Islamist unrest in Egypt (2013–present)
|Islamist unrest in Egypt|
|Part of the Egyptian Crisis|
|Date||3 July 2013citation needed]
(1 year and 4 weeks)
|Causes||Coup d'état; police and army actions against supporters of Mohamed Morsi|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
|Deaths and injuries|
|Part of a series on the
Protests against the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état erupted in July 2013. Immediately following the removal of President Mohamed Morsi by the Egyptian Armed Forces on 3 July 2013 amid demonstrations against Morsi's rule, many protesters amassed near the Rabia Al-Adawiya Mosque to call for Morsi's return to power and condemn the military, while others demonstrated in support of the military and interim government. Deadly clashes continued for several days, with three particularly bloody incidents being described by Muslim Brotherhood officials as "massacres" perpetrated by security forces. During the month of Ramadan (10 July- 7 August), prime minister Hazem al-Beblawy threatened to disperse the ongoing Pro-Morsi sit-ins in Rabaa al-Adaweya square and al-Nahda square. The government crackdown of these protests occurred in "clashes" on 14 August In mid-August, the violence directed by the army towards the protesters escalated, with dozens killed, and the government declaring a month-long nighttime curfew.
- 1 Background
- 2 Formation of new government
- 3 Chronology
- 3.1 Prelude
- 3.2 July events
- 3.3 August events
- 3.4 September events
- 3.5 October events
- 3.6 November events
- 3.7 December events
- 3.8 January 2014 events
- 3.9 February 2014
- 3.10 March 2014
- 3.11 April 2014
- 3.12 May 2014
- 3.13 June 2014
- 3.14 July 2014
- 4 Casualties
- 5 See also
- 6 References
Egypt in transition
Protests against President Hosni Mubarak in early 2011 led to his resignation and trial after the Egyptian military switched its allegiance to the demonstrators. Mubarak's downfall was only the second revolution in the Arab world of the revolutionary wave known as the Arab Spring.
Vice President Omar Suleiman, who announced Mubarak's resignation in February 2011, handed power to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. Egypt came under martial law as top generals led by Mohamed Hussein Tantawi began directing Egypt toward democratic elections. This period was marked by further conflict and continuing protests, as demonstrators who had cheered the support of the military in removing Mubarak turned against the generals when they began imposing harsh security measures and tamping down on revolutionary activity. The Muslim Brotherhood emerged as a leading voice in criticizing military rule.
Presidential elections were held in mid-2012. No candidate garnered as much as a quarter of the vote in the first round of elections. The top two candidates advanced to the runoff: Mohamed Morsi of the Freedom and Justice Party, the candidate of the Muslim Brotherhood, and Ahmed Shafik, an independent candidate who served as prime minister of Egypt under Mubarak. Morsi strongly criticized the Mubarak regime and offered a vision for Egypt as an Islamic democracy, while Shafik, a secularist, promised to restore order. Morsi ultimately prevailed in the runoff, defeating Shafik by a margin of 3.5 percentage points. While Islamists hailed Morsi's election with enthusiasm, many Copts and liberals viewed the runoff as a choice between two unappealing candidates.
Morsi reinstated parliament days after his election, and lawmakers set to work drafting a constitution. The constitution was passed over the objections of opposition members who argued the process was faulty. When put to a referendum in December 2012, the constitution was approved by a nearly 28-point margin, as supporters successfully argued that approval of the constitution was needed to ensure stability.
However, Morsi's government faced popular protests after the president decreed in November 2012 that he had vast powers that could not be checked by the courts. Protesters called for Morsi to withdraw his constitutional declaration or resign from office. Within weeks, Morsi annulled the declaration, days before the constitution itself was approved by voters.
Protests against Morsi continued throughout the first half of 2013, whipping up in June 2013 briefly after the president appointed an Islamist accused of involvement in the Luxor massacre to head the Luxor Governorate and culminating in mass demonstrations that began on 30 June. Protesters criticized Morsi for alleged mismanagement of the country and for the growing influence of the Muslim Brotherhood. The Tamarod movement, which translates into English as "Rebel", claimed it had gathered 22 million signatures from Egyptians opposed to Morsi. According to some sources, the protests were the largest in Egypt's history.
The Egyptian Armed Forces again sided with demonstrators against the regime, warning Morsi to respond to protesters' demands or face a "political road map" widely expected to involve the president's removal from office. Despite this, Morsi remained defiant, giving a speech on 2 July insisting he was the legitimate president and would sooner die than relinquish power. The next day, Defence Minister Abdul Fatah al-Sisi informed Morsi that he was no longer president and addressed the country on television to announce the change in leadership.
Formation of new government
Indications on 6 July 2013 that Mohamed ElBaradei would be sworn in as prime minister proved to be incorrect. The next day, a founding member of the Egyptian Social Democratic Party named Ziad Bahaa El-Din was reportedly offered the post of Prime Minister, while ElBaradei was nominated as vice president. Younes Makhioun, chairman of the Nour Party, objected to both appointments because both of them belong to the same political coalition (the National Salvation Front); he called for nominees who were "politically neutral" instead. The Nour Party rejected El-Din on 7 July 2013 and pulled out of the transitional process altogether on 8 July 2013 because of the 2013 Republican Guard Headquarters clashes. However, the party has advised the interim government on ministerial candidates, including Ahmed Darwish. Hazem Al Beblawi was sworn in as prime minister on 9 July 2013 with the backing of the Nour Party.
Adly Mansour, chief justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt, was sworn in as interim president. Mansour gave a speech in which he praised demonstrators for toppling the government, saying, "I offer my greetings to the revolutionary people of Egypt."
Violence continued with over 100 people wounded and at least two deaths, believed to be that of children. The Muslim Brotherhood's spokesman called for "strictly peaceful" protests to defy (according to his description) the military coup.
5 July: "Friday of Rejection"
Muslim Brotherhood members and sympathizers rallied across Egypt for what they dubbed a "Friday of Rejection" on 5 July, demanding the reinstatement of Morsi as president. Clashes with police and soldiers turned deadly in some areas, with reported instances of troops firing live ammunition into crowds of protesters. At least 36 were killed and more than 1,000 were injured. Protesters reportedly attacked a police station and military airbase in the North Sinai Governorate, as well as the governorate headquarters, resulting in casualties on both sides.
Palestinian officials in Gaza also said that the Egyptian Armed Forces had shut the Rafah border crossing and that only certain people, such as patients and students, would be allowed through. Egyptian Intelligence Service official Nader al-Asar telephoned Palestinian Prime Minister in Gaza Ismail Haniyeh on the afternoon of 5 July and Haniyeh briefed him about the humanitarian crisis in Gaza as a result of the restrictions on tunnels and the Rafah crossing.
Leaders from the protest movement Tamarod and the National Salvation Front urged demonstrators to "protect their revolutionary legitimacy" and resist unnamed "foreign forces" and supporters of Morsi who might stage a "counter-revolution" in Egypt. Police also announced the arrest of Khairat El-Shater, a figure in the Muslim Brotherhood.
Mohamed ElBaradei was reportedly appointed prime minister by acting President Mansour, over the objections of Islamists. The announcement of ElBaradei's appointment was later retracted, with a spokesman for the president saying no decision had been made on whether ElBaradei or somebody else would be named prime minister. Ahmed Douma, a dissident jailed for "insulting" President Morsi and inciting violence against the Muslim Brotherhood during protests earlier in the year, was released from custody pending a court verdict. Meanwhile, clashes continued on the Sinai Peninsula, with a Coptic Christian priest shot to death by masked gunmen. Pro-Morsi supporters continued their sit-in in front of the Rabia Al-Adawiya Mosque in Nasr City, a suburb of Cairo, demanding the reinstatement of the former president.
Negotiations continued over the prime ministerial appointment, with reports suggesting the Al-Nour Party had objected to ElBaradei's appointment and representatives of the Tamarod movement continuing to push for it. Meanwhile, a message from Mohammed Badie appeared on the Muslim Brotherhood's Facebook page accusing coup leaders of "flagrant violations against the Egyptian people", those opposed to the rule of Morsi mobilized for another day of rallying in Tahrir Square. Huge demonstrations against the military coup, also occurred in manned makeshift roadblocks in Cairo and the Nasr City suburb in Cairo.
Muslim Brotherhood sources alleged 54 pro-Morsi demonstrators were killed when police fired on their sit-in during dawn prayers. According to the army, "terrorists" tried to storm the compound, leading to the death of an officer. MP Mohamed Beltagy described the incident as a "massacre" during dawn prayers. After the incident, the Freedom and Justice Party, called for "the international community and international groups and all the free people of the world [to] intervene to stop further massacres [...] and prevent a new Syria in the Arab world." At the same time, Morsi supporters were said by the military of having forced two soldiers, Samir Abdallah Ali and Azzam Hazem Ali, to make pro-Morsi statements on a loudspeaker and that one of them was "severely beaten up" and filmed while making the statements. However, an army official later said that they had "managed to escape their captors."
The Nour Party announced it would not participate in the political transition due to the "massacre", and former Muslim Brotherhood member, moderate Islamist, and 2012 presidential candidate Abdel Moneim Aboul Fotouh called for Mansour to resign. Meanwhile, Mansour issued a proposed timetable for elections to occur within six months.
Following reports that many fighters in Syria were returning in support of the Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt placed restrictions on Syrians entering the country and required them to obtain visas before entering the country.
Amnesty International urged the Egyptian government to probe the "massacre" of the previous day. The army continued to deny it used excessive force, claiming police and troops responded to aggression by armed protesters. Tamarod posted on Twitter that "Mansour's maneuvers will create a new dictatorship", rejecting the proposed election timetable. Mohamed ElBaradei and Hazem Al Beblawi were named vice president and prime minister for the interim government respectively by Mansour.
Ramadan began in Egypt. The Muslim Brotherhood again rejected overtures to participate in the transitional government. Arrest warrants were issued for Mohammed Badie and other top Muslim Brotherhood officials. The Investigative Reporting Program at the University of California at Berkeley reported that a State Department programme ostensibly to support democracy provided funds to activists and politicians for fomenting unrest in Egypt after the ouster of President Hosni Mubarak in February 2011.
The Muslim Brotherhood vowed to continue its resistance to the military's ouster of Morsi. In a statement it disavowed itself from an assassination attempt against a senior army commander in the Sinai Peninsula on 10 July and said it adheres to peaceful measures. The statement also read: "We will continue our peaceful resistance to the bloody military coup against constitutional legitimacy. We trust that the peaceful and popular will of the people shall triumph over force and oppression."
Public prosecutor Hisham Barakat issued a temporary freeze on the assets of senior leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood, as well as senior members of the National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy, pending investigations in ongoing cases related to events in al-Mokatam, al-Nahda square and the Republican Guards Club. The freeze affects the senior Muslim Brotherhood leaders Mohammed Badie, Khairat el-Shater, Mohamed Ezat, Mahi Ekef, Saad El-Katatni, Essam el-Erian and Mohamed Beltagy, as well as the politicians Essam Sultan, Assem Abdul Majed, Safwat Hegazy and Hazem Abu Ismail.
On 13 July, Egyptian prosecutors announced a criminal investigation of Morsi for "spying, inciting violence and ruining the economy". Two days later, General Abdul Fattah al-Sisi spoke on state television for the first time since the coup to defend the army's actions. Mohamed ElBaradei was also sworn in as interim vice president the same day, while the assets of 14 prominent Islamists,[who?] including Mohammed Badie, were frozen. At least three were also killed and 17 others were wounded in North Sinai when suspected militants fired rocket-propelled grenades at a worker bus.
The Muslim Brotherhood continued its call for more protests after Friday prayers. The protests were held in Cairo and Alexandria with two formations of fighter jets flying over both cities after noon prayers ended as well as military helicopters that flew low over roof tops in the city. Amongst the tens of thousands of protesters present, they chanted "Islamic, Islamic" in calling for an Islamic state.
On 22 July, protests in Cairo led to two deaths at a pro-Morsi rally as unknown gunmen opened fire on demonstrators. A bomb also killed a conscript and injured 15 at a police station in Mansoura. Morsi's family also accused the military of kidnapping him.
The United States called on Egypt's army to free deposed President Mohamed Morsi, amid ongoing protests on the first Friday of Ramadan. U.S. Deputy Secretary of State William Joseph Burns, the highest-ranking U.S. official to visit Egypt since Morsi's ouster, visited Cairo to meet with representatives of the interim government. Representatives from both Tamarod and the Nour Party refused to meet with Burns, with Tamarod accusing the U.S. of interfering with Egyptian internal affairs. The U.S. also delayed the delivery of F-16 Fighting Falcons from Fort Worth, Texas, to Egypt due to "political reasons."
During a speech at a military parade, General Al-Sisi called for mass demonstrations on 26 July to grant his forces a “mandate” to crack down on “terrorism”, an apparent reference to the bombing at Mansoura and to restive Islamists continuing to oppose the overthrow of Mohamed Morsi. This was seen as contradicting the military’s pledges to hand over power to civilians after removing Dr. Morsi and as an indication for an imminent crackdown against Islamists.
The reactions to Al-Sisi's announcement ranged from open support by the Egyptian presidency and the Tamarod movement to rejection, not only by the Muslim Brotherhood, who called the announcement "an invitation to civil war", but also by the Salafi Al-Nour Party, the Strong Egypt Party, the revolutionary April 6 Youth Movement and the Egyptian Human Rights groups.
In response to General Al-Sisi's call, millions of protesters took part in demonstrations across the country in support of the army including tens of thousands in Cairo's Tahrir Square and at the Presidential Palace. At the same time, smaller demonstrations (thousands of protestors) rallied in Nasr City and at Cairo University in protest at the military coup. While the demonstrations in Cairo were largely peaceful, five people including a 14-year old boy were killed and at least 146 injured in Alexandria, when a pro-army march passed near a demonstration of Morsi supporters at Al-Qaed Ibrahim Mosque. The Health Ministry confirmed a total of nine people killed during protests in Alexandria.
In Sphinx Square in Mohandessin, a group of activists called The Third Square, who mistrust both the military and the Islamists, held their own protest. In a leaflet, they declared their opposition to “the defense minister calling for an authorization to kill Egyptians on the pretext of fighting terrorism".
In a separate development, Egyptian state media announced that deposed President Morsi was being investigated for conspiring with the Palestinian group Hamas in relation to a prison breakout in 2011.
At least 82 were killed early in the morning after security forces opened fire on pro-Morsi demonstrators on a road near the Rabaa Al-Adawiya Mosque, a centre of resistance to the military coup. The health ministry said 82 were confirmed dead and 299 injured, while doctors at the field hospital said at least 200 protesters had been killed and 4,500 injured. A Brotherhood spokesman said police used live ammunition and shot to kill.
Interior Minister Mohamed Ibrahim said police had been forced to intervene after demonstrators clashed with locals while trying to block a major bridge. He claimed that police did not use live ammunition and attempted to disperse protesters with tear gas. However, multiple photos on the internet show clearly the police and army forces using live ammunition and automatic guns. Meanwhile, Al-Nour Party leader Younis Makhyoun called for a full investigation into the incident, which the Brotherhood described as a "massacre", and angry activists chanted violent slogans calling for Sisi to be executed during pro-Morsi protests during the day.
Two days later, the United States White House released a statement that read it "strongly condemns the bloodshed and violence" in Cairo and Alexandria, while calling on the military-backed interim government to respect the rights of demonstrators.
On 30 July, a member of the Palestinian movement Hamas' named Salah al-Bardaweel said that it had documentary proof that the interim government was colluding with its Palestinian rivals, Fatah and the Palestinian National Authority, in pushing forward a malicious agenda to tarnish the group, while it also denied involvement in the Egypt protests following the coup. Fatah termed the documents as "fabrications" in rejecting the allegations.
The next day, the interim cabinet warned that it would use any measures to deal with the pro-Morsi protesters' sit-in in dispersing them.
On 11 August, efforts by the international community to end the standoff and find a peaceful resolution to the crisis failed. Egypt's prime minister warned just ahead of the Muslim Eid al-Fitr holiday that ends Sunday that the government's decision to clear the sit-ins was "irreversible."
On 12 August, supporters of toppled president Mohamed Morsi increased the pressure on Egypt’s interim leadership by defiantly flooding into two protest camps Monday, prompting police to postpone moving against the 6-week-old sit-ins to "avoid bloodshed" and delayed taking any action. The Interior Ministry has depicted the encampments as a public danger, saying 11 bodies bearing signs of torture were found near both sites. Amnesty International has also reported that anti-Morsi protesters have been captured, beaten, subjected to electric shocks or stabbed. At least eight bodies have arrived at a morgue in Cairo bearing signs of torture, the human rights group said.
On 13 August, Egyptian interim President Adly Mansour appointed 18 new provincial governors, many of them former military officers, removing all Muslim Brotherhood members who had been in office, triggering a wave of criticism from groups and activists who decried the appointments of mainly former security officials to the posts. According to The Economist a number of those newly appointed governors "had glaring records of hostility to the 2011 revolution."
Shortly after dawn on 14 August, Egyptian police raided two large encampments by supporters of ousted president Mohamed Morsi in Cairo to forcibly disperse them, after six weeks of unauthorized sit-in, sparking deadly clashes that drew global condemnation from world states. The Egyptian government announced a one-month state of emergency as a result of the deadly clashes. A spokesman for Egypt's health ministry said the death toll has reached 638 of which 595 are civilians and 43 police officers with at least 3,994 injured. Additionally according to workers at the Al Iman mosque, over 200 bodies, which had been moved from a protest camp nearby, are not included in the official Health Ministry tally. The Muslim Brotherhood has said the true death toll was far higher, with a spokesman saying 2,000 people had been killed in the "massacre". Among the dead was the daughter of Mohamed el-Beltagy, a prominent lawmaker. Four journalists were killed and several others were injured or arrested. Egyptian Vice President Mohamed ElBaradei resigned on the same day following the violent actions by security forces against the protesters.
On 15 August, following the security forces raids on Cairo protest camps held by supporters of deposed president Mohamed Morsi, churches across Egypt came under frenzied attack Thursday as Morsi loyalists allegedly orchestrated nationwide assaults on Christian targets throughout the country. It's estimated that as many as 36 churches were "completely" devastated by fire across nine Egyptian governorates and many other churches were looted or stormed. Egypt's army chief Gen. Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi pledged the military would cover the costs of restoration for all damaged churches. Morsi's Islamist backers also set dozens of police stations ablaze across Egypt and attempted to storm provincial governor offices following Wednesday's bloody crackdown. A group of Morsi supporters also set fire to the finance ministry building in Cairo's Nasr City district.
The unrest led the interim government to declare a month-long state of emergency, with a daily curfew between 7:00pm and 6:00am in Cairo and 12 other governorates.
Several episodes of clashes are reported in Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities. The interim Interior Minister authorized the police agents and the military to shoot on sight anyone who is involved in unrests. All touristic attractions and antiquities museums are closed all over the country, many suffering looting episodes.
The army blocked all major streets and squares, among which, Tahrir Square. The early clashes caused many deaths, at least 80 in Cairo, 5 in Fayoum, 10 in Ismailia, 8 in Damietta and at least 1 in Al Arish.
On 17 August, security forces cleared a Cairo mosque after a standoff with anti-government protesters barricaded inside. The confrontation at the al-Fath mosque continued for most of Saturday—with exchanges of gunfire between security forces and protesters.
On 18 August, a convoy carrying about 600 detainees to Abu Zaabal prison near Cairo resulted in at least 35 deaths. The interior ministry said that the detainees tried to escape from the convoy and took an officer hostage. They then said that police fired tear gas back at them and the detainees died as a result of suffocation. However, the Muslim Brotherhood disputed the claim and said that its supporters were killed in cold blood and called for an international inquiry into the incident.
25 Egyptian policemen died on 19 August in an attack in Egypt's Sinai Peninsula by militant Islamists.
In all, nearly 1,000 people have been killed in clashes between security forces and supporters of ousted President Mohammed Morsi during 14–18 August.
On 19 August, the government banned vigilante groups known as "people's committees" that are armed with clubs, sticks and guns and have appeared on Egyptian streets as of mid-August 2013.
On 6 October 2013, at least 57 were killed and 393 injured across the country when anti-coup protesters and security forces clashed amid celebrations of the 40th anniversary of the start of the 1973 Mideast war with Israel. Pitched battles were fought for hours in some Cairo neighborhoods, where 48 of the 57 fatalities occurred. Residents reported areas of the city looked like combat zones, with tires burning and thick black smoke rising over the streets.
Violence continued on 7 October, as unidentified gunmen attacked an Army convoy west of Ismailiya, near the Suez Canal, killing all six passengers, including an officer and a lieutenant. Shortly before that a suicide bomber attacked the security headquarters in the Southern Sinai capital of El-Tor, killing three and injuring at least 55. In addition, two rocket-propelled grenades hit a major satellite station in the affluent Cairo suburb of Maadi, causing some damage, but no casualties.
On 19 November, revolutionaries clashed with military supporters in the second anniversary of the Mohamed Mahmoud massacre that killed 61 in three days. The clashes left two people dead, both men aged 20 and 25, the deaths were caused by birdshot wounds.
On 21 November, Islamist students from Azhar University clashed with police forces, Islamist students have been protesting since the beginning of the studying year in universities, one Islamist student was killed by a birdshot wound in the head, students after that protested against the violence.
On 22 November, Friday Clashes left three people killed, one child was killed as well, 15 others were injured nationwide. Friday is usually a day of clashes and protests. In Minya in Upper Egypt one was killed, 21 year old Salah Adel died because of a gunshot wound in the chest. The Friday marked 100 days passed since the 14 August raids.
On 28 November, clashes between Islamist students and police left one student killed by a gunshot wound to the neck, the protest was organized without following the protest law, another student was injured and in critical condition.
On 13 December, two people were killed on Friday clashes, 14 others were injured and 54 were arrested, the numbers were lower due to low temperature.
On 16 December, a taxi driver was lynched to death by an Islamist mob, the taxi driver went through the crowd and accidentally ran over a female protester, the 24-year-old Mohamed Othman had his taxi torched after his death, and Islamists spraypainted 'killer' on his cab.
On 24 December, a car bomb went off in Mansoura and left 16 people dead, the bomb was at a security headquarters and killed 14 officers and 2 civilians, the Muslim Brotherhood was declared a terror group and accused of carrying out the attacks, but Ansar Bait Al-Maqdis claims it did it, The group carries out regular attacks in the Sinai Insurgency.
January 2014 events
On 3 January 2014, six months after Morsi's ouster, 13 people were killed in clashes between Islamists, their opponents, and the police.
On 10 January, 4 people were killed in Friday clashes, as soldiers opened fire in Suez and killed 3 people from Youth Against Coup group, 1 other was killed in Alexandria.
On 16 January, 1 student named Omar was killed in clashes between students and police officers, more than 10 others were injured and 23 were arrested, the university president's son was injured.
On 24 January, four bomb blasts hit Cairo; the blasts killed 6 and also blew up the Cairo police headquarters and a nearby Islamic museum; Ansar Bait al-Maqdis took responsibility for all four of the blasts; though a group called Egypt's Soldiers took responsibility for the blast near the metro station. 15 others were killed in clashes; a total of 21 were killed that day.
On 25 January, 64 people were killed on the third anniversary of the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, mostly by gunshot wounds; tens of thousands protested against the military and the ministry of interior, while protestors in favor of the Egyptian military celebrated in Tahrir Square. Clashes took place between anti-military and police forces; some clashes occurred between pro- and anti-military forces, the anti-military crowd was made up of the Muslim Brotherhood and the Way of the Revolution Front; there were also other movements and unaffiliated protesters, there were reports of police using live ammunition in 2 areas.
On 31 January, 1 person was killed and 35 were injured in Friday clashes.
On 7 February, 3 people were killed in Friday clashes including a teenager, 4 security personnel were injured in Friday clashes.
On 14 February, 2 people were killed in Friday clashes, including a 12-year-old boy. 
On 16 February, 4 people, 3 South Koreans and a bus driver, were killed after a terrorist bomb exploded on a tourist bus on the border crossing with Israel at Taba. The perpetrators are believed to be Ansar Bait al-Maqdis.
On 19 March, five people were killed in a day where the Anti-Coup Alliance called for protests, protests were held beside universities; a 14 year old was also killed in the clashes.
On 21 March, Friday clashes left two killed by birdshot wounds.
On 24 March, a court in Minya, south of the capital, Cairo, convicted 529 (some sources say 528) persons accused with many charges including murdering a policeman and attacks on people and property and sentenced all convicted to death. They are convicted for killing of a police officer and attacking on people and property. A spokesman of Muslim Brotherhood questioned the unprecedented speedy trial and said the verdict came from a Kangaroo court. The spokesman also pointed that the sentences showed a comeback of dictatorship to Egypt. The interim government launched a severe crackdown on Muslim Brotherhood following the 2013 coup. All the sentenced persons are supporters of Muslim Brotherhood and ousted Islamist President Mohammed Morsi. After a compulsory review by the Grand Mufti, on 28 April the court changed the sentences to life imprisonment for all but 37 of them, but sentenced to death another 683 people.
On 9 April, Egyptian security forces attacked a large number of student protesters across the country. They used tear gas and birdshot to disperse the students.
On 25 April, Friday protests erupted throughout the country, resulting in at least 2 deaths during clashes with security forces.
On 23 May, protests broke out in several provinces of Egypt, resulting 2 deaths in al-Fayyoum and 1 death in Cairo during clashes with security forces. Twenty-three people were injured.
On the occasion of the anniversary of Morsi's overthrow, intensive[according to whom?] protests broke out throughout the country. During clashes with security forces at least 3 protesters died and more than hundred Morsi supporters had been arrested.
|8 July 2013||54|
|27 July 2013||250|
|14 August 2013||638|
|16 August 2013||173|
|6 September 2013||2|
|19 September 2013||1|
|4 October 2013||4|
|6 October 2013||57|
|7 October 2013||9|
|15 November 2013||2|
|19 November 2013||2|
|21 November 2013||1|
|22 November 2013||3|
|28 November 2013||1|
|13 December 2013||2|
|16 December 2013||1|
|24 December 2013||16|
|27 December 2013||5|
|3 January 2014||13|
|10 January 2014||4|
|14 January 2014||11|
|16 January 2014||1|
|24 January 2014||21|
|25 January 2014||64|
|31 January 2014||1|
|7 February 2014||3|
|14 February 2014||2|
|19 March 2014||5|
|21 March 2014||1|
|28 March 2014||5|
|25 April 2014||2|
|23 May 2014||3|
|20 June 2014||2|
|3 July 2014||5|
|11 July 2014||2|
|28 July 2014||5|
- History of Egypt#After Morsi
- History of modern Egypt#After Morsi
- History of the Republic of Egypt#Second transition
- Egyptian Crisis (2011–present)#Post-coup violence
- "Two policemen, militant killed in Egypt". Reuters. April 23, 2014.
- "Two killed in Egypt protest clashes". The Daily Star. April 25, 2014.
- "Egypt’s Unprecedented Instability by the Numbers". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. March 24, 2014.
- [UPDATED] At least 30 killed in political violence in Egypt. UPI. (5 July 2013). Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- Political violence in Egypt on MSN Video. MSN. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- MIDEAST STOCKS-Political violence pushes Egypt down 1.7 pct; Qatar outperforms. Reuters. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- "Cairo death toll rises after clash at Republican Guard headquarters". BDlive. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "Egypt: More than 100 killed in Cairo massacre". Asharq Al Awsat. 27 July 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "As Ramadan Winds Down, Tensions Ramp Up In Egypt". NPR. 9 August 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- "PM: Ramadan delayed Rabaa and al-Nahda crackdown". Egypt Independent. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- "Egypt's Brotherhood gets the massacre it knew was coming". GlobalPost. 13 August 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- "Egypt declares national emergency". BBC News. 14 August 2013.
- "Egypt crisis: President Hosni Mubarak resigns as leader". BBC News. 12 February 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Anti-SCAF protesters shape anniversary of revolution in Tahrir". Ahram Online. 26 January 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- Fadel, Leila (18 December 2011). "Muslim Brotherhood criticizes Egypt's military crackdown on protests". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- Hamza Hendawi (14 June 2012). "Egypt court orders parliament dissolved". MSNBC. Associated Press. Retrieved 14 June 2012.[dead link]
- "Meet the candidates: Morsi vs Shafiq". Al Jazeera. 24 June 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Islamist joy as Morsy elected Egypt president". Reuters. 24 June 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- Jon Leyne (8 July 2012). "Egyptian President Mursi reverses parliament dissolution". BBC.
- "Egyptian draft constitution to keep sharia as 'main' source of law". The Telegraph (London). 29 November 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Egypt draft charter vote 'right move for stability': Salafist leaders". Ahram Online. 2 December 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
- "Morsi's Constitutional Declarations Grant Egypt's President Far-Reaching Powers". Huffington Post. Associated Press. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Protesters to Morsy: Roll back your decree or leave". CNN. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Egypt’s Morsi Annuls Constitutional Declaration - Spokesman". RIA Novosti. 9 December 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- Kingsley, Patrick (17 June 2013). "Egypt's Mohamed Morsi appoints hardline Islamist to govern Luxor". The Guardian (London).
- "BBC in Egypt: 'People were not expecting this'". BBC News. 30 June 2013.
- "Anti-Mursi ‘Rebel’ campaign receives more than 22 million signatures". 29 June 2013.
- "‘Biggest protest in Egypt’s history’". RT. 30 June 2013.
- "What Led to Morsi's Fall—and What Comes Next?". The Nation. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Al-Sisi: Egyptian Army Deposes Morsi, Constitution Suspended". Palestine News Network. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Special Report: Mursi's downfall". Reuters. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "ElBaradei not confirmed as Egypt PM". Al Jazeera English. 7 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Bahaa El-Din offered Egypt's PM job, ElBaradei set to be appointed VP". Ahram Online. 7 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Key Egypt Islamist party rejects PM, vice-president choices". Reuters. 7 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Al-Nour Party withdraws from Al-Sisi’s roadmap". Daily News Egypt. 7 July 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- "El-Beblawi continues to meet ministerial candidates". Daily News Egypt. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- "Egypt’s interim president names leadership, Salafists approve". Washington Times. 9 July 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- "Egypt: Chief justice Adly Mansour sworn in as interim president". The Times Of India. Associated Press. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "26 dead, more than 850 wounded as post-coup violence hits Egypt". CNN. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "Egypt Braces for New Round of Protests". VOA. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- Sengupta, Kim (6 July 2013). "Mohamed ElBaradei to become Egyptian PM as 37 killed after Muslim Brotherhood's 'Day of Rage' ends in bloodshed in Cairo". The Independent (London). Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Egypt: 16 Protesters Injured in Attempt to Storm North Sinai Governorate Hq". allAfrica. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Egyptian army demands closure of Rafah Crossing". Middle East Monitor. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Egypt's Rebel, NSF urge protesters to protect revolution as clashes erupt near Cairo's Tahrir". Ahram Online. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Egypt Brotherhood deputy leader Khairat al-Shater arrested". Hurriyet Daily News. 6 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Elbaradei appointed as Egypt's interim PM". Al Jazeera. 6 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "ElBaradei Appointment As Egypt's Prime Minister Uncertain". National Public Radio. 6 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Doma released from custody". Daily News Egypt. 6 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Morsi supporters mass in Cairo's Nasr City". Al Jazeera. 6 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Egypt Mobilizes For More Street Protests". Associated Press. 7 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Thousands gather as Muslim Brotherhood, opponents call for rallies in Egypt". Fox News. 7 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- Egypt: No Acknowledgment or Justice for Mass Protester Killings Set Up a Fact-Finding Committee as a First Step. Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies, 10 December 2013, archived from the original on 25 December 2013.
- Egypt: No Acknowledgment or Justice for Mass Protester Killings. Human Rights Watch, 10 December 2013, archived from the original on 25 December 2013.
- "Egypt's Brotherhood alleges Cairo massacre". Al Jazeera. 8 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "At least 42 killed in Egypt, Islamists call for uprising". Reuters. 8 July 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- "Muslim Brotherhood calls for Egypt uprising". Al Jazeera. 8 July 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "Reactions to Cairo shootings". Al Jazeera. 8 July 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "Seized Egyptian soldiers escape". Al Jazeera. 8 July 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- Black, Ian; Kingsley, Patrick (8 July 2013). "'Massacre' of Morsi supporters leaves Egypt braced for new violence". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- Syria's ruling party elects new command[dead link]
- "Egypt urged to investigate deaths of Morsi supporters". The Guardian (London). 9 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- "Egyptian Tamarod movement rejects interim president's timetable". AFP. 9 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- "Mohamed El Baradei Appointed as Egypt's Vice President, Hazem Al Bablawi Becomes Prime Minister". Huffington Post. Associated Press. 9 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- "Egypt unrest: Ramadan begins and the military asks for trust". CNN. 10 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- Emad Mekay (10 July 2013). "Exclusive: US bankrolled anti-Morsi activists". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "US reviews Egypt aid as Arab nations pour $12 billion into post-Morsi regime". NBC News. 11 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- "Egypt's Brotherhood vows to keep defying coup". Al Jazeera. 11 July 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "Egypt 'freezes assets' of Muslim Brotherhood leaders". BBC News. 14 July 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "Egypt freezes Muslim Brotherhood funds". Al Jazeera. 14 July 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "Egypt announces criminal investigation of Morsi". Reuters. 13 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
- "Egypt's Top General Defends Removal of Morsi". Voice of America. 14 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
- "Egypt ‘militants’ kill three factory workers in Sinai bus attack". Al Arabiya. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
- "Egypt's Brotherhood promises more protests". Al Jazeera. 18 July 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "Egypt's deadly political stalemate drags on". Al Jazeera. 19 July 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "Attacks in Egypt lift death toll amid turmoil". Al Jazeera. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "Family accuses Egypt army of kidnapping Morsi". Al Jazeera. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "US seeks end to ex-president's detention". BBC News. 12 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
- "Senior U.S. official visits Egypt". The Journal of Turkish Weekly. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
- "Egypt’s Tamarod and Salafist party decline talks with U.S. official". Al Arabiya. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
- "US shipment of F-16s to post-Morsi Egypt hits delay". Fox News. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Bomb at Egypt police station kills one, injures 17". Hindustan Times. 24 July 2013.
- Beach, Alastair (24 July 2013). "Showdown in Cairo: Egyptian general demands permission to take on the ‘terrorists’". The Independent (London). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "Egyptian army chief al-Sissi calls for public rallies against 'terrorism'". Deutsche Welle. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
- Fahim, Kareem (24 July 2013). "Egyptian General Calls for Mass Protests". New York Times. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "Egypt's presidency calls for protests against 'terrorism'". Ahram online. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "'Rebel' endorses El-Sisi's call for Friday demos". Ahram online. 25 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "Egypt Islamists say army rally call 'announces civil war'". The Daily Star. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
- "Egypt's Nour Party and 6 April reject El-Sisi's call for Friday rallies". ahram online. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "Egypt's Abol Fotouh warns against army-called rally". Chicago Tribune. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "6 April Youth Movement to stay off the streets on Friday". Daily News Egypt. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "Egypt rights groups voice misgiving about army's call for rallies". Ahram online. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "CAPMAS estimates 35 million participated in 26 July demonstrations". Egypt Independent. July 27, 2013.
- "Millions rally in Egypt, responding to army call". CBS News. 26 July 2013.
- "Protesters flood Cairo in competing rallies". Al Jazeera English. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "Security Source: 29 million Egyptians rallied on Friday 'against terrorism'". Egypt Independent. July 27, 2013.
- "Five killed, more than 100 injured in clashes in Egypt's Alexandria". Ahram online. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "Human Rights Watch slams Egypt over protest deaths". Ahram Online. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- Mackey, Robert (26 July 2013). "Tahrir Taken, Some Egyptians Look for ‘Third Square’ to Resist Islamists and Army". The New York Times.
- Worth, Robert F.; Fahim, Kareem (26 July 2013). "Morsi’s Friends and Foes Stage Mass Rallies Across Egypt". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Egypt crisis: 'we didn't have space in the fridges for all the bodies. The Guardian. Retrieved 14 August 2013
- "80 killed, 299 injured in Cairo’s Nasr City violence: Health Ministry". Ahram Online. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- Kingsley, Patrick (27 July 2013). "More than 130 Morsi supporters killed in Egypt clashes". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- Protests in Egypt The Telegraph
- "Brotherhood accuses Egyptian security forces of shooting dead dozens". Reuters. 27 July 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- US condemns bloodshed and violence in Egypt. Al Jazeera. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- Hamas accuses rivals of malicious campaign. Al Jazeera. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- Fatah dismisses Hamas papers as fabrications. Al Jazeera. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- Egypt cabinet orders end to sit-in protest. Al Jazeera. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- Egypt police to break up sit-in protests within 24 hours, CBC, 11 August 2013
- Pro-Morsi sit-ins gain strength, prompt Egypt to postpone dispersal to avoid bloodshed, Washington Post, 12 August 2013
- "Egypt's new governor appointments draw criticism". Ahram Online. 13 August 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- Egypt’s crisis: The storm before the storm The Economist.
- "Global condemnation of Egypt crackdown". Al Jazeera. 15 August 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- "Most world states condemn Egypt's violence". Ahram Online. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- "Death toll from Egypt violence rises to 638: Health ministry". Ahram Online. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- "Charred bodies lie in Cairo mosque, unrecognised by Egyptian state". Ahram Online. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- "Brotherhood plans Cairo march after crackdown". Al Jazeera. 15 August 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- "Beltagy's daughter killed as Rabea protesters hold their ground". Mada Masr. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- "Four journalists killed, others injured, detained in Cairo clashes". Ahram Online. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- Mirkinson, Jack (14 August 2013). "Habiba Ahmed Abd Elaziz, Journalist Killed In Egypt, Wrote To Her Mother Just Before Her Death". Huffington Post.
- "Sky News Cameraman Killed In Egypt". Sky News. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- Egypt: VP Mohamed ElBaradei resigns to protest violent crackdown on pro-Morsi sit-in camps. The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- "Churches torched across Egypt in anti-Coptic violence by Morsi loyalists". Ahram Online. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- "Egypt cancels decision to shorten curfew hours: statement". Chicago Tribune. 15 August 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- Live blog: Egypt's day of rage—the roundup. Vocativ (16 August 2013). Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Clashes erupting in Egypt start death toll counting". Ahram Online. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- "Egypt: Son of top Muslim Brotherhood leader killed". Associated Press. 17 August 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- Hauslohner, Abigail. (17 August 2013) Security forces clear Cairo mosque after standoff with anti-government protesters. Washington Post. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Dozens of protest detainees killed in Egypt". Al Jazeera. 19 August 2013. Archived from the original on 19 August 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- Egypt bloodletting rages with Islamic militants killing 25 police in Sinai Peninsula. CBS News (19 August 2013). Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- Egypt bans vigilantes, protests go on. The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "One dead after Thursday's bomb attack in Cairo". Ahram Online. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "51 arrested in raid on Islamist-dominated district near Cairo". Ahram Online. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Death toll from Egypt clashes rises to 57". Yahoo! News via Reuters. 9 October 2013.
- "WAVE OF DEADLY ATTACKS IN EGYPT KILLS 8". Associated Press. 7 October 2013.
- "Egypt multiple attacks target state security". Al Jazeera. 7 October 2013.
- "Tunisia's 'Jasmine Revolution' jolts Arab world". Ahram Online. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- "Health Ministry confirms a 15-year-old killed". Ahram Online. 16 November 2013.
- "Death toll from Tuesday's violence in Cairo climbs to two - Politics". Ahram Online. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Student killed at Al-Azhar University protest". Ahram Online. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Death toll rises to 3 at '100 days' pro-Morsi protests". Ahram Online. 22 November 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Student killed in clashes with police at Cairo University". Ahram Online. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Two killed, dozens arrested as security forces disperse pro-Morsi rallies". Ahram Online. 13 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Taxi driver killed by lynch mob after running over pro-Morsi protester". Ahram Online. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Mansoura death toll rises to 16, mostly policemen - Politics - Egypt - Ahram Online". English.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
- "Egypt death toll from Friday clashes rises to five - Politics - Egypt - Ahram Online". English.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
- AP Jan 15, 2014, 12.51AM IST (2014-01-15). "Egypt says 11 dead in clashes on first day of voting - Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
- "At least one student killed at Cairo University clashes - Politics - Egypt - Ahram Online". Ahram Online. 2014-01-16. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
- "UPDATE 9: Cairo hit by four bomb blasts on Friday, killing 6 - Politics - Egypt - Ahram Online". Ahram Online. 24 Jan 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
- "Deadly explosions target police in Egypt". Al Jazeera English. 24 Jan 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis claims responsibility for military helicopter crash and attacks". Egypt Independent. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "UPDATE: 15 killed in clashes between Brotherhood and opponents Friday". Ahram Online. 25 January 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "Death toll from uprising anniversary climbs to 64, mostly by gunshot: Forensics - Politics - Egypt - Ahram Online". English.ahram.org.eg. 2014-01-25. Retrieved 2014-01-29.
- 1 killed, 35 injured in Egypt’s pro-Brotherhood Friday clashes: Health ministry - Politics - Egypt - Ahram Online
- Three killed in clashes as Morsi loyalists keep protesting - Politics - Egypt - Ahram Online
- Egypt's Friday clashes leave 12-year-old boy dead - Politics - Egypt - Ahram Online
- "Muslim Brotherhood Trial: Egypt Court Sentences 529 Morsi Supporters To Death". Reuters. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- "Egypt court sentences 528 Morsi supporters to death". BBC. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- Egypt Mass Trial: Judge Sentences 683 To Death In Single Mass Trial
- Egypt sentences 683 to death in latest mass trial of dissidents - The Washington Post
- "Security forces attack student protesters across Egypt". Press TV. Retrieved 2014-04-10.
- "2 killed in Egypt clashes during Islamist protests". YAHOO! News. Retrieved 2014-06-21.
- "At least 54 killed in clashes at Cairo Republican Guard headquarters". Fox News. 11 July 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Death toll rises to 638 in Egypt; condemnation widens". USA today. 15 August 2013.
- "Two killed in clashes between Brotherhood supporters, opponents". Ahram Online. 6 September 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "At least four killed in Egypt as Islamists mount bold protests". Reuters. 4 October 2013.
- "Gunmen kill 5 Egyptian soldiers near Suez Canal". Trust.org via Reuters. 7 October 2013.
- "Four dead at pro-Morsi Friday protests in Egypt". Ahram Online. English.ahram.org.eg. 2014-01-10. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
- "Friday clashes leave 5 dead". Daily News Egypt. March 28, 2014.
- "Two killed in Egypt protest clashes". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- "UPDATED: Three protesters killed, 23 injured during Friday protests". ahram online. Retrieved 2014-05-23.
- Rizk, Mariam. "2 killed in Egypt clashes during Islamist protests". YAHOO! News. Retrieved 2014-06-21.
- Nasralla, Shadia. "Five killed in Cairo clashes marking anniversary of Morsi ouster". HAARETZ. Retrieved 2014-07-03.
- "Two killed in Egypt clashes during Islamist protests". oneNEWS. Retrieved 2014-07-12.