Political status of Western Sahara

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Western Sahara, formerly the Spanish colony of Spanish Sahara, is a disputed territory claimed by both the Kingdom of Morocco and the Polisario Front. It is listed by the United Nations (UN), as a non-decolonized territory and is thus included in the United Nations List of Non-Self-Governing Territories.

Since the Madrid Accords of 1975, a part of Western Sahara has been administered by Morocco as the Southern Provinces. Another section, the Liberated Territories, is administered by the Polisario Front as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR). Mauritania administers temporally the western half of the Ras Nouadhibou Peninsula. A UN-monitored cease-fire has been in effect since September 1991.

In order to resolve the sovereignty issue, the UN has attempted to hold a referendum through the mission United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO), and is holding direct talks between the Kingdom of Morocco and the Polisario Front. The UN recognizes neither Moroccan[1] nor SADR sovereignty over Western Sahara.

Positions of the main parties[edit]

Kingdom of Morocco[edit]

The official position of the Kingdom of Morocco since 1963 is that all of Western Sahara is an integral part of the kingdom. The Moroccan government refers to Western Sahara only as the "Sahara", "Moroccan Sahara", "Saharan provinces", or the "Southern Provinces".[citation needed]

According to the Moroccan government, in 1958 the Moroccan Army of Liberation fought Spanish colonizers and almost liberated what was then Spanish Sahara.[citation needed] The fathers of many of the Polisario leaders were among the veterans of the Moroccan Southern Army, for example the father of Polisario leader Mohammed Abdelaziz. Morocco is supported in this view[clarification needed] by a number of former Polisario founders and leaders. The Polisario Front is considered by Morocco to be a Moroccan separatist movement, referring to the Moroccan origins of most of its founding members, and its self-proclaimed SADR to be a puppet state used by Algeria to fight a proxy war against Morocco.

Polisario Front / self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic[edit]

The Polisario Front is described by itself and its supporters as a national liberation movement that opposes Moroccan control of Western Sahara, whilst it is considered by Morocco and supporters of Morocco's claims over the Western Sahara to be a separatist organisation. It began as a movement of students who felt torn between the divergent Spanish and Moroccan influences on the country. The original goal of the Polisario, which was to end Spanish colonialism in the region, was achieved, but their neighbours, Morocco and Mauritania, seized sovereignty of the region, which the Polisario felt belonged to it. The Polisario engaged in guerrilla warfare with the Moroccan and Mauritanian forces. It evacuated the Sahrawi population to the Tindouf refugee camps due to Royal Moroccan Air Force bombing of the refugee camps on Sahrawi land with napalm and white phosphorus.[2][3]

The Polisario Front has called for the self-determination of the people of Western Sahara to be decided through a referendum. Although the SADR is not recognised as a state by the UN, the Polisario is considered a direct participant in the conflict and as the legitimate representative of the Sahrawi people, recognized by the United Nations since 1979.[4]

The Polisario Front argues that Morocco's position is due to economical interests (fishing, phosphate mining, and the potential for oil reserves) and political reasons (stability of the king's position and the governing elite in Morocco, deployment of most of the Moroccan Army in Western Sahara instead of in Morocco). The Polisario Front proclaimed the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic in Bir Lehlou (Western Sahara), on 27 February 1976.

Mauritania[edit]

Claims on Western Sahara had proliferated since the 1960s, fuelled by Mauritanian President Moktar Ould Daddah. Before Mauritania signed the Madrid Accords and after the withdrawal of the last Spanish forces, in late 1975, the Mauritanian Army invaded the southern part of Western Sahara, while the Moroccan Army did the same in the north. In April 1976, Mauritania and Morocco partitioned the country into three parts, Mauritania getting the southern one, which was named Tiris al-Gharbiyya. Mauritania waged four years of war against Polisario guerrillas, conducting raids on Nouakchott, attacks on the Zouerate mine train and a coup d'état that deposed Ould Daddah. Mauritania finally withdrew in the summer of 1979, after signing the Argel Accord with the Polisario Front, recognizing the right of self-determination for the Sahrawi people, and renouncing any claims on Western Sahara. The Moroccan Army immediately took control of the former Mauritanian territory. Mauritania recognized the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic on 27 February 1984.

Algeria[edit]

Algeria has supported the independence of Western Sahara diplomatically since 1975 because of its own national liberation war. In 1976, Algeria got involved directly in the conflict, but after a military confrontation at Amgala against the Moroccan Army, Algeria's role became indirect, through political and military support for the Polisario Front. Morocco argues that the Algerian position is due to the 1963 Sand War, in which the two countries clashed.[citation needed] Algeria recognized the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic on 6 March 1976.

United Nations[edit]

Western Sahara was first placed, by Moroccan demand,[citation needed] on the UN list of territories to be decolonized in 1965, when it was still a Spanish colony. It has retained that status due to the persistence of the conflict.[5] The UN has been involved since 1988 in trying to find a solution to the conflict through self-determination. In 1988, the Kingdom of Morocco and the Polisario Front agreed to settle the dispute through a referendum under the auspices of the UN that would allow the people of Western Sahara to choose between independence or integration with Morocco. In 1991, a ceasefire was agreed upon between the parties, contingent on the referendum being held the following year. Due to disputes over voter qualification, the vote has still not been held, and Morocco has made it clear in 2000 that henceforth it will not consider any option leading to the independence of the territory,[citation needed] and instead, is now proposing autonomy within Morocco. Lately,[when?] the UN has argued for negotiations between Morocco and the Polisario Front to resolve the deadlock, culminating in the Manhasset negotiations.

Although Morocco claims that no recognition is required, Moroccan sovereignty over the territory is supported by the Arab League[6][7] and by some other states as a policy of deliberate ambiguity.

Positions of other states[edit]

Positions on the status of Western Sahara:
  Maintains diplomatic relations with or recognises the Sahrawi Republic
  Supports Morocco's territorial claim (including support for autonomy under Moroccan sovereignty); Has terminated relations with and/or or recognition of the SADR (if no other position expressed)
  Recognises the self-determination of the Sahrawi people; Relations with the SADR terminated and/or recognition withdrawn (if no other position expressed)
  Has not expressed any position or has expressed conflicting opinions

The following lists contain the following states and entities:

Some states are on both lists; for example, when a state is supportive of the "right of self-determination", including the option of autonomy under Morocco sovereignty. Some states have changed their opinion frequently or have given separate announcements of support for both Morocco and the Polisario Front/SADR (Paraguay, Belgium, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Chile, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Malawi, Peru, Russia, Sierra Leone, Swaziland).[citation needed]

Some of the states announcing support of the "right of self-determination" currently recognize the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Not all of the states that have terminated diplomatic relations with or withdrawn recognition of the SADR have announced their support for the Moroccan claims.

Some states have not announced any position as of 2014.

States supporting Sahrawi claims on Western Sahara[edit]

States expressing support for SADR claims and/or the Sahrawi people's right to self-determination

Apart from the states that fully recognize the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic as the sovereign state of Western Sahara, some other states, although not recognizing the SADR for various reasons, have expressed explicit support for the right of self-determination of the Sahrawi people, which is the principal position of the Polisario Front, although such states may or may not recognise the Sahrawi claim to self-determination. Some states that do not recognize the Sahrawi Republic (neither as a state, nor as a government-in-exile[citation needed]) may, however, recognize the Polisario Front as the legitimate representative of the Sahrawi people.[clarification needed]

States which do not recognise the Sahrawi Republic
# State Notes International membership
1  Algeria[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] African Union member

 Arab League member
 OIC member

2  Angola[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] African Union member
3  Argentina[31][32] In 1989, the Raul Alfonsín government made a compromise to recognize the independence of the Sahrawi Republic.[33] In July 2010, the Argentine Chamber of Deputies registered a declaration project exhorting the Government of Argentina to recognize the SADR and to establish diplomatic relations with it.[34]  UNASUR member
4  Australia[35] In November 2004, the Australian Senate called on the Australian government to recognize the Sahrawi Republic.[36]
5  Austria[31][37][38] European Union EU member
6  Belgium[39] European Union EU member
7  Belize[40][41][42][43][44][45]
8  Bolivia[16][46][47][48]  UNASUR member
9  Bosnia and Herzegovina[49]
10  Botswana[50][51][52][53] African Union member
11  Brazil[54][55] The Brazilian Chamber of Deputies had presented in 2007, 2011 and 2014 several requests to the Brazilian government for the recognition of the Sahrawi Republic as a sovereign state.[56][57][58][59][60][61][62]  UNASUR member
12  Burkina Faso[63] African Union member

 OIC member

13  Burma[55]
14  Burundi[64] African Union member
15  Chad[65] African Union member

 OIC member

16  Chile[44][66][67][68] In late 1999, Juan Gabriel Valdés, then Minister of Foreign Affairs, made a written compromise to recognize the independence of the Sahrawi Republic.[69] The Chilean Congress had repeatedly (September 1999, October 2007, July 2009, August 2010, April 2014) called on the Chilean government to recognize the Sahrawi Republic.[44][70][71][72][73]  UNASUR member
17  People's Republic of China[74][75] United Nations permanent member of the UNSC
18  Costa Rica[31][76][77][78]
19  Croatia[79][80] European Union EU member
20  Cuba[44][81][82][83][84]
21  Cyprus[85] European Union EU member
22  Czech Republic[86] European Union EU member
23  Denmark[87][88][89] In June 2004, the Danish Foreign Minister Per Stig Møller said that they do not "recognise Moroccan sovereignty on Western Sahara", and considered the Moroccan presence in Western Sahara as "illegal" and "unacceptable".[90] In 2011, Denmark has repeatedly voted "no" against EU fisheries in Western Sahara, saying that Denmark will vote "no" as long as the Moroccan government fails to give more information to Western Sahara.[91] In April 2011, Foreign Minister of Denmark Lene Espersen said that Denmark doesn't consider recognizing the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, because it won't solve the conflict.[92] European Union EU member
24  Dominica[51]
25  Dominican Republic[93]
26  East Timor[16][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102]
27  Ecuador[103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111]  UNASUR member
28  Egypt[112] African Union member

 Arab League member
 OIC member

29  El Salvador[63][113][114]
30  Ethiopia[115][116][117][118][119] African Union member
31  Fiji[93]
32  Finland[120][121][122] European Union EU member
33  Germany[31][123][124] European Union EU member
34  Ghana[125][126][127][128][129][130][131][132][133] African Union member
35  Greece[31][55] European Union EU member
36  Guatemala[55]
37  Guinea-Bissau[134][135] African Union member
38  Guyana[136][137]  OIC member

 UNASUR member

39  Haiti[138]
40  Iceland[139][140][141][142]
41  Iran[143]  OIC member
42  Ireland[55][144][145][146][147][148] European Union EU member
43  Italy[17][55][149][150][151][152] European Union EU member
44  Jamaica[153][154]
45  Jordan[155]  Arab League member

 OIC member

46  Kenya[156][157][158] African Union member
47  Lesotho[16][159][160][161][162][163][164][165][166][167][168] African Union member
48  Libya[169][170] African Union member

 Arab League member
 OIC member

49  Malawi[171][172] African Union member
50  Malaysia[55]
51  Mali[11][12][173] African Union member

 OIC member

52  Mauritius[174][175] African Union member
53  Mexico[53][176][177][178][179][180]
54  Mozambique[181][182][183][184][185][186][187][188][189] African Union member

 OIC member

55  Namibia[51][52][180][190][191][192][193][194][195][196][197][198][199] African Union member
56  New Zealand[55]
57  Nicaragua[44][200][201][202][203][204]
58  Nigeria[174][180][205][206][207][208] African Union member

 OIC member

59  Norway[55][209][210][211][212][213]
60  Panama[214][215][216]
61  Paraguay[217][218][219]  UNASUR member
62  Peru[44][220][221]  UNASUR member
63  Portugal[55][222][223][224][225] European Union EU member
64  Republic of the Congo[226][227] African Union member
65  Russia[228][229][230][231] United Nations permanent member of the UNSC
66  Rwanda[232][233] African Union member
67  São Tomé and Príncipe[234] African Union member
68  Sierra Leone[235] African Union member
69  Slovakia[236] European Union EU member
70  Slovenia[55][237][238] European Union EU member
71  South Africa[16][239][240][241][242][243][244][245][246][247][248][249][250][251] African Union member
72  South Korea[31]
 South Ossetia[252][253]
73  South Sudan[254][255] African Union member
74  Spain[19][256][257][258][259][260][261][262][263][264][265][266] European Union EU member
75  Suriname[267]  OIC member

 UNASUR member

76  Sweden[268][269] In November 2012, the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Swedish Parliament called on the Swedish government to recognize the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR).[270][271][272][273][274] On 5 December, the Swedish Parliament send a notification to the Swedish Government asking for the urgent recognition of the SADR.[275] European Union EU member
77  Switzerland[276]
78  Tanzania[63][180][277][278][279][280][281][282][283][284][285] African Union member
79  Trinidad and Tobago[63]
80  Tunisia[286] African Union member

 Arab League member
 OIC member

81  Uganda[63][180][287][288][289][290] African Union member

 OIC member

82  Ukraine[291]
83  United Kingdom[31][74][292][293][294][295][296][297][298][299] United Nations permanent member of the UNSC

European Union EU member

84  Uruguay[53][180][300][301][302][303][304][305][306][307]  UNASUR member
85  Venezuela[16][308][309][310][311][312]  UNASUR member
86  Vietnam[313]
87  Zambia[180][314] African Union member
88  Zimbabwe[52][315][316][317][318][319][320][321][322][323][324] African Union member

States supporting Moroccan claims on Western Sahara[edit]

States expressing support for Moroccan claims and/or the Moroccan autonomy plan.

No state recognizes the sovereignty of Morocco over Western Sahara, although many states have expressed support for Moroccan claims, or endorsed the Moroccan autonomy initiative for the territory. Several states have withdrawn their recognition of the SADR or canceled their relations with the SADR (close to 30 countries). Many of these states (mostly African countries and Caribbean or Pacific island-states) have done this as a result of Moroccan political pressures or exchanges and/or offers of economic assistance and investment.[325][326][327][328][329][330][331][332][333][334][335][335][336][337]

However, some international organizations, such as the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, have recognized the sovereignty of Morocco over what it calls its Southern Provinces.[338][unreliable source?][339][unreliable source?][citation needed] Some UN member states have expressed explicit support of Morocco's territorial integrity in reference to Western Sahara as Moroccan provinces[original research?], while others have endorsed or complemented the Moroccan proposal of autonomy for the territory as being credible and serious.[340] No country in the world, apart from Morocco itself, had recognized Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara. Morocco's old allies, France and the United States, have provided the kingdom with economic, diplomatic, and military aid, throughout the conflict. Saudi Arabia provided much economic aid as well.[341]

China (PRC)

Morocco and the PRC maintain close relations, that have been improving steadily in the past decades. China has shown strong support for Morocco's territorial integrity,[342] and has welcomed the proposals put forth by Morocco in the peace negotiations.[citation needed]

France

France enjoys close relations with Morocco. It is the kingdom's leading trade partner and the leading source of public development aid and private investments. The country claims neutrality on the Western Sahara issue, despite its military involvement in the Western Sahara War on the side of Morocco and Mauritania (see Operation Lamantin). In 2009[343][344] and 2010,[345][346] France used the threat of its veto power to block the establishment of Human Rights monitoring by the MINURSO in Western Sahara. France has been a major backer of the Moroccan autonomy plan and in the EU negotiated the concession of the advanced status to Morocco.[347]

United States
Photo of Former Assistant Secretary of State, David Welch (2005–2008) who in 2007 expressed strong support for Morocco and its autonomy plan in the conflict over Western Sahara, calling the plan a "serious and credible" solution.[348]

Former President Bill Clinton set a precedent on the conflict over Western Sahara which his successor, George W. Bush, followed. Both presidents Clinton and Bush sided with Morocco and maintained the position that "Genuine autonomy under Moroccan sovereignty [is] the only feasible solution."[349]

The Obama administration disassociated itself from Moroccan autonomy in 2009, however, reversing the Bush-backed support of the Moroccan plan, and returning to a pre-Bush position, wherein the option of an independent Western Sahara is on the table again.[350]

In April 2009, 229 members of the U.S. House of Representatives, a clear majority and more than 50 more than the number who signed the letter[clarification needed] in 2007, called on President Obama to support Morocco's autonomy plan and to assist in drawing the conflict to a close. The signers[clarification needed] included Democratic Majority Leader Steny Hoyer and Republican Minority Leader John Boehner. In addition to acknowledging that Western Sahara has become a recruiting post for radical Islamists, the letter affirmed that the conflict is "the single greatest obstacle impending the security and cooperation necessary to combat" terrorism in the Maghreb.[351] The letter referenced UN Security Council Resolution 1813 (2008), and encouraged President Obama to follow the policy set by President Clinton and followed by President Bush.[351] The congressmen expressed concerns about Western Sahara's viability. They referenced a UN fact-finding mission to Western Sahara which confirmed the State Department's view that the Polisario proposal, which ultimately stands for independence, would lead to a non-viable state.[351] In closing, the letter stated, "We remain convinced that the U.S. position, favoring autonomy for Western Sahara under Moroccan sovereignty is the only feasible solution. We urge you to both sustain this longstanding policy, and to make clear, in both words and actions, that the United States will work to ensure that the UN process continues to support this framework as the only realistic compromise that can bring this unfortunate and longstanding conflict to an end."[351] Commenting on a 2004 free trade agreement with Morocco, US Trade Representative Robert Zoellick stated in a letter to Congressman Joe Pitts in response to his questioning, "the United States and many other countries do not recognize Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara and have consistently urged the parties to work with the United Nations to resolve the conflict by peaceful means. The Free Trade Agreement will not include Western Sahara."[352][353]

Photo of Former US Ambassador to Morocco, Samuel L. Kaplan (2009–2013) who in April 2013 expressed that the position of the United States is that Morocco's autonomy plan "can't be the only basis in these negotiations".[354]

In April 2013, the United States proposed that MINURSO monitored human rights (as all the other UN mission since 1991) in Western Sahara and the Sahrawi refugee camps in south-western Algeria, a move that Morocco strongly opposed, cancelling the annual African Lion military exercises with US Army troops.[355] Also in mid-April, United States Ambassador to Morocco Samuel L. Kaplan declared during a conference in Casablanca that the Moroccan autonomy plan "can't be the only basis in these negotiations", referring to the UN sponsored talks between the Polisario Front and Morocco.[356]

States which recognize the Sahrawi Republic
# State Notes References
1  Azerbaijan [357][358]
2  Bahrain [359]
3  Benin [360]
4  Belarus [361]
5  Bulgaria European UnionEU member [362][363][364]
6  Burkina Faso [365]
7  Cameroon [360]
8  Central African Republic [366][367]
9  Chile [368][369][370][371]
10  Cambodia [372]
11  Colombia [373][374][375][376]
12  Comoros [377]
13  Democratic Republic of Congo [378]
14  Djibouti [379]
15  Dominican Republic [380]
16  Equatorial Guinea [381]
17  Hungary European UnionEU member [382][383]
18  Indonesia [384][385]
19  France United Nationspermanent member of UNSC
European UnionEU member
[386][387][388][389]
[390][391]
20  Gabon [392]
21  Gambia [393][394][395][396]
22  Guinea [397]
23  Kuwait Arab LeagueArab league member [398]
24  Macedonia [399][400]
25  Madagascar [401][402]
26  Maldives [403]
27  Nauru [404]
28  Netherlands European UnionEU member [405][406]
29  Niger [360][407]
30  Peru [408][409][410]
31  Poland European UnionEU member [411][412][413][414]
32  Romania European UnionEU member [415]
33  Russia United Nationspermanent member of UNSC [416][417]
34  Saudi Arabia Arab LeagueArab league member [418]
35  Senegal [419][420]
36  Serbia [421][422]
37  Seychelles [423]
38  Sudan Arab LeagueArab league member [424][425]
39  Swaziland [426]
40  Turkey [427]
41  United States United Nationspermanent member of UNSC [349][428][429]
[430][431]
42  Yemen Arab LeagueArab league member [432]

States which have not announced any position[edit]

The following states and entities have not announced any position:

Positions of international organizations[edit]

Organization Membership Position
African Union (Formerly OAU) 22 February 1982 The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is a fully recognised AU founding member.[433] The African Union supports the right of self-determination of the Sahrawi people.[434]
Flag of the Andean Community of Nations.svg Andean Community of Nations 26 October 2011 (Observer) The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is an Observer member in the framework of the Andean Parliament.[435][436]
Arab League Arab League Not a member. The Arab League supports the right of self-determination of the Sahrawi people.[437][438]
Emblem of Maghreb.svg Arab Maghreb Union Not a member.
Flag of CARICOM.svg Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Not a member. The CARICOM supports the right of the Western Sahara people's to self-determination, consistent with the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations.[439]
Community of Latin American and Caribbean States Not a member. The CELAC supports efforts by all parties to achieve a just, lasting and mutually acceptable political solution that would provide for the right of self-determination for the inhabitants.[44]
Flag of Europe.svg European Union Not a member. The EU supports the efforts by the Secretary General of the United Nations and his Personal Envoy to find a just, lasting and mutually acceptable political solution which will allow the self-determination of the people of the Western Sahara as provided for in the resolutions of the United Nations.[440][441]
Non-Aligned Movement Not a member. The NAM supports the right of the Western Sahara people's to self-determination, consistent with the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations and General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960.[442]
 Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Not a member. Considered as part of Morocco.[citation needed]
Rio Group Not a member. The Rio Group supports the resolutions adopted by the UN to achieve a just, lasting and mutually acceptable solution that leads to the self-determination of the people of Western Sahara, in the context of compatible accords with the principles of the UN charter and the Resolution 1514 (XV) of the General Assembly and other pertinent resolutions.[443][444]
Flag of UNASUR.svg Union of South American Nations Not a member. The UNASUR supports for the achievement of a just, lasting and mutually acceptable political solution that would provide for the self-determination of the people of Western Sahara consistent with relevant resolutions.[44]
 United Nations Not a member. The UN does not recognize Moroccan claims, as the Western Sahara remains in its List of Non-Self-Governing Territories since 1963. The Security Council had argued for direct negotiations between Morocco and the Polisario Front.[445] It had approved more than 100 resolutions supporting the right of Self-determination of the Sahrawi people.

The SADR is also a member of the Asian-African Strategic Partnership, formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference, over Moroccan objections to SADR participation.[446]

In 2006, the SADR participated in a conference of the Permanent Conference of Political Parties of the Latin American and the Caribbean.[447]

In 2010, the SADR ambassador to Nicaragua participated in the opening conference of the Central American Parliament[448]

African Union

In 22 February 1982, the SADR secured membership in the Organisation of African Unity.[449]

The African Union (formerly the OAU) has given the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic full recognition,[433] and accepted it as a member state (which has led Morocco to leave the union.[450]). Mohamed Abdelaziz, president of the SADR, has been vicepresident of the OUA in 1985, and of the AU in 2002.

European Union

The European Union supports the right of self-determination of the Sahrawi people (the MINURSO UN-sponsored referendum),[451] but does not recognize the Polisario Front.[452][unreliable source?] Over practical issues such as fishing in the EEZ the EU deals with Morocco as the country currently exercising "jurisdiction, but not sovereignty" over the Western Sahara territory.[453] In addition, members of the EFTA trade bloc have made statements excluding the Western Sahara from the Moroccan-EFTA free trade agreement.[454]

United Nations

Since 1966, the United Nations request for the celebration of a referendum for enabling the "indigenous population" to exercise freely their right to self-determination.[455] Since 1979, the United Nations has recognized the Polisario Front as the representative of the people of Western Sahara, and considered Morocco as an occupying force.[4]

Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan stressed, in his last report on Western Sahara, to the Security Council:

"The Security Council would not be able to invite parties to negotiate about Western Saharan autonomy under Moroccan sovereignty, for such wording would imply recognition of Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara, which was out of the question as long as no States Member of the United Nations had recognized that sovereignty".[456] Spain is still considered as the administrative power, but Morocco however is the de facto administrating power since it controls most of the territory."[457]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ United Nations Security Council: Report of the Secretary-General on the situation concerning Western Sahara (S/2006/249) paragraph 37, p. 10
  2. ^ Surendra Bhutani, Conflict on Western Sahara, Strategic Analysis, 1754-0054, Volume 2, Issue 7, 1978, Pages 251 – 256.
  3. ^ Tomás Bárbulo, La historia prohibida del Sáhara Español, Destino, Imago mundi, Volume 21, 2002, Pages 284–285
  4. ^ a b Point 7, Res. 34/37 -Question of Western Sahara- 34th General assembly UN, 21-11-1979
  5. ^ United Nations Fourth Committee (2002). "Non-Self-Governing Territories listed by GA in 2002". United Nations. Retrieved 20 August 2006. 
  6. ^ Arabicnews.com (17 December 1998). "Arab League withdraws inaccurate Moroccan maps". Arabicnews.com. Retrieved 15 July 2006. 
  7. ^ Arabicnews.com (8 January 1999). "Arab League supports Morocco's territorial integrity". Arabicnews.com. Retrieved 15 July 2006. 
  8. ^ "Mr. Messahel reaffirms the Saharawi people's right to self-determination in Moscow". SPS. 19 April 2006. Retrieved 12 June 2010. [dead link]
  9. ^ "Algerian presidential candidates express Algeria's support for Saharawi people". SPS. 7 March 2009. Retrieved 12 June 2010. [dead link]
  10. ^ "Mr. Bouteflika renews Algeria's support to Saharawi people's "legitimate struggle"". SPS. 5 May 2004. Retrieved 12 June 2010. [dead link]
  11. ^ a b "Algeria, Mali reiterate support to UN resolutions about Western Sahara". SPS. 12 September 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2011. 
  12. ^ a b "Algeria, Mali renew support for right of Saharawi people to self-determination and independence". SPS. 28 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  13. ^ "Belkhadem reaffirms Algeria's support to Saharawi people struggle for self-determination and independence". SPS. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  14. ^ "36th Anniversary of SADR Declaration: Algerian president reiterates Algeria’s commitment to the UN decolonization doctrine of decolonization". SPS. 27 February 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2012. 
  15. ^ "Algeria hopes that Saharawi people would be able to exercise self-determination". SPS. 29 September 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f "Decolonization Debate Concludes in Fourth Committee, as Delegations on Both Sides of Key Territorial Disputes Urge Their Resolution". UN Department of Public Information • News and Media Division • New York. 12 October 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  17. ^ a b "Algeria, Italy reaffirm Sahrawi people right to self-determination". SPS. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
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Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Tables of states recognizing the SADR[edit]