Politics of Massachusetts
||This article contains weasel words: vague phrasing that often accompanies biased or unverifiable information. (February 2011)|
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is often categorized politically as socially progressive and liberal. The two main political parties are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. The commonwealth, especially Boston, is known for having a passion for politics (particularly social progressivism and liberalism).
In the early 19th Century, Boston was a center of the socially progressive movements in antebellum New England. The abolitionist, women's rights, and temperance movements all originated in New England, and Boston became a stronghold of such movements. Boston also flourished culturally with the works of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Nathaniel Hawthorne becoming popular. The belief in social progress was strongly influenced by the Second Great Awakening sweeping the Northern United States at the time, and Boston gained a reputation for radical politics. During the Civil War, the Radical Republicans had strong support from Massachusetts. Tension, however, existed between more moderate and conservative Bostonians and the abolitionists. William Lloyd Garrison was almost killed by a mob when his office was raided in 1837. Freed African-American slaves found little acceptance outside the abolitionist and early civil rights organizations. However, Boston was still probably the United States' most liberal city at the time, and blacks found more sympathy there than anywhere else in the nation.
After the Civil War, radical politics faded in polarity. With Reconstruction failing, the progressive climate gave way into a conservative one, and civil rights groups disappeared as Boston melted into the mainstream of American politics. During the first half of the 1900s, Boston was socially conservative and strongly under the influence of Methodist minister J. Frank Chase and his New England Watch and Ward Society, founded in 1878. In 1903, the Old Corner Bookstore was raided and fined for selling Boccaccio's Decameron. Howard Johnson's got its start when Eugene O'Neill's Strange Interlude was banned in Boston, and the production had to be moved to Quincy. In 1927, works by Sinclair Lewis, Ernest Hemingway, John Dos Passos, and Sherwood Anderson were removed from bookstore shelves. "Banned in Boston" on a book's cover could actually boost sales. Burlesque artists such as Sally Rand needed to modify their act when performing at Boston's Old Howard Casino. The clean version of a performance used to be known as the "Boston version." By 1929, the Watch and Ward society was perceived to be in decline when it failed in its attempt to ban Theodore Dreiser's An American Tragedy, but as late as 1935 it succeeded in banning Lillian Hellman's play The Children's Hour. Censorship was enforced by city officials, notably the "city censor" within the Boston Licensing Division. That position was held by Richard J. Sinnott from 1959 until the office was abolished on March 2, 1982. In modern times, few such puritanical social mores persist. Massachusetts has since gained a reputation as being a politically liberal state and is often used as an archetype of liberalism, hence the usage of the phrase "Massachusetts liberal".
In the 1970s and 1980s, Massachusetts was the center of the anti-nuclear power movement, opposition to the continuing Cold War arms race, and Ronald Reagan’s policies of intervention in Central America. Prominent political figures included Senator Edward Kennedy, Senator John Kerry (Vietnam veteran), Tip O’Neill (Speaker of the House), and Michael Dukakis (Governor).
Massachusetts has a bicameral state legislature, collectively known as the Massachusetts General Court. It is made of the 160-seat Massachusetts House of Representatives and the 40-seat Massachusetts Senate. The Massachusetts Democratic Party holds large supermajorities in both houses. The Governor of Massachusetts is the executive of the state government, and is elected every four years. The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court is the highest court in the commonwealth.
The rural and suburban towns and cities are generally more conservative than the rest of the state, but more liberal than the country as a whole. Places like Cambridge, Brookline, Newton, Somerville, Plymouth, Arlington, Amherst, Northampton, Provincetown, Boston and the islands are considered to be the most liberal cities and towns in Massachusetts.
|2008||36.20% 1,105,908||61.80% 1,894,067|
|2004||36.83% 1,070,109||61.92% 1,803,801|
|2000||32.51% 878,502||59.93% 1,616,487|
|1996||28.11% 718,107||61.52% 1,571,763|
|1992||29.04% 805,049||47.51% 1,318,662|
|1988||45.42% 1,194,635||53.23% 1,401,416|
Although Republicans held the governor's office continuously from 1991 to 2007, they have mostly been among the most liberal Republican leaders in the nation, especially William Weld (the first of four recent Republican governors). Two of these governors, Paul Cellucci and Jane Swift, took office when their predecessors resigned to take other positions. In presidential elections, Massachusetts supported Republicans through 1924, and was considered a swing state until the 1980s. More recently, it has gradually shifted to the Democratic Party since 1988. In the 2004 election giving native son John Kerry 61.9% of the vote and his largest margin of victory in any state. (However, John Kerry's margin of victory in the District of Columbia was much higher.) President Barack Obama carried the state with 61.8% of the vote, for the 2008 election. It was the eighth most Democratic state for that election, surpassed by Rhode Island, New York, Illinois, Maryland, Delaware, Vermont and Hawaii as well as the District of Columbia which isn't a state.
During the 1972 presidential election, Massachusetts was the only state to give its electoral votes to George McGovern, the Democratic nominee (the District of Columbia also voted for McGovern). Following the resignation of President Richard Nixon in 1974, two famous bumper stickers were sold in Boston, one saying "Don't blame me, I'm from Massachusetts," and the other read "Nixon 49, America 1".
Since then the state has been carried by a Republican presidential candidate twice, in 1980, when Ronald Reagan unseated incumbent Jimmy Carter and in his 1984 landslide. However, in both elections, Reagan's margin of victory in Massachusetts was the smallest of any state he carried.
As of August 25, 2010, voter registration in Massachusetts is as follows:
|Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of October 13, 2010|
|Party||Number of Voters||Percentage|
- Susan Page and Jill Lawrence (2004-07-11). "Does 'Massachusetts liberal' label still matter?". USA Today. Retrieved 2009-10-17.
- Robert Surbrug (2009). Beyond Vietnam: The Politics of Protest in Massachusetts, 1974-1990. University of Massachusetts Press.
- "Federal Elections 2004 (page 22)". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved 2009-10-17.
- "2008 Presidential Popular Vote Summary". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved 2009-10-17.
- "2010 State Election Party Enrollment Statistics" (PDF). Massachusetts Elections Division. Retrieved 2010-10-28.