Politics of Ukraine

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politics and government of
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Politics of Ukraine take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Cabinet. Legislative power is vested in the parliament (Verkhovna Rada). Scholars have described Ukraine's political system as "weak, fractured, highly personal and ideologically vacuous while the judiciary and media fail to hold politicians to account" (Dr. Taras Kuzio in 2009).[1][2][3] Ukrainian politics has been categorised as "over-centralised" which is seen as both a legacy of the Soviet system and caused by a fear of separatism.[2][4]

Constitution of Ukraine[edit]

Shortly after becoming independent in 1991, Ukraine named a parliamentary commission to prepare a new constitution, adopted a multi-party system, and adopted legislative guarantees of civil and political rights for national minorities. A new, democratic constitution was adopted on June 28, 1996, which mandates a pluralistic political system with protection of basic human rights and liberties, and a presidential form of government.

The Constitution was amended in December 2004[5] to ease the resolution of the 2004 presidential election crisis. The consociationalist agreement transformed the form of government in a semi-presidentialism in which the President of Ukraine had to cohabit with a powerful Prime Minister. The Constitutional Amendments took force between January and May 2006.

The Constitutional Court of Ukraine in October 2010 overturned the 2004 amendments, considering them unconstitutional.[6] The present valid Constitution of Ukraine is therefore the 1996 text.

Fundamental Freedoms[edit]

Freedom of religion is guaranteed by law, although religious organizations are required to register with local authorities and with the central government. Minority rights are respected in accordance with a 1991 law guaranteeing ethnic minorities the right to schools and cultural facilities and the use of national languages in conducting personal business. According to the Ukrainian constitution, Ukrainian is the only official state language. However, in Crimea and some parts of eastern Ukraine—areas with substantial ethnic Russian minorities—use of Russian is widespread in official business.

Freedom of speech and press are guaranteed by law, but authorities sometimes interfere with the news media through different forms of pressure (see Freedom of the press in Ukraine). In particular, the failure of the government to conduct a thorough, credible, and transparent investigation into the 2000 disappearance and murder of independent journalist Georgiy Gongadze has had a negative effect on Ukraine's international image. Over half of Ukrainians polled by the Razumkov Center in early October 2010 (56.6%) believed political censorship existed in Ukraine.[7]

Official labor unions have been grouped under the Federation of Labor Unions. A number of independent unions, which emerged during 1992, among them the Independent Union of Miners of Ukraine, have formed the Consultative Council of Free Labor Unions. While the right to strike is legally guaranteed, strikes based solely on political demands are prohibited.

Executive branch[edit]

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Petro Poroshenko Independent 7 June 2014
Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk Batkivshchyna 27 February 2014

The president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term.[8] The President nominates the Prime Minister, who must be confirmed by parliament. The Prime-minister and cabinet are de jure appointed by the Parliament on submission of the President and Prime Minister respectively. Pursuant to Article 114 of the Constitution of Ukraine.

Legislative branch[edit]

The Verkhovna Rada (Parliament of Ukraine) has 450 members, elected for a four-year term (five-year between 2006 and 2012 with the 2004 amendments). Prior to 2006, half of the members were elected by proportional representation and the other half by single-seat constituencies. Starting with the March 2006 parliamentary election, all 450 members of the Verkhovna Rada were elected by party-list proportional representation. The Verkhovna Rada initiates legislation, ratifies international agreements, and approves the budget.

The overall trust in legislative powers in Ukraine is very low.[9]

Political parties and elections[edit]

Ukrainian parties tend not have clear-cut ideologies[10] but incline to centre around civilizational and geostrategic orientations (rather than economic and socio-political agendas, as in Western politics),[11] around personalities and business interests.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23] Party membership is lower than 1% of the population eligible to vote (compared to an average of 4.7% in the European Union[24]).[25][26]

Parties currently represented in the Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's parliament)[edit]

Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Party of Regions Batkivshchyna UDAR Svoboda Communists Economic Development Sovereign European Ukraine For Peace and Stability Non-affiliated
End of previous convocation[27][28] 195 97 DNP DNP 25 DNP DNP DNP 31 348 102
Begin[29] 185 101 40 37 32 - - - 43 438 12
December 12, 2012[27] 208 99 42 36 32 - - - 27 444 6
June 11, 2013[27] 207 93 42 36 32 - - - 34 444 6
December 31, 2013[27] 204 90 42 36 32 - - - 38 442 8
February 21, 2014[30] 177 90 42 36 32 - - - 55 442 8
February 22, 2014[27][31] 134 88 42 36 32 - - - 115 447 3
February 23, 2014[27] 131 88 42 36 32 - - - 118 447 3
February 24, 2014[27] 128 88 42 36 32 - - - 123 449 1
February 25, 2014[27] 127 88 42 36 32 33 - - 91 449 1
February 27, 2014[27] 122 88 42 36 32 32 37 - 60 449 1
February 28, 2014[27] 122 88 42 36 32 36 36 - 57 449 1
March 4, 2014[27] 119 87 42 33 32 36 36 - 60 445 5
March 15, 2014[27] 120 88 42 35 32 37 36 - 58 448 2
March 18, 2014[27] 120 82 41 33 32 37 36 - 58 439 11
March 25, 2014[27] 120 88 41 35 32 37 36 - 58 447 3
April 8, 2014[27] 109 88 41 34 33 38 36 - 68 446 4
April 10, 2014[27] 108 88 41 35 33 38 36 - 70 449 1
April 11, 2014[27] 106 88 42 35 33 37 36 - 71 448 2
April 20, 2014[27] 104 88 41 35 33 37 36 - 72 446 4
May 16, 2014[27] 103 88 41 35 33 39 35 - 73 447 3
May 29, 2014[27] 103 87 41 35 31 40 35 - 74 446 4
June 6, 2014[27] 80 85 40 35 32 40 35 - 95 442 8
July 1, 2014[27] 80 86 41 35 24 40 35 - 104 445 5
July 2, 2014[27] 80 86 41 35 24 40 35 32 73 445 5
July 4, 2014[27] 78 86 41 35 23 40 35 34 73 445 5
July 24, 2014[27] 78 86 41 35 - 41 35 34 95 445 5
July 25, 2014[27] 78 86 41 35 - 41 35 36 93 445 5
Latest voting share 17.5% 19.3% 9.2% 7.9% 0.0% 9.2% 7.9% 8.1% 20.9%
Note: The parties United Centre (3 seats), People's Party (2 seats), Radical Party of Oleh Lyashko (1 seat) and Union (1 seat) did not form their own faction. Their deputies did not join any faction besides 1 deputy of People's Party who became a member of the Party of Regions faction in December 2012[27] and Union's deputy joined the then newly created faction For Peace and Stability on 2 July 2014.[32][33]

The Communist Party of Ukraine faction was dissolved 24 July 2014 two days after parliament had changed its regulations.[34]

Former parliamentary parties[edit]

Individual parties years in parliament Block association (years)
Ukrainian Social Democratic Party 2002 - 2012 Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko (2002-2012)
Ukrainian Platform "Assembly" 2002 - 2006
2006 - 2012
Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko (2002-2006)
Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (Our Ukraine) (2006-2012)
Our Ukraine 2006 - 2012 Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (Our Ukraine) (2006-2012)
Solidarity (Ukraine) 2002 - 2006 Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)
Ukrainian People's Party 2002 - 2006
2007 - 2012
Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)
Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)
Republican Christian Party 2002 - 2006 Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)
People's Self-Defense (Forward, Ukraine!) 2002 - 2006
2007-2012
Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)
Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)
Youth Party of Ukraine 2002 - 2006 Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)
Motherland Defenders Party 2007 - 2012 Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)
It's time! 2007 - 2012 Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)
Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists 1994 - 2002
2002 - 2007
National Front (1998-2002)
Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (Our Ukraine) (2002-2007)
Ukrainian Republican Party 1994 - 2002 National Front (1998-2002)
Labour Party Ukraine 2007 - 2012 Bloc of Volodymyr Lytvyn (2007-2012)
Socialist Party of Ukraine 1994 - 2007 Bloc of SPU-SelPU (1998-2002)
Peasant Party of Ukraine 1994 - 2002 Bloc of SPU-SelPU (1998-2002)
Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs 2002 - 2006
2006 - 2007
For United Ukraine (2002-2006)
Our Ukraine bloc (2006-2007)
People's Democratic Party 1998 - 2006 For United Ukraine (2002-2006)
Labour Ukraine 2002 - 2006 For United Ukraine (2002-2006)
Social Democratic Party of Ukraine (united) 1994 - 2006
Democratic Party of Ukraine 1994 - 2006 Bloc of DemPU-DemU (2002-2006)
Democratic Union 2002 - 2006 Bloc of DemPU-DemU (2002-2006)
Party of National Economic Development of Ukraine 2002 - 2006
Ukrainian Marine Party 2002 - 2006
Unity 2002 - 2006 Unity (2002-2006)
Social Democratic Union 2002 - 2006 Unity (2002-2006)
Young Ukraine 2002 - 2006 Unity (2002-2006)
Ukrainian Party of Justice - Union of Veterans, Handicapped, Chornobilians, Afghans 2002 - 2006 Unity (2002-2006)
Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine 1998 - 2002
Party of Greens of Ukraine 1998 - 2002
Hromada 1998 - 2002
Party "Union" 1998 - 2002
Ukrainian National Assembly 1994 - 1998
Party of Labor 1994 - 1998
Ukrainian Conservative Republican Party 1994 - 1998
Christian Democratic Party of Ukraine 1994 - 1998
Party of Democratic Revival of Ukraine 1994 - 1998
Social Democratic Party of Ukraine 1994 - 1998
Party of Economic Revival of Crimea 1994 - 1998
Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union) 1937 - 1994

A faction of nonpartisan deputies under the name Reforms for the Future existed between 16 February 2011[35] and 15 December 2012.[36][37][38][27]

In 1998 - 2000 there was another parliamentary faction Labour Ukraine that existed without its political party until it was registered by the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice in June 2000.[39]

The Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union) was prohibited in 1991, however its members were not excluded from the Ukrainian parliament. They formed a parliamentary faction of the Socialist Party of Ukraine. For the 1994 parliamentary elections however the ban on communist parties was lifted and there were two parties with similar ideologies running for parliament the Socialist Party of Ukraine and the Communist Party of Ukraine that was reestablished in 1993.


Presidential Election 2014[edit]

Originally scheduled to take place on 29 March 2015, the date was changed to 25 May 214 following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution.[40][41][42] Petro Poroshenko won the elections with 54.7% of the votes.[43] His closest competitor was Yulia Tymoshenko, who emerged with 12.81% of the votes.[43] The Central Election Commission reported voter turnout at over 60% excluding those regions not under government control, Crimea and a large part of the Donbass.[44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52] Since Poroshenko obtained an absolute majority in the first round, a run-off second ballot was unnecessary.[53]

Candidate Party Votes  %
Petro Poroshenko Independent 9,857,308 54.70
Yulia Tymoshenko All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland" 2,310,130 12.82
Oleh Lyashko Radical Party 1,500,377 8.32
Anatoliy Hrytsenko Civil Position 989,029 5.48
Serhiy Tihipko Independent 943,350 5.23
Mykhailo Dobkin Party of Regions 546,138 3.03
Vadim Rabinovich Independent 406,301 2.25
Olga Bogomolets Independent 345,384 1.91
Petro Symonenko Communist Party of Ukraine 272,723 1.51
Oleh Tyahnybok All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda" 210,476 1.16
Dmytro Yarosh Right Sector 127,772 0.70
Andriy Hrynenko Independent 73,277 0.40
Valeriy Konovalyuk Independent 69,569 0.38
Yuriy Boyko Independent 35,928 0.19
Mykola Malomuzh Independent 23,771 0.13
Renat Kuzmin Independent 18,689 0.10
Vasyl Kuybida People's Movement of Ukraine 12,391 0.06
Oleksandr Klymenko Ukrainian People's Party 10,545 0.05
Vasyl Tsushko Independent 10,434 0.05
Volodymyr Saranov Independent 6,232 0.03
Zoryan Shkiryak Independent 5,021 0.02
Invalid/blank votes 244,659 1.35
Total 18,019,504 100
Registered voters/turnout 29,625,200[54] (without FED[55])
30,099,246[54]
60.19[56] (without FED[55])
59,48[56]
Source: CEC


Parliamentary Election 2012[edit]

The Central Election Commission of Ukraine finalized the vote count on 12 November 2012 but simultaneously ordered - on recommendation of the Verkhovna Rada - repeat elections (on a yet unknown date) in five troubled single-mandate constituencies where it could not establish results.[57] Because of occurrences in these five constituencies.[58][59][60] Hence, on 12 November 2012 445 deputies had been elected of the 450 seats in parliament.[57][61] On 8 February 2013 the Supreme Administrative Court of Ukraine deprived 2 more deputies of power.[62] They were banned from parliament on 3 July 2013.[62] On 5 September 2013 the Verkhovna Rada itself set the date of all 7 re-elections to 15 December 2013.[63]

Nation-wide list[edit]

e • d Summary of the 28 October 2012 Verkhovna Rada election results (preliminary result with 100.00% of the ballots counted)
Parties List votes % Swing % Seats (proportional representation) Seats (constituencies) Seats (total) Seats (% of total) Change

(2007)

Party of Regions 6,116,815 30.00 Decrease 4.37 72 113 185 41.56 Increase 10
All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland" (incl. United Opposition)1 5,208,390 25.55 Decrease 5.16 62 39 101 22.67 Decrease 55
UDAR (Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform) of Vitaliy Klychko2 2,847,878 13.97 N/A 34 6 40 8.89 Increase 40
Communist Party of Ukraine 2,687,246 13.18 Increase 7.79 32 32 7.11 Increase 5
All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda" 2,129,246 10.45 Increase 9.69 25 12 37 8.44 Increase 37
Ukraine – Forward! of Natalia Korolevska1 322,202 1.58 N/A New Party
Our Ukraine3 226,482 1.11 Decrease 13.04 Decrease 72
Radical Party of Oleh Lyashko 221,136 1.08 N/A 1 1 0.22 New party
Party of Pensioners of Ukraine4 114,198 0.56 Increase 0.42 Steady 0
Socialist Party of Ukraine 93,081 0.46 Decrease 2.40 Steady 0
Party of Greens of Ukraine 70,316 0.35 Decrease 0.05 Steady 0
Ukrainian Party "Green Planet"10 70,117 0.35 N/A Steady 0
Russian Bloc11 63,530 0.31 N/A Steady 0
Greens 51,386 0.25 N/A New party
Ukraine of the Future 38,544 0.19 N/A New party
Political Association "Native Fatherland" 32,724 0.16 N/A New party
People's Labor Union of Ukraine 22,854 0.11 N/A New party
New Politics 21,033 0.10 N/A First election
All-Ukrainian Association "Community"5 17,678 0.08 N/A Steady 0
UNA-UNSO6 16,937 0.08 N/A Steady 0
Liberal Party of Ukraine7 15,566 0.07 N/A Steady 0
United Centre8 DNP11 DNP N/A 3 3 0.67 New party
People's Party9 DNP11 DNP N/A 2 2 0.44 Decrease 18
Union10 DNP11 DNP N/A 1 1 0.22 Increase 1
Independents (elected in electoral districts (see below)) DNP11 DNP N/A 43 43 9.78 Increase 43
Invalid ballot papers 409,068 1.97 Increase 0.35
Total (turnout 57.99%) 20,759,472 100% Decrease 4.03 225 220 445 98.89 Decrease 5
Sources: (Proportional votes, Constituency seats) Central Electoral Commission (in Ukrainian) & ((% of total seats) Ukrayinska Pravda

Notes:

  • 1Participated as part of the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc in 2007 (Swing % and Seat Change are based on the best performed party)
  • 2Transformed in 2010 from another party, the Political Party "European Capital", and that party did not participate in 2007
  • 3Participated as part of the Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc in 2007 (Swing % and Seat Change are based on the best performed party)
  • 4Participated as part of the Bloc of the Party of Pensioners of Ukraine in 2007
  • 5"Missed" registration in 2007
  • 6Suspension in 2007
  • 7Boycotted in 2007
  • 8Transformed in 2008 from another party, the Party of Private Property, and that party did not participate in 2007
  • 9Participated as part of the Lytvyn Bloc in 2007
  • 10Participated as part of the KUCHMA Bloc in 2007
  • 11DNP - Did not participate in party voting

Electoral districts[edit]

Next to the 87 political parties[64] 1150 independent candidates took part in the 225 electoral districts.[65]

Presidential Election 2010[edit]

e • d Summary of the 17 January and 7 February 2010 Ukrainian presidential election results
Candidates Nominating Party First round[70] Second round[71]
Votes  % Votes  %
Viktor Yanukovych Party of Regions 8,686,642 35.32 12,481,266 48.95
Yulia Tymoshenko All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland" 6,159,810 25.05 11,593,357 45.47
Serhiy Tihipko Self-nominated 3,211,198 13.05
Arseniy Yatsenyuk Self-nominated 1,711,737 6.96
Viktor Yushchenko Self-nominated 1,341,534 5.45
Petro Symonenko Communist Party of Ukraine 872,877 3.54
Volodymyr Lytvyn People's Party 578,883 2.35
Oleh Tyahnybok All-Ukrainian Union "Freedom" 352,282 1.43
Anatoliy Hrytsenko Self-nominated 296,412 1.20
Inna Bohoslovska Self-nominated 102,435 0.41
Oleksandr Moroz Socialist Party of Ukraine 95,169 0.38
Yuriy Kostenko Ukrainian People's Party 54,376 0.22
Liudmyla Suprun People's Democratic Party 47,349 0.19
Vasily Protyvsih Self-nominated 40,352 0.16
Oleksandr Pabat Self-nominated 35,474 0.14
Serhiy Ratushniak Self-nominated 29,795 0.12
Mykhaylo Brodskyy Self-nominated 14,991 0.06
Oleh Riabokon Self-nominated 8,334 0.03
Against all 542,819 2.20 1,113,055 4.36
Invalid 405,789 1.65 305,837 1.19
Total 24,588,268 100.00 25,493,529 100.00
Source: Central Election Commission of Ukraine


The first round of voting took place on January 17, 2010. Eighteen candidates nominated for election in which incumbent president Viktor Yushchenko was voted out of office having received only 5.45% of the vote. The two highest polling candidates, Viktor Yanukovych (34.32%) and Yulia Tymoshenko (25.05%), will face each other in a final run-off ballot scheduled to take place on February 7, 2010


Parliamentary Election 2007[edit]

Political alignment 2007
Swing 2006 to 2007 (Top Six parties)
Highest vote per region (Percentage by national vote)
Party of Regions vote per region (Percentage by national vote)
Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko vote per region (Percentage by national vote)
Our Ukraine People's self-defence vote per region (Percentage by national vote)
Communist Party of Ukraine vote per region (Percentage by national vote)
Bloc Lytvyn vote per region (Percentage by national vote)
Socialist Party of Ukraine vote per region (Percentage by national vote)
e • d Summary of the 30 September 2007 Verkhovna Rada election results
Parties and blocs Votes % Swing % Seats Green Arrow Up.svg Red Arrow Down.svg (2006)
Party of Regions (Партія регіонів) 8,013,895 34.37 Green Arrow Up.svg 2.23 175 Red Arrow Down.svg -11 (186)
Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc (Блок Юлії Тимошенко) 7,162,193 30.71 Green Arrow Up.svg 8.43 156 Green Arrow Up.svg +27 (129)
Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc(1) (Блок Наша Україна–Народна Самооборона) 3,301,282 14.15 Green Arrow Up.svg 0.21 72 Red Arrow Down.svg –9 (81)
Communist Party of Ukraine (Комуністична партія України) 1,257,291 5.39 Green Arrow Up.svg 1.73 27 Green Arrow Up.svg +6 (21)
Lytvyn Bloc(2) (Блок Литвина) 924,538 3.96 Green Arrow Up.svg 1.53 20 Green Arrow Up.svg +20 (0)
Socialist Party of Ukraine (Соціалістична партія України) 668,234 2.86 Red Arrow Down.svg 2.82 Red Arrow Down.svg 33 (33)
Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine(3) (Прогресивна соціалістична партія України) 309,008 1.32 Decrease 1.61
All-Ukrainian Union "Freedom" (Всеукраїнське об'єднання "Свобода") 178,660 0.76 Green Arrow Up.svg 0.41
Party of Greens of Ukraine (Партія Зелених України) 94,505 0.40 Red Arrow Down.svg 0.14
Electoral Bloc of Liudmyla Suprun – Ukrainian Regional Asset(4) (Виборчий блок Людмили Супрун — Український регіональний актив) 80,944 0.34 Decrease 0.15
Communist Party of Ukraine (renewed) (Комуністична партія України (оновлена)) 68,602 0.29 N/A(5)
Party of Free Democrats(9) (Партія Вільних Демократів) 50,852 0.21
Bloc of the Party of Pensioners of Ukraine (Блок партії пенсіонерів України) 34,845 0.14
Party of National Economic Development of Ukraine (Партія національно-економічного розвитку України) 33,489 0.14
Ukrainian People's Bloc (Український Народний Блок) 28,414 0.12
Peasants' Bloc "Agrarian Ukraine" (Селянський Блок "Аграрна Україна") 25,675 0.11
Christian Bloc (Християнський блок) 24,597 0.10
Electoral Bloc of Political Parties "KUCHMA" (Виборчий блок політичних партій «КУЧМА») 23,676 0.10
Bloc "All-Ukrainian Community" (Блок "Всеукраїнська громада") 12,327 0.05
All-Ukrainian Party of People's Trust (Всеукраїнська партія Народної Довіри) 5,342 0.02
Against all 637,185 2.73
Invalid ballot papers 379,658 1.62
Total (turnout 62.02%) 23,315,257 100 450
Source: Central Election Commission of Ukraine (English) More detailed information: Центральної виборчої комісії України (Ukrainian)

Notes:


Presidential Election 2004[edit]

The initial second round of the Presidential Election 2004 (on November 17, 2004) was followed by the Orange Revolution, a series of peaceful protests that resulted in the nullification of the second round. The Supreme Court of Ukraine ordered a repeat of the re-run to be held on December 26, 2004, and asked the law enforcement agencies to investigate cases of election fraud.


e • d Summary of the October 31, November 21 and December 26, 2004 Ukraine presidential election results
Candidates — nominating parties Votes first round 31-Oct-04  % Votes run-off 21-Nov-04  % Votes rerun 26-Dec-04  %
Viktor Yushchenko — Power of Peoples 11,188,675 39.90 14,222,289 46.61 15,115,712 51.99
Viktor YanukovychParty of Regions 11,008,731 39.26 15,093,691 49.46 12,848,528 44.20
Oleksandr MorozSocialist Party of Ukraine 1,632,098 5.82
Petro SymonenkoCommunist Party of Ukraine 1,396,135 4.97
Nataliya VitrenkoProgressive Socialist Party of Ukraine 429,794 1.53
Others 988,363 3.53
Against All 556,962 1.98 707,284 2.31 682,239 2.34
Informal 834,426 2.97 488,025 1.59 422,492 1.45
Total 28,035,184 100.00 30,511,289 100.00 29,068,971 100.00
Participation rate from 37,613,022 74.54 81.12 77.28
Source: Central Election Commission of Ukraine. On December 3, the Supreme Court of Ukraine declared the results of the November 21, 2004 run-off ballot to be invalid. The re-run ballot was held on December 26, 2004.

Judicial branch[edit]

constitutional jurisdiction:

general jurisdiction:

  • the Supreme Court of Ukraine;
  • high specialized courts: the High Arbitration Court of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Вищий господарський суд України), the High Administrative Court of Ukraine;
  • regional courts of appeal, military courts of appeal, specialized courts of appeal;
  • local district courts, military garrison courts.

Laws, acts of the parliament and the Cabinet, presidential edicts, and acts of the Crimean parliament (Autonomous Republic of Crimea) may be nullified by the Constitutional Court of Ukraine, when they are found to violate the Constitution of Ukraine. Other normative acts are subject to judicial review. The Supreme Court of Ukraine is the main body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction.

The Constitution of Ukraine provides for trials by jury. This has not yet been implemented in practice. Moreover, some courts provided for by legislation as still in project, as is the case for, e.g., the Court of Appeals of Ukraine. The reform of the judicial branch is presently under way. Important is also the Office of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine, granted with the broad rights of control and supervision.

Local government[edit]

Local government is officially guaranteed. Local councils and city mayors are popularly elected and exercise control over local budgets.

Practically, the scope of local self-government is limited[citation needed]. A large-scale reformation of the local government (that would require new constitutional changes) is periodically urged since 2000, most actively by the Socialist Party of Ukraine and Oleksandr Moroz.

Autonomous Republic of Crimea[edit]

Main article: Politics of Crimea

During 1992 a number of pro-Russian political organizations in Crimea advocated secession of Crimea and annexation to Russia. During USSR times Crimea was ceded from Russia to Ukraine in 1954 by First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev to mark the 300th anniversary of the Treaty of Pereyaslav. In July 1992, the Crimean and Ukrainian parliaments determined that Crimea would remain under Ukrainian jurisdiction while retaining significant cultural and economic autonomy, thus creating the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

International organization participation[edit]

BSEC, CE, CEI, CIS (participating), EAPC, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, Zangger Committee

See also[edit]

Center for Adaptation of Civil Service to the Standards of EU - public institution established by the Decree of Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine to facilitate administrative reform in Ukraine and to enhance the adaptation of the civil service to the standards of the European Union.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Populism in Ukraine in Comparative European Context, Taras Kuzio (24 April 2009)
  2. ^ a b Ukraine at a Crossroads, Peter Lang, 2005, ISBN 978-3-03910-468-0 (page 43)
  3. ^ The Making of Regions in Post-Socialist Europe: The Impact of Culture, Economic Structure and Institutions, Vol. II:Case Studies from Poland, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine by Melanie Tatur, VS Verlag, 2004, ISBN 978-3-8100-3814-2 (page 111)
  4. ^ The Making of Regions in Post-Socialist Europe: The Impact of Culture, Economic Structure and Institutions, Vol. II:Case Studies from Poland, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine by Melanie Tatur, VS Verlag, 2004, ISBN 978-3-8100-3814-2 (page 349)
  5. ^ Laws of Ukraine. Verkhovna Rada decree No. 2222-IV: About the amendments to the Constitution of Ukraine. Passed on 2004-12-08. (Ukrainian)
  6. ^ Update: Return to 1996 Constitution strengthens president, raises legal questions, Kyiv Post (October 1, 2010)
  7. ^ Over half of Ukrainians feel political censorship, Kyiv Post (October 9, 2010)
  8. ^ "New Ukrainian president will be elected for 5-year term – Constitutional Court". Interfax-Ukraine. 16 May 2014. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  9. ^ 84% of Ukrainians do not trust parliament, Radio Ukraine (December 23, 2009)
  10. ^ Against All Odds:Aiding Political Parties in Georgia and Ukraine by Max Bader, Vossiuspers UvA, 2010, ISBN 978-90-5629-631-5 (page 82)
  11. ^ Ukraine right-wing politics: is the genie out of the bottle?, openDemocracy.net (January 3, 2011)
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  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab (Ukrainian) Депутатські фракції і групи VII скликання Deputy fractions and Groups VII convocation, Verkhovna Rada
  28. ^ (Ukrainian) Пам'ятні моменти Верховної Ради VI скликання Memorable moments of the Verkhovna Rada of VI convocation, RBC Ukraine (28 October 2012)
  29. ^ CEC: Party of Regions gets 185 seats in Ukrainian parliament, Batkivschyna 101, Kyiv Post (12 November 2012)
  30. ^ 28 MPs quit Party of Regions faction in Rada Interfax Ukraine. 21 February 2014. Accessed 22 February 2014
  31. ^ Parliamentarians drop Regions Party faction one by one Interfax Ukraine. 22 February 2014. Accessed 22 February 2014
  32. ^ (Ukrainian) National deputies of Ukraine:Lev Myrymsky, Verkhovna Rada
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  34. ^ Turchynov dissolves Ukrainian Communist Party faction in parliament, Interfax-Ukraine (24 July 2014)
  35. ^ Individual deputies create Reforms for the Sake of Future group in parliament, Kyiv Post (February 16, 2011)
  36. ^ Parliament of sixth convocation ends its work, Kyiv Post (6 December 2012)
  37. ^ You Scratch My Back, and I’ll Scratch Yours, The Ukrainian Week (26 September 2012)
    Voting for the Verkhovna Rada regulations amendment
    Stenogram of November 6, 2012 session
    Політичний цирк: кнопкодави попалися на своїх звичках (Political circus: the "button-pushers" got caught on its habits). Ukrayinska Pravda.
  38. ^ Yefremov: Regions Party faction already has 223 members, Kyiv Post (28 November 2012 2012)
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    Explaining State Capture and State Capture Modes by Oleksiy Omelyanchuk, Central European University, 2001 (page 22)
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  57. ^ a b Party of Regions gets 185 seats in Ukrainian parliament, Batkivschyna 101 - CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (12 November 2012)
  58. ^ With all party lists ballots counted, Regions Party gets 30%, Batkivschyna 25.54%, UDAR 13.96%, Communists 13.18%, Svoboda 10.44%, Kyiv Post (8 November 2012)
  59. ^ a b c Repeat elections in troubled constituencies unlikely to be held before March 2013, says CEC deputy head, Interfax-Ukraine (7 November 2012)
  60. ^ a b Okhendovsky:CEC could call repeat elections in five districts only after parliament passes law, Interfax-Ukraine (8 November 2012)
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  62. ^ a b c Baloha, Dombrovsky no longer MPs, Ukrinform (3 July 2013)
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  68. ^ a b Court strips MP Ihor Markov of his mandate, Interfax-Ukraine (12 September 2013)
  69. ^ Novinsky wins by-election to Rada in Sevastopol, according to CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (8 July 2013)
  70. ^ (Ukrainian) ЦВК оприлюднила офіційні результати 1-го туру виборів, Gazeta.ua (January 25, 2010)
  71. ^ Yulia Timoshenko received 45.47 percent, or 11.6 million votes