Politics of Nicaragua

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Nicaragua is a presidential representative democratic republic, in which the President of Nicaragua is both head of state and head of government, and there is a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Constitution[edit]

In 1995, the executive and legislative branches negotiated a reform of the 1987 Sandinista constitution which gave extensive new powers and independence to the National Assembly, including permitting the Assembly to override a presidential veto with a simple majority vote and eliminating the president's ability to pocket veto a bill. Members of the unicameral National Assembly are elected to concurrent five-year terms.

In January 2014, the National Assembly approved changes to the constitution that scrap presidential term limits, therefore allowing current President Daniel Ortega to run for a third successive term.[1]

Executive branch[edit]

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Daniel Ortega FSLN 10 January 2012
Vice President Moisés Omar Halleslevens Acevedo 10 January 2012

The president and the vice-president are elected for a single non-renewable five-year term. The president appoints the Council of Ministers.

Legislative branch[edit]

The National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional) consists of 90 deputies elected from party lists drawn at the department and national level, plus the outgoing president and the runner-up in the presidential race, for a total of 92. In the 2001 elections, the PLC and its allies won 52 seats, the FSLN won 37 seats, and the Conservative Party 1 seat. In addition, ex-president Arnoldo Alemán assumed a seat, as did runner-up Daniel Ortega. During the 2002 legislative term, Alemán would have served as President of the National Assembly; however, he and other members of his family were charged with corruption in December 2002, and on 7 December 2003 he was sentenced to a 20-year prison term for a string of crimes including money laundering, embezzlement and corruption.

Political parties and elections[edit]

For other political parties see List of political parties in Nicaragua. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Nicaragua.
e • d  Summary of the 5 November 2006 Nicaragua presidential election results
Candidates - Parties Votes %
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra - Sandinista National Liberation Front 854,316 38.07
Eduardo Montealegre - Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance 650,879 29.00
José Rizo Castellón - Constitutionalist Liberal Party 588,304 26.51
Edmundo Jarquín Calderón - Sandinista Renovation Movement 144,596 6.44
Edén Atanacio Pastora Gómez - Alternative for Change 6,120 0.27
Total 2,244,215 100.0
The source is Consejo Supremo Electoral
e • d Summary of the 5 November 2006 Nicaragua National Assembly election results
Parties Votes % Seats
Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) 840,851 37,59 38
Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance (Alianza Liberal Nicaragüense ) 597,709 26,72 23
Constitutionalist Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Constitucionalista) 592,118 26.47 25
Sandinista Renovation Movement (Movimiento de Renovación Sandinista) 194,416 8.69 5
Alternative for Change (Alternativa por el Cambio) 12,053 0.54 -
Total (turnout  %) 100.0 92
Source: Elecciones 2006 , 91.6 % counted (?). The seats are from IFES

Judicial branch[edit]

The Supreme Court supervises the functioning of the still largely ineffective and overburdened judicial system. As part of the 1995 constitutional reforms, the independence of the Supreme Court was strengthened by increasing the number of magistrates from 9 to 12. In 2000, the number of Supreme Court Justices was increased to 16. Supreme Court justices are nominated by the political parties and elected to 5-year terms by the National Assembly.

Electoral branch[edit]

Led by a council of seven magistrates, the Supreme Electoral Council (CSE) is the co-equal branch of government responsible for organizing and conducting elections, plebiscites, and referendums. The magistrates and their alternates are elected to 5-year terms by the National Assembly. Constitutional changes in 2000 expanded the number of CSE magistrates from five to seven and gave the PLC and the FSLN a freer hand to name party activists to the council, prompting allegations that both parties were politicizing electoral institutions and processes and excluding smaller political parties.

Human rights[edit]

Freedom of speech is a right guaranteed by the Nicaraguan constitution and vigorously exercised by its people.[citation needed] Diverse viewpoints are freely and openly discussed in the media and in academia.[citation needed] There is no state censorship in Nicaragua. Other constitutional freedoms include peaceful assembly and association, freedom of religion, and freedom of movement within the country, as well as foreign travel, emigration, and repatriation. The government also permits domestic and international human rights monitors to operate freely in Nicaragua. The constitution prohibits discrimination based on birth, nationality, political belief, race, gender, language, religion, opinion, national origin, economic or social condition. However, homosexuality is un-criminalized.[citation needed] All public and private sector workers, except the military and the police, are entitled to form and join unions of their own choosing, and they exercise this right extensively.[citation needed] Nearly half of Nicaragua's work force, including agricultural workers, is unionized.[citation needed] Workers have the right to strike. Collective bargaining is becoming more common in the private sector.[citation needed]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Nicaragua is divided in 15 departments : Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Estelí, Granada, Jinotega, León, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rivas, Río San Juan, as well as in 2 autonomous regions : Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte and Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur.

Foreign relations[edit]

Nicaragua President Daniel Ortega said March 6, 2008 that the nation is breaking relations with Colombia "in solidarity with the Ecuadoran people", following the 2008 Andean diplomatic crisis.[2] The relations were restored soon after.

Political pressure groups[edit]

Some political pressure groups are:

  • National Workers Front or FNT is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions, including
    • Farm Workers Association or ATC
    • Health Workers Federation or FETSALUD
    • Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO
    • National Association of Educators of Nicaragua or ANDEN
    • National Union of Employees or UNE
    • National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG
    • Sandinista Workers' Centre or CST
    • Union of Journalists of Nicaragua or UPN
  • Nicaraguan Workers' Central or CTN is an independent labor union
  • Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP is a confederation of business groups

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Nicaragua: Ortega allowed to run for third successive term". BBC. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 29 January 2014. 
  2. ^ CNN

External links[edit]