Politics of Lombardy

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politics and government of
Lombardy

The Politics of Lombardy, Italy, takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democracy, whereby the President of the Region is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in the Regional Council of Lombardy, while executive power is exercised by the Regional Government led by the President, who is directly elected by the people. The current Statute is in force since 2008. Roberto Formigoni has been President since 1995.

Although many local authorities of Lombardy, as all Italy, were ruled the Liberal-conservative coalition that governed the country prior to the rise of Fascism, the region was also the birthplace of the Italian Labour Party, forerunner of the Italian Socialist Party and its eastern and northern provinces were an early stronghold of the Italian People's Party. In the 1924 general election, which led Italy to dictatorship, Lombardy was one of the few regions which did not return an absolute majority to the National Fascist Party during the which led Italy to dictatorship. After World War II Lombardy became a stronghold of the Christian Democracy, since the 1980s in association with the Italian Socialist Party, which was especially strong in Milan.[1]

Traditionally, Lombardy gives centrist results during elections, reflecting its strong middle class. The Communists and their successors (the Democratic Party of the Left, the Democrats of the Left and the present-day Democratic Party) never won in the region.[1] In the 1980s Lombardy saw the organization of a new regionalist party, Lega Lombarda (later Lega Nord), that would have played a major role in Italian politics since the early 1990s. Lombardy is now a stronghold of the centre-right coalition between The People of Freedom, the largest party in the region, founded by Lombard entrepreneur Silvio Berlusconi, and Lega Nord. The coalition has governed the region since 1995, although Lega Nord joined the regional government only in 2000.

Legislative branch[edit]

Palazzo Lombardia, the seat of the Regional Council, from the outside.
Composition of the Regional Council:
     LNMaroni list (27)
     FINCD (19)
     PD (17)
     M5S (9)
     Ambrosoli list (5)
     FdI (2)
     PP (1)

The Regional Council of Lombardy is composed of 80 members. 64 councillors are elected in provincial constituencies by proportional representation using the largest remainder method with a Droop quota and open lists, while 16 councillors (elected in a general ticket) come from a "regional list", including the President-elect. One seat is reserved for the candidate who comes second. If a coalition wins more than 50% of the total seats in the Council with PR, as happened during the 2000 election, only 8 candidates from the regional list will be chosen and the number of those elected in provincial constituencies will be 72. If the winning coalition receives less than 50% of votes, as happened during the 1995 election, special seats are added to the Council to ensure a large majority for the President's coalition.[2][3][4]

The Council is elected for a five-year term, but, if the President suffers a vote of no confidence, resigns or dies, under the simul stabunt, simul cadent prevision introduced in 1999 (literally they will stand together or they will fall together), also the Council is dissolved and a snap election is called.[5][6]

2013–2018 composition[edit]

Distribution of Seats in the Regional Council
Political Group 2013 Now
The People of FreedomForza Italia 19 10
Democratic Party 17 17
Lega LombardaLega Nord 15 15
Maroni List 11 11
Five Star Movement 9 9
Ambrosoli List 4 4
Brothers of Italy 2 2
Pensioners' Party 1 1
New Centre-Right - 9

Source: Regional Council of Lombardy

Executive branch[edit]

Main article: President of Lombardy

The Regional Cabinet (Giunta Regionale) is presided by the President of the Region (Presidente della Regione), who is elected for a five-year term, and is currently composed by 16 members: the President and 15 regional assessors (Assessori, literally "aldermen"), including a Vice President (Vice Presidente), while 4 under-secretaries (Sottosegretari) help the President but have not right of vote when the cabinet meets.[7]

2013–2018 composition[edit]

Party Members
Lega Nord President and 7 assessors
The People of FreedomForza Italia 6 assessors
Brothers of Italy 1 assessor
New Centre-Right 1 assessor

List of Presidents[edit]

The current President of Lombardy is Roberto Maroni, who is serving for his first term after winning the 2013 regional election.

Local government[edit]

Provinces[edit]

Lombardy is divided in twelve provinces, which are a traditional form of local administration in the region, the first ones being yet established under Habsburg rule by Maria Theresa of Austria in the 18th century. Socialist and Christian-democratic ideas had an early diffusion in quite all the provinces around World War I. After the Fascist parenthesis, left-wing parties found their strongholds in south-eastern agricultural provinces near Emilia, especially in the Province of Mantua, while Christian Democracy obtained high scores in the northern mountainous part of the Region, where nowadays Lega LombardaLega Nord gets a strong backing. The city of Milan is one of major national strongholds of The People of Freedom, although in the latest municipal election the left-wing prevailed.

Province Inhabitants established President Party Election
Milan 3,156,694 1754 Guido Podestà New Centre-Right 2009
Brescia 1,256,025 1797 Daniele Molgora Lega Lombarda 2009
Bergamo 1,098,740 1797 Ettore Pirovano Lega Lombarda 2009
Varese 883,285 1927 Dario Galli Lega Lombarda, commissioner 2012
Monza and Brianza 849,636 2009 Dario Allevi Forza Italia 2009
Como 598,988 1786 Leonardo Carioni Lega Lombarda, commissioner 2012
Pavia 548,307 1786 Daniele Bosone Democratic Party 2011
Mantua 415,442 1797 Alessandro Pastacci Democratic Party 2011
Cremona 363,606 1786 Massimiliano Salini Forza Italia 2009
Lecco 340,167 1995 Daniele Nava Forza Italia 2009
Lodi 227,665 1995 Pietro Foroni Lega Lombarda 2009
Sondrio 183,169 1797 Massimo Sertori Lega Lombarda 2009

Municipalities[edit]

Lombardy is also divided in 1,546 comuni (municipalities), which have even more history, having been established in the Middle Ages when they were the main places of government. 15 comuni have more than 50,000 inhabitants, most of which are ruled by the centre-left.

Municipality Inhabitants Mayor Party Election
Milan 1,324,110 Giuliano Pisapia Left Ecology Freedom 2011
Brescia 193,879 Emilio Del Bono Democratic Party 2013
Monza 122,712 Roberto Scanagatti Democratic Party 2012
Bergamo 119,551 Giorgio Gori Democratic Party 2014
Como 85,263 Mario Lucini Democratic Party 2012
Busto Arsizio 81,760 Gianluigi Farioli Forza Italia 2011
Varese 81,579 Attilio Fontana Lega Lombarda 2011
Sesto San Giovanni 81,130 Monica Chittò Democratic Party 2012
Cinisello Balsamo 74,150 Siria Trezzi Left Ecology Freedom 2013
Cremona 72,147 Gianluca Galimberti Democratic Party 2014
Pavia 71,142 Massimo Depaoli Democratic Party 2014
Vigevano 63,700 Andrea Sala Lega Lombarda 2010
Legnano 59,147 Alberto Centinaio Democratic Party 2012
Gallarate 51,751 Edoardo Guenzani Democratic Party 2011
Rho 50,686 Pietro Romano Democratic Party 2011

Parties and elections[edit]

Latest regional election[edit]

In the latest regional election, which took place on 24–25 February 2013, Roberto Maroni of Lega LombardaLega Nord was elected President of Lombardy with the support of The People of Freedom. The election was the first snap election in Lombard political history and the first one paired with a senatorial election.

Candidates Regional candidates Provincial lists Total
votes % seats Parties votes % swing seats party group
Roberto Maroni 2,456,921 42.82 1 The People of Freedom 904,742 16.73 Decrease15.1 19 19 49
Lega LombardaLega Nord 700,907 12.96 Decrease13.2 15 16
Maroni President 552,863 10.23 new 11 11
Brothers of Italy 83,810 1.55 new 2 2
Pensioners' Party 50,843 0.94 Decrease0.7 1 1
Labour and Freedom List 27,374 0.51 new 0 0
Ecological Alliance 8,270 0.15 new 0 0
Umberto Ambrosoli 2,194,169 38.24 1 Democratic Party 1,369,440 25.33 Increase2.4 17 17 22
Ambrosoli List – Civic Pact 380,241 7.03 new 4 5
Left Ecology Freedom 97,627 1.81 Increase0.4 - -
Lombard Popular Centre 63,885 1.18 new 0 0
Ethical to Left 52,152 0.96 new 0 0
Italy of Values 35,141 0.65 Decrease5.6 0 0
Italian Socialist Party 16,624 0.31 Steady0.0 0 0
Silvana Carcano 782,007 13.63 - Five Star Movement 775,211 14.34 Increase12.0 9 9 9
Gabriele Albertini 236,597 4.12 - Civic Lombardy 133,435 2.47 new 0 0 -
Union of the Centre 85,721 1.59 Decrease2.2 0 0
Carlo Pinardi 68,133 1.19 - Act to Stop the Decline 68,469 1.27 new 0 0 -
Total candidates 5,737,827 100.00 2 Total parties 5,406,755 100.00 = 78 80 80

Source: Region Lombardy

References[edit]

External links[edit]