(4arpx155oyrw0zygyp5ziw3e))/documents/publications/manual/2003-2004/2003-mm-0510-0519-Former.pdf
  56. ^ http://www.legislature.mi.gov/documents/publications/MichiganManual%5C2009-2010MichiganManual/09-10_MM_III_pp_191-195_FormerState.pdf
  57. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Warner to Warra". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  58. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Blair". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  59. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Prescott". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  60. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Bird". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  61. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Martin-trigona to Martinelli". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  62. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Kuhn". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  63. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Wyble to Wywiorski". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  64. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Fellows". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  65. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Vaughan". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  66. ^ Johnson, Ray (1922-09-27). "Harmony Key As G.O.P.Meets". Detroit Free Press. 
  67. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Dehaan to Deland". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  68. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Wiley to Wiley-segovia". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  69. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Dougherty". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  70. ^ Indicted for bribery in 1994 but the case ended when the star witness, Sen. Warren G. Hooper was murdered. Bio at Political Graveyard
  71. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Resa to Reynoldo". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  72. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Haggerty". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  73. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Fitzgerald". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  74. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Voorheis to Vyzral". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  75. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Obrien, O to R". The Political Graveyard. 
  76. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Atwood". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  77. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Townshend to Trachtenberg". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  78. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Crowl to Crowly". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  79. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Case". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  80. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Starr". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  81. ^ Died in office.
  82. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Kelly, G to I". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  83. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Rushe to Russel". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  84. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Dickison to Dikis". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  85. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Elderdice to Eldrich". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  86. ^ Political Graveyard
  87. ^ "Michigan Supreme Court History Society ::". Micourthistory.org. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  88. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Lawyer Politicians in Michigan, Q-R". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  89. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Miles-lagrange to Millentree". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  90. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Cleage to Clementine". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  91. ^ a b Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Hardy-wrigley to Harju". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  92. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Kaufmann to Keastner". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  93. ^ a b Resigned to become United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
  94. ^ As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term and was later elected in his own right.