Political repression in post-apartheid South Africa

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South Africa has a liberal constitution that protects all basic political freedoms. However there have been many incidents of political repression, dating back to at least 2002,[1] as well as threats of future repression in violation of this constitution leading some analysts, civil society organisations and popular movements to conclude that there is a new climate of political repression[2][3][4] or a decline in political tolerance.[5] Bishop Rubin Phillip has said that "a dark night is settling over our country as the light of our democratic dawn dims".[6] Some have linked the increase in repression to the influence of the 'security cluster' under the Jacob Zuma presidency.[7][8]

It has been argued that "Zuma has enhanced the coercive capacity of the state"[9] and that he has focused on "building a state based on fear".[10] It has also been argued that repression has affected poor people's organisations most seriously but that repression directed against poor people has been systemically under-reported in the media.[11]

Serious concern has been expressed about police brutality in South Africa.[12] Sipho Hlongwane, writing in Business Day, has argued that "South Africa is a brutal police state."[13][14] According to Greg Marinovich "The police are acting with impunity. Their political masters are acting with impunity. In the South Africa of 2012, if you are poor and without political clout, you are on your own."[15] Amnesty International has expressed serious concerns about brutality, including torture and extrajudicial killings, at the hands of the police in South Africa.[16][17] Ronnie Kasrils has argued that there has been a "descent into police state depravity" under Jacob Zuma.[18] It has been observed that "Torture is routine practice in South Africa's police stations and prisons".[19]

Threats to media freedom[edit]

Under Jacob Zuma the ANC has expressed open opposition to media freedom.[20] Serious concern has been expressed about the proposed Media Appeals Tribunal and Protection of Information Bill which, if passed, would significantly reduce press freedom.[21][22][23][24][25][9][26]

There have been a number of reports of serious intimidation of journalists.[27] In 2007 the Freedom of Expression Institute and The Mercury newspaper reported a death threat against a journalist in Durban by controversial local businessman Ricky Govender who claims close links with Jacob Zuma.[28] In Durban in 2009 the editor of the The Mercury, Philani Makhanya, laid a charge of intimidation against S'bu Mpisani, a politically connected contractor for the housing department in that city who had allegedly threatened the newspaper for its investigations into his activities.[29] In Port Elizabeth the branch chairperson of the ruling African National Congress (ANC), Nceba Faku, called for party supporters to burn down the offices of the local newspaper the Daily Dispatch in 2011.[30] In 2012 Piet Rampedi and Adriaan Bassoon, journalists at the City Press, were subject to various threats and forms of intimidation while covering a story on corruption by Julius Malema[31] Also in 2012 ANC supporters publicly burnt copies of the City Press newspaper in Durban.[32]

Threats to artistic freedom[edit]

Poet Mbongeni Khumalo has claimed "that his no-holds barred lyricism attracted the attention of state security".[33]

In 2012 leading figures in the ruling party called for a painting, The Spear, to be destroyed and publicly endorsed the defacement of the painting.

Unlawful state bans on protests[edit]

There have been a number of independently documented cases where the constitutionally protected right to protest has not been honoured by the state.[9][34][35][36][37] One particularly well documented instance occurred in Durban in 2006[38] and another in Cape Town in 2012.[39][40] It has also been claimed that the right to protest has been summarily denied to shack dwellers on the East Rand.[41] It has been argued that not just ANC controlled municipalities, but also opposition Democratic Alliance (DA) ones, engage in unlawful bans on the right to protest.[42] It has also been suggested that recent judicial interventions amount to a de facto curtailment of the right to protest.[43] It has been argued that there was an increase in the unlawful banning of protests after the 2012 Marikana massacre[44] and that this has taken the form of a de facto "state of emergency".[45]

Police repression[edit]

Militarisation of the police[edit]

The police, which were demilitarised after apartheid have been remilitarised[46][47] and some politicians have encouraged the police to 'shoot to kill'.[48] In the view of some analysts this has contributed to escalating repression.[47][49] Concern has also been expressed at use of tactical response teams to contain popular protest[50] and at the idea that the army should support the police in containing popular protest.[51]

Police harassment of journalists[edit]

In 2010 journalists Mzilikazi waAfrika was arrested at the offices of the Sunday Times. Charges against him were later dropped.[52] waAfrika's phone was also unlawfully tapped by the police.[53] In July 2012 Nic Dawes, Sam Sole and Stefaans Brummer, journalists at the Mail & Guardian, were questioned by the police following the publication of a story alleging corruption by senior ANC leader Mac Maharaj.[54]

Police harassment of activists[edit]

There have been numerous allegations from activists in grassroots social movements about arrests on trumped up charges[1] and assaults at the hands of the police.[55] For instance it was reported that Ashraf Cassiem from the Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign was assaulted by the police in 2000 while resisting an eviction [56] and that S'bu Zikode and Philani Zungu from Abahlali baseMjondolo were arrested and assaulted while on the way to a radio interview in 2006.[57] In September 2010 four residents of Hangberg, in Hout Bay, near Cape Town were shot in the face at close range by police with rubber bullets leading to the loss of their eyes.[58] In February 2011 two protesters were killed by the police and a number subject to torture in Ermelo.[50] In January 2012 it was reported that Ayanda Kota was assaulted in the Grahamstown police station.[59][60] In August and September 2012 strikers and community activists in Marikana were subject to sustained police harassment, including a large number of fatalities.[61] In October 2012 activists in Makause, on the East Rand, reported death threats from the police.[62] In December 2012 it was reported that in Wesselton, Mpumalanga, police were engaged in sustained collective harassment, some of it violent, of a local community.[63]

Police torture of activists[edit]

There has been general concern about police torture in South Africa,[24][25][64] which has been described as "occurring en masse" and "spiralling out of control".[65] In 1996 Kevin Kunene, founding chairman of the KwaMbonambi Environmental Group, was tortured by the police.[66] Organisations such as the Landless People's Movement[67] have documented cases in which activists and protesters have been tortured.[68][69] There were media reports of police torture of activists in Wessleton, Ermelo, in 2011[50][70][71] and in Marikana in 2012.[72][73][74] People Killed by the Police During Protests

The worst instance of lethal police violence in response to protest since the end of the apartheid era in South Africa is the shootings of 34 striking miners at Marikanan near Rustenburg, which have come to be known as 'The Marikana Massacre', during the Marikana miner strike on 16 August 2012.[4][75][76][77]

The ICD has reported a rise in police violence against protesters since 2010[78] and a number of unarmed protesters have been killed by the South African Police Service since 2000.[79] Four people were killed by the police during protests between 2000 and 2004, two in 2006, one in 2008, two in 2009, three in 2010 and eleven in 2011.[80] The media have reported at least 27 police killings of protesters and bystanders (not including the 34 people killed in the Marikana Massacre) and a number of killings by private security guards since 2000.

People killed by police during protests[edit]

  • Yusuf Jacobs (22) Cape Town, 8 January 1999[81][82]
  • Michael Makhabane (23) Durban, 16 May 2000[83]
  • Abel Phetla (17) Alexandria, Johannesburg, 30 May 2000[84]
  • Dennis Mathibithi (17) and Nhlanhla Masuku (15), Kathlehong, 16 February 2004[85]
  • Tebogo Mkhonza (17), Harrismith, 30 August 2004[86]
  • Monica Ngcobo, (19) Durban, 2 March 2005[87]
  • Jan Matshobe, (27) Sebokeng, Johannesburg, 1 May 2008[88]
  • Mthokozisi Nkwanyana, (24) Durban, 2008 [89]
  • Unnamed girl, KwaZakhele, KwaZulu-Natal, 1 July 2009[90]
  • Unnamed person, Mashishing, Mpumalanga, 5 June 2009[91]
  • Priscilla Sukai (46) eTwatwa, Daveyton, 2010[92]
  • Unnamed man, Siyazenzela, Mpumalanga, 5 April 2010[93]
  • Anna Nokele (19), Welkom, September 2010[94]
  • Two unnamed children, Boipelo, Gauteng, 15 February 2011[95][96]
  • Solomon Madonsela and Bongani Mathebula, 19 February 2011[97]
  • Dimakatso Kgaswane and unnamed person, Tlokweng, North West, 31 May 2011[98]
  • Andries Tatane (33), Ficksburg, 13 April 2011[99]
  • Nhlanhla Ngcobo (19) and two unnamed people in KwaDukuza, KwaZulu-Natal, 6 June 2011[100]
  • Mxolisi Buthelezi (14), Folweni Reserve, Durban, KwaZulu Natal, 2 July 2012[101]
  • Unnamed person (27), Mahikeng, North West, 4 July 2012[102]
  • Paulina Masuhlo, Marikana, North West, 19 September 2012[103]
  • Michael Daniels (28), Wolsely, Western Cape, 14 November 2012 [104][105]
  • Service Nkadimeng (33), Primrose, Germiston, Gauteng, 18 November 2012[106]
  • Letsekang Tokhwane (25), De Doorns, 14 January 2013[107] (Note: Some media reports indicate that a third, unnamed protestor was also killed in the Western Cape Farm Workers' Strike[108])
  • Six unnamed people, Sasolburg, Free State, 22 January 2013[109] (Note: One report indicates that one, also unnamed man, was reported to have been shot dead by a passing motorist)[110]
  • Nkosiyethu Wele Mgoq (15), Sterksrpuit, Eastern Cape, 15 February 2013[111]
  • Nqobile Nzuza (17), Durban, 30 September 2013[112]
  • Themba Khumalo (20), Bekkersdal, Gauteng, 23 October 2013[113]
  • Jan Rivombo, Pretoria, 8 January 2014[114]
  • Mike Tshele, Osia Rahube, Lerato Seema and Enock Seimela, Brits, 13 January 2014[115][116][117]
  • Tshepo Mabuseng (28), Roodeport, Gauteng 23 January 2014[118]
  • Mozere Molele and Mohale "Lighty" Selo, Tzaneen, 29 January 2014[119][120]
  • Unnamed man, Soweto, 19 February 2014 [121]
  • Unnamed three month old baby, Majakaneng, North West, March 2014[122]

People killed by private security guards during protests[edit]

  • Marcel King (19), Phoenix, Durban, 24 June 2004[123]
  • Christopher Jele (21), Piet Retief, 2009[124]
  • Ntombiyenkosi Mabika (24), Shaka's Kraal, June 2011[125]
  • Bongile Ndleni (40), Ceres, 18 November 2012[126]
  • Alfred Mzikayifani Mdiyako and Sanele Mthethwa, at the Magdalena and Aviemore mines in Dannhauser near Dundee, in 31 October 2012[127]
  • Malizo Fakaza and Nhlanhla Mkhize, Reservoir Hills, Durban, 19 October 2013 (Seven others were shot and injured) [128]
  • Unnamed person, Newclare, 6 October 2014[129]

Activists killed by vigilantes[edit]

People killed during protests by attackers whose details have not been clearly reported[edit]

Party political violence against activists[edit]

Organisations such as the Landless People's Movement,[133] Abahlali baseMjondolo[134][135][136] and the Unemployed People's Movement[137][138] have been subject to armed political violence by groups claiming to represent the ruling ANC. The Makause Community Development Forum have also claimed to have been subject to state sanctioned violence by an ANC aligned 'mob'.[62] There have also been cases where ANC supporters have disrupted protests organised by independent groups. One example of this was the attempt to disrupt a protest by the Moretele Concerned Communities Association in May 2012.[139] It has been argued that the violence associated with the Marikana miners' strike in August 2012 began after officials of the National Union of Mineworkers murdered two strikers.[140]

Death threats against activists[edit]

Grassroots activists have been reporting fears that they may be killed since at least 2002.[141] There have been reports of death threats against activists in Ermelo (2011),[142] in Grahamstown (2011),[143] in eTwatwa on the East Rand (2010),[144] and in Durban (2006, 2009, 2012).[135][136][145][146][147][148]

Unsolved murders of activists claimed to be political assassinations[edit]

  • Sinethemba Myeni, 12 April 2006, Umlazi, Durban, independent activist (former SACP)[149]
  • Mazwi 'Komi' Zulu, 3 May 2006, Umlazi, Durban, independent activist (former SACP)[149]
  • Scorpion Dimane, anti-mining activist, Mbizana, 2008[150]
  • Bomber 'Radioman' Ntshangase, 4 May 2012, Mpumlanga, SACP leader, Mpumalanga[151]
  • Thembinkosi Qumbelo, Local activist and ANC leader, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2013 [152]
  • Nkululeko Gwala, Abahlali baseMjondolo activist, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2013[153][154]
  • Njabulo Ndebele, Sibonelo “John-John” Ntuli and Ntobeko Maphumulo, NUMSA leaders, Isithebe, KwaZulu-Natal, August 2014[155]
  • Thuli Ndlovu, Abahlali baseMjondolo leader, KwaNdengezi, Durban, 2014[156]

Political violence & intimidation by MK veterans[edit]

In July 2012 Alpheus Moseri (68) collapsed and died following an assault by MK Veterans at a lecture given by Jacob Zuma.[157][158] In October 2012 COSATU President Sidumo Dlamini called for MK veterans to use "their guerrilla military skills to work with us on the ground to defend this movement and our revolution as a whole" [159] In November 2012 it was reported that MK veterans had made threats against Deputy President Kgalema Motlanthe.[160] In November 2012 it was reported that armed men claiming to be MK veterans stormed into an ANC branch meeting on the East Rand and threatened to shoot members of the branch if they did not nominate Zuma for re-election.[161]

According to Barney Pityana "we are beginning to see the emergence of party (or presidential) militia in the guise of the Umkhonto weSizwe Veterans, who are the new Gestapo with a fascist agenda."[162]

Ruling party attitudes to independent organisations[edit]

According to Zwelinzima Vavi, COSATU Secretary General, "The [ruling] party unfortunately has adopted in our view an unnecessarily hostile posture to some progressive civil organisations and coalitions, painted a number of organisations with the same brush and has tended to take the view that they are the product of external agendas."[163]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b Housing battles in post-Apartheid South Africa: The Case of Mandela Park, Khayelitsha, by Martin Legassick, South African Labour Bulletin, 2003
  2. ^ The Return of State Repression, Professor J. Duncan, South African Civil Society Information Services, 31 May 2010
  3. ^ Increasing police repression highlighted by recent cases, Freedom of Expression Institute, 2006
  4. ^ a b Activists decry talk of 'third force' at Marikana, by Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 2012
  5. ^ Political tolerance on the wane in South Africa, Imraan Buccus, SA Reconciliation Barometer, 2011
  6. ^ Biko: A bright guiding light in dark times, Bishop Rubin Phillip, 19 September 2012
  7. ^ Jane Duncan on the ever-increasing power of SA's security cabal, Mandy de Waal, The Daily Maverick, 16 June 2011
  8. ^ Zuma: Why we're not laughing any more, Hennie van Vuuren, Mail & Guardian, 17 August 2012
  9. ^ a b c The 'Gatvol' Factor, Jane Duncan, SACSIS, January 2011
  10. ^ Electing for lesser evil will not get us very far, Palessa Morudu, Business Day, 11 September 2012
  11. ^ Media underplaying police, state brutality, Jane Duncan, Sunday Independent, 26 August 2012
  12. ^ No end in sight for police brutality in South Africa, Justice Malala, The Guardian, 21 February 2013
  13. ^ This brutal police state in which we live, Sipho Hlongwane, Business Day, 22 January 2013
  14. ^ The lang-arm of the law is a deadly dance, Jane Duncan, Mail & Guardian, 8 August 2013
  15. ^ Marikana: A cover-up for all to see, Greg Marinovich, Daily Maverick, 6 November 2012
  16. ^ Police brutality comes as a surprise? Really?, Pierre de Vos, Daily Maverick, 1 March 2012
  17. ^ Amnesty International South Africa Report, 2012
  18. ^ Mr President, arrest this descent into police state depravity, Ronnie Kasrils, Mail & Guardian, 6 March 2013
  19. ^ [1], Fish rot from the head, Carolyne Raphaely, Open Democracy, 20 March 2014
  20. ^ Jacob Zuma and the second transition: The print media, Mandy de Waal, The Daily Maverick, 18 June 2012
  21. ^ FXI makes submissions to Parliament on the Protection of Information Bill
  22. ^ The Real Fear Factor: Secrecy as the Mask of Power, Dr. Dale T. McKinley, South African Civil Society Information Services, 11 April 2011
  23. ^ Revise Protection of Information Bill , ‘’Human Rights Watch’’, November 2010
  24. ^ a b Amnesty red flag police brutality, Craig Dodds, 13 May 2011
  25. ^ a b Amnesty International South Africa Report 2011
  26. ^ The Secrecy Bill: Speak Now or Forever be Gagged, by Dale T. McKinley, SACSIS, 8 June 2011
  27. ^ ANC ratchets up its anti-media campaign in provinces, Mandy de Waal, The Daily Maverick, 6 July 2011
  28. ^ Police repression in Protea South an indicator of a national trend, Freedom of Expression Institute, 5 September 2007
  29. ^ The rise and fall of Shauwn and S’bu Mpisane, Durban’s Teflon Couple, Nikki Moore, The Daily Maverick, 11 February 2011
  30. ^ Faku: Burn down the press, LUYOLO MKENTANE, The Daily Dispatch, 20 May 2011
  31. ^ The price of investigating Julius Malema, Greg Nicholson, The Daily Maverick, 23 July 2012
  32. ^ ‘Spear’ fury shatters Haffajee, Shain Germaner, IOL, 28 May 2012
  33. ^ Poetry must reflect South Africa today, GOODENOUGH MASHEGO, The Sowetan, 18 January 2013
  34. ^ Amandla! Protest in the New South Africa, Simon Delaney, Freedom of Expression Institute, May 2007
  35. ^ Dissent Under Thabo Mbeki, Jane Duncan, May 2011], Jane Duncan, May 2011
  36. ^ The Struggle for Street Politics, Jane Duncan, February, 2012
  37. ^ The Criminal Injustice System, by Jane Duncan, SACSIS, 18 Feb 2013
  38. ^ FXI welcomes court ruling on Shack Dwellers' Movement's right to hold demonstration, Freedom of Expression Institute, 2006
  39. ^ Siessa Patricia!, by Pierre de Vos, Constitutionally Speaking, 30 January 2012
  40. ^ Police Brutally Suppress Protesters in Cape Town, by Christopher McMichael, Think Africa Press, February 2012
  41. ^ Police to people of Makause: 'March and there'll be another Marikana', mandy de Waal, The Daily Maverick, 5 October 2012
  42. ^ Rondebosch protest: Charges withdrawn, Ben Fogel, Mail & Guardian, 31 January 2012
  43. ^ Penalizing Protest Action, Anna Majavu, SACSIS, 19 June 2012
  44. ^ SA's banned gatherings: Goodbye Constitution, we hardly knew you, by Mandy de Waal, The Daily Maverick, 28 September 2012
  45. ^ Marikana, the Farlam Commission, and the Undeclared State of Emergency, by Jane Duncan, SACSIS, 8 October 2012
  46. ^ Green Zone Nation: The South African government’s new growth path, Christopher McMichael, Open Democracy, 19 March 2012
  47. ^ a b The South African Police Service and the Public Order War, by Chris McMichael, Think Africa Press, 3 September 2012
  48. ^ Marikana: Avoidable, unconstitutional… and entirely predictable, by Pierre de Vos, The Daily Maverick, 23 August 2012
  49. ^ With Enough Bullets, Christopher McMichael, March, 2012
  50. ^ a b c A template for Marikana was made in Ermelo a year ago, by David Bruce, Business Day, 5 November 2012
  51. ^ The re-militarisation of South Africa’s borders, Christopher McMichael, Open Democracy, July 2012
  52. ^ Clampdown feared as journalist arrested, Dominic Mahlangu, The Times, 4 August 2010
  53. ^ Another View: Time to oversee the officials who spy on us, Jane Duncan, The Times, 30 October 2011
  54. ^ M&G journalists warned of criminal charges, Phillip de Wet, Mail & Guardian, 26 July 2012
  55. ^ Ayanda Kota lays assault charge against police - UPM, 18 January 2012
  56. ^ Ashraf Cassiem: South African Resistance Against Evictions, Marlon Crump, Poor Magazine, 2009
  57. ^ 'I was punched, beaten', Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 16 September 2006,
  58. ^ Penalizing Protest Action, Anna Majavu, SACSIS, 19 June 2012
  59. ^ Outcry over ‘savage assault’, ADRIENNE CARLISLE and DAVID MACGREGOR, The Daily Dispatch, 14 January 2012
  60. ^ Grahamstown activist arrested for book theft FARANAAZ PARKER, Mail & Guardian, 13 Jan 2012
  61. ^ The Smashing of a Strike, Gillian Schutte, SACSIS, 21 September 2012
  62. ^ a b Police to people of Makause: 'March and there'll be another Marikana', Mandy de Waal, The Daily Maverick, 5 October 2012
  63. ^ Tactical Response Team's brutal reign in Wesselton, Mpumalanga, Mandy de Waal, The Daily Maverick, 10 December 2012
  64. ^ http://dailymaverick.co.za/article/2012-08-28-marikana-police-torture-takes-central-stage, Mandy de Waal, The Daily Maverick, 28 August 2012
  65. ^ 'Predator police' in reign of terror, GRAEME HOSKEN, The Times, 30 April 2012
  66. ^ Police still torturing suspects - claim, Ann Eveleth, Mail & Guardian, 22 March 1996
  67. ^ The Landless People's Movement and the Failure of Post-Apartheid Land Reform, Stephen Greenberg, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2005
  68. ^ Torture and misuse of lethal force by security forces must end, Amnesty International, 1999
  69. ^ Briefing for the Committee against Torture, Amnesty International, 2006
  70. ^ Community leader lives in fear of his life Lungile Dube, Mail & Guardian, Apr 01 2011
  71. ^ Violence on tape confirms police tactics, KWANELE SOSIBO, Mail & Guardian, 25 Mar 2011
  72. ^ Torture, SA's never-ending curse, Khadija Patel and Mande de Waal, The Daily Maverick, 17 October 2012
  73. ^ Marikana: After wave of arrests, miners to return to strike, Greg Marinovich, The Daily Maverick, 18 October 2012
  74. ^ Marikana: Police torturing their way to intimidation, Greg Marinovich, The Daily Maverick, 2 November 2012
  75. ^ "South African police open fire as striking miners charge, killing and wounding workers". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012. 
  76. ^ The Night Before Lonmin's Explanation, by Richard Stupart, African Scene, 16 August 2012
  77. ^ Maoto, Monde; Marrian, Natasha (17 August 2012). "‘Massacre’ outrage as workers die in bloodbath at Marikana". Business Day. 
  78. ^ ICD: Rise in police abuse at service delivery protests
  79. ^ State Violence, Richard Pithouse, SACSIS, 2011
  80. ^ The Road to Marikana: Abuses of Force During Public Order Policing Operations, David Bruce, SACSIS, 12 October 2012
  81. ^ World Muslim group calls for revenge
  82. ^ Blair protester's death raises fresh rioting fears.
  83. ^ Two student protesters killed by police in Durban, South Africa
  84. ^ COPS MAY HAVE USED EXCESSIVE FORCE DURING ALEX UNREST: ICD
  85. ^ Police shoot dead two high school pupils resisting eviction, Report by Anti-Privatisation Forum Kathorus Concerned Residents (KCR), 19 February 2004
  86. ^ Tatane’s death opens old wounds for family, City Press, Lucas Ledwaba, 2004
  87. ^ On the Murder of Andries Tatane, Richard Pithouse, All Africa, April 2011
  88. ^ Activist killed by South African police at demonstration against water privatisation, IndyMedia Ireland, 2008
  89. ^ Unisa student's body released from mortuary, Gugu Mbonambi, Daily News, 2008
  90. ^ We Are All the Public, The Witness, 20 July 2009
  91. ^ http://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/one-killed-in-protest-says-community-leader-1.445522#.UvnXLfQW2H8
  92. ^ Two deaths, dozens of injuries and counting..., Jared Sacks, Abahlali.org, July 2010
  93. ^ http://ccs.ukzn.ac.za/default.asp?3,28,11,3601
  94. ^ http://sacsis.org.za/s/story.php?s=1455
  95. ^ South Africa Police open fire on protesters following 3rd day of aggressive action, USAfricaOnline, 16 Feb 2011
  96. ^ SA police fire rubber bullets, Herald, 16 Feb 2011
  97. ^ http://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/mpumalanga/ermelo-residents-see-no-reason-to-vote-1.1029225#.UvSp9PQW2H8
  98. ^ http://www.sowetanlive.co.za/news/2011/06/01/protesters-shot-dead
  99. ^ http://www.citypress.co.za/news/tatanes-death-opens-old-wounds-for-family-20110422/
  100. ^ http://www.sabc.co.za/news/a1/096b18d35ba60310VgnVCM10000077d4ea9bRCRD/3-killed-in-KwaDukuza-unrest-20110607
  101. ^ http://www.iol.co.za/dailynews/news/youngster-shot-dead-in-crossfire-1.1334276#.UA0bLWHVWFc
  102. ^ http://www.ipid.gov.za/media_statements/06072012_1.asp
  103. ^ http://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2012-09-28-sas-banned-gatherings-goodbye-constitution-we-hardly-knew-you#.UvShzPQW2H8
  104. ^ Police action leaves farmworker dead in Wolseley, SAPA, The Times, 14 November 2012
  105. ^ Western Cape protests: calmer day, thicker plot, Rebecca Davis, 16 November 2012
  106. ^ Makause: Innocent man dies and, with him, the rule of law, Mandy de Wall, 22 November 2012
  107. ^ De Doorns: Strike continues, in spite of Cosatu, Rebecca Davis, Daily Maverick, 17 January
  108. ^ Farmworkers' strike may be over - but everyone's a loser, Rebecca Davis, 23 January 2012
  109. ^ Families want answers GRAEME HOSKEN | 24 January 2013
  110. ^ Blood, smoke and tears: Zamdela's burning, G MARINOVICH & T LEKGOWA, The Daily Maverick, 23 January 2013
  111. ^ ‘We haven’t seen our son’s body’, LULAMILE FENI, The Dispatch, 22 February,
  112. ^ In Durban's Cato Manor: Death by protest, death by dissent, Khadija Patel, Daily Maverick, 1 October 2013
  113. ^ http://ewn.co.za/2013/10/24/Stalemate-in-Bekkersdal-1
  114. ^ Never forget Jan Rivombo, Alex Eliseev, The Daily Maverick, 13 January 2014
  115. ^ Mothotlung water shortages shrouded in murk by KWANELE SOSIBO, ZAIN EBRAHIM, 17 January 2014
  116. ^ Fourth person dies after Mothutlung protests, City Press, 20 January 2014
  117. ^ http://mg.co.za/article/2014-01-20-fourth-mothotlung-casualty-shot-with-his-hands-up
  118. ^ Durban Deep, in photos: Another day, another police victim, Greg Nicholson, Daily Maverick, 24 January 2014
  119. ^ Cops under siege as anger explodes, GRAEME HOSKEN 30 January 2014
  120. ^ http://www.censorbugbear.org/farmitracker/reports/view/2099
  121. ^ Man shot dead in Soweto protest, Sapa, IOL, 19 February 2014
  122. ^ Call for Ipid to probe baby death, Independent Online, March 2, 2014
  123. ^ Marcel King is Dead: A Review, Pambazuka Press
  124. ^ [2]
  125. ^ Fatal turn in taxi fare protest, Lungi Langa and Nompumelelo Magwaza, IOL, 8 June 2011
  126. ^ Western Cape protests: Bloody hands in private security firms? , Rebecca Davis, The Daily Maverick, 19 June 2012
  127. ^ Unregulated, and taking root: SA's private security peril, Mandy de Waal, The Daily Maverick, 19 June 2012
  128. ^ Two killed in fight over electricity, By AMANDA KHOZA, Sunday Tribune, 20 October 2013
  129. ^ take on Nyalas in Newclare housing protest, Sipho Kings, Mail & Guardian, 7 October 2014
  130. ^ To Be Betrayed By Your Brother, Rosaleen Ortiz, City University of New York, 2010
  131. ^ ]Boiketlong, Sebokeng: Still dying for their rights, THAPELO LEKGOWA & GREG NICOLSON, The Daily Maverick, 7 February 2014
  132. ^ Westonaria mayhem: When the children hit the streets, G NICOLSON & T LEKGOWA, The Daily Maverick, 25 October 2013
  133. ^ Independent Report into Political Violence Against Landless People's Movement, Jared Sacks, International Alliance of Inhabitants, 2010
  134. ^ Report: Experiences of Abahlali baseMjondolo in Durban, South Africa, by Malavika Vartak, Development Planning Unit of University College London
  135. ^ a b The Work of violence:a timeline of armed attacks at Kennedy Road, Kerry Chance School of Development Studies Research Report, 83, July 2010
  136. ^ a b Failure to conduct impartial investigation into Kennedy Road violence is leading to further human rights abuses, Amnesty International, December 2009
  137. ^ Umlazi uprising faces bullets, arrests, FATIMA ASMAL-MOTALA, 29 June 2012
  138. ^ Update from Ward 88 in Umlazi, Durban, Unemployed People's Movement, 27 June 2012
  139. ^ Right2Know Condemns Disruption of Community, Right2Know Campaign, June 2012
  140. ^ Marikana prequel: NUM and the murders that started it all, Jared Sacks, Daily Maverick, 12 October 2012
  141. ^ Building unity in diversity: Social movement activism in the Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign, Sophie Oldfield & Kristian Stokke, 2004, p.13
  142. ^ Community leader lives in fear of his life Lungile Dube, Mail & Guardian, 1 Apr 2011
  143. ^ Ayanda Kota: Unapologetic ANC apostate, Mandy de Waal, The Daily Maverick 2012
  144. ^ Independent Report into Political Violence Against the Landless People's Movement, Jared Sacks, International Alliance of Inhabitants
  145. ^ Ruling in Abahlali case lays solid foundation to build on, Marie Huchzermeyer, 4 Nov 2009
  146. ^ We Are All S'bu Zikode, Amandla Magazine, 2012
  147. ^ Umlazi Political Violence Crisis, Abahali baseMjondolo, 2006
  148. ^ Motala Heights: Crisis Deepens as Violent Intimidation Against the Strong Poor Continues, Abahlali baseMjondolo, 2008
  149. ^ a b Umlazi Political Violence, Press Statement, 2006
  150. ^ 'We Don't Want Your Development', Jacques de Wet, in Rural Resistance in South Africa, Thembele Kepe & Lungisile Ntsebeza (Eds), UCT Press, 2012
  151. ^ Is the SACP still relevant?, Jeremy Cronin, The Times, 31 July 2012
  152. ^ Cato Crest community leader gunned down, By NKULULEKO NENE, Daily News, 18 March 2013
  153. ^ KZN protest leader shot 12 times, Nkululeko Nene, Daily News, 27 June 2013
  154. ^ KZN: Anatomy of an assassination, Niki Moore, Daily Maverick, 31 July 2013
  155. ^ Numsa condemns killing of its three shopstewards in Kwazulu – Natal
  156. ^ Another Abahlali baseMjondolo member assassinated, Daneel Knoetze, GroundUp, 1 October 2014
  157. ^ Brutal 'ANC vets' in the firing line, Michelle Pieterson, Mail & Guardian, 13 July 2012
  158. ^ ANC: A party under violent, criminal siege, Paul Trewhela, Mail & Guardian, 4 August 2012,
  159. ^ Zuma and the "enemy within", Paul Trewhela, 17 October 2012
  160. ^ Youth call on Motlanthe to lead, by MICHELLE PIETERSEN, Sunday Independent, 4 November 2012
  161. ^ ‘Nominate Zuma… or we’ll shoot’, Solly Maphumulo, The Star, 14 November 2012
  162. ^ Dear Mr Zuma, it’s time for you to go, Barney Pityana, Sunday Independent, 24 February 2013
  163. ^ Cosatu report hammers 'self-serving' ANC, MATUMA LETSOALO, Mail & Guardian, 9 August 2010

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]