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Pollination Management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crop's pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions.
With the decline of both wild and domestic pollinator populations, pollination management is becoming an increasingly important part of horticulture. Factors that cause the loss of pollinators include pesticide misuse, unprofitability of beekeeping for honey, rapid transfer of pests and diseases to new areas of the globe, urban/suburban development, changing crop patterns, clearcut logging (particularly when mixed forests are replaced by monoculture pine), clearing of hedgerows and other wild areas, bad diet because of loss of floral biodiversity, loss of nectar corridors for migratory pollinators, and human paranoia of stinging insects (killer bee hype).
In 1989, following Hurricane Hugo, massive aerial applications for mosquitoes were done in South Carolina. The following year, watermelon growers who did not place beehives in the fields, observed the fruit begin to develop, then abort, or develop into small deformed fruit. There were entire fields that never yielded a single usable melon. Some growers went out of business; others began to seriously manage pollination. Since beekeepers were also heavily damaged by the mosquito spraying, the supply of bees for pollination was critically short for several years.
Importance of pollination management
The increasing size of fields and orchards (monoculture) increase the importance of pollination management. Monoculture can cause a brief period when pollinators have more food resources than they can use (but monofloral diet can reduce their immune system) while other periods of the year can bring starvation or pesticide contamination of food sources. Most nectar source and pollen source throughout the growing season to build up their numbers.
Crops that traditionally have had managed pollination include apple, almonds, pears, some plum and cherry varieties, blueberries, cranberries, cucumbers, cantaloupe, watermelon, alfalfa seeds, onion seeds, and many others. Some crops that have traditionally depended entirely on chance pollination by wild pollinators need pollination management nowadays to make a profitable crop.
Some crops, especially when planted in a monoculture situation, require a very high level of pollinators to produce economically viable crops. This may be because of lack of attractiveness of the blossoms, or from trying to pollinate with an alternative when the native pollinator is extinct or rare. These include crops such as alfalfa, cranberries, and kiwifruit. This technique is known as saturation pollination. In many such cases, various native bees are vastly more efficient at pollination (e.g., with blueberries), but the inefficiency of the honey bees is compensated for by using large numbers of hives, the total number of foragers thereby far exceeding the local abundance of native pollinators. In a very few cases, it has been possible to develop commercially viable pollination techniques that use the more efficient pollinators, rather than continued reliance on honey bees, as in the management of the alfalfa leafcutter bee.
|Common name||number of hives
|number of hives
|number of bee visits per
|Alfalfa||1, (3–5)||2.5, (4.9–12)|
|Apples (normal size)||1||2.5|
|Apples (semi dwarf)||2||4.9|
|Cantaloupes||2–4, (average 2.4)||4.9–9.9, (average 5.9)|
|Cucumbers||1–2, (average 2.1)||2.5–4.9, (average 5.2)|
|Watermelon||1–3, (average 1.3)||2.5–4.9, (average 3.2)|
It is estimated that about one hive per acre will sufficiently pollinate watermelons. In the 1950s when the woods were full of wild bee trees, and beehives were normally kept on most South Carolina farms, a farmer who grew ten acres (4 ha) of watermelons would be a large grower and probably had all the pollination needed. But today's grower may grow 200 acres (80 ha), and, if lucky, there might be one bee tree left within range. The only option in the current economy is to bring beehives to the field during blossom time.
Types of pollinators
Organisms that are currently being used as pollinators in managed pollination are honey bees, bumblebees, alfalfa leafcutter bees, and orchard mason bees. Other species are expected to be added to this list as this field develops. Humans also can be pollinators, as the gardener who hand pollinates her squash blossoms, or the Middle Eastern farmer, who climbs his date palms to pollinate them.
The Cooperative extension service recommends one honey bee hive per acre (2.5 hives per hectare) for standard watermelon varieties to meet this crop's pollination needs. In the past, when fields were small, pollination was accomplished by a mix of bees kept on farms, bumblebees, carpenter bees, feral honey bees in hollow trees and other insects. Today, with melons planted in large tracts, the grower may no longer have hives on the farm; he may have poisoned many of the pollinators by spraying blooming cotton; he may have logged off the woods, removing hollow trees that provided homes for bees, and pushed out the hedgerows that were home for solitary native bees and other pollinating insects.
Planning for improved pollination
Before pollination needs were understood, orchardists often planted entire blocks of apples of a single variety. Because apples are self-sterile, and different members of a single variety are genetic clones (equivalent to a single plant), this is not a good idea. Growers now supply pollenizers, by planting crab apples interspersed in the rows, or by grafting crab apple limbs on some trees. Pollenizers can also be supplied by putting drum bouquets of crab apples or a compatible apple variety in the orchard blocks.
The field of pollination management cannot be placed wholly within any other field, because it bridges several fields. It draws from horticulture, apiculture, zoology (especially entomology), ecology, and botany.
Improving pollination with suboptimal bee densities
Growers’ demand for beehives far exceeds the available supply. The number of managed beehives in the US has steadily declined from close to 6 million after WWII, to less than 2.5 million today. In contrast, the area dedicated to growing bee-pollinated crops has grown over 300% in the same time period. To make matters worse, in the past five years we have seen a decline in winter managed beehives, which has reached an unprecedented rate near 30%. At present, there is an enormous demand for beehive rentals that cannot always be met. There is a clear need across the agricultural industry for a management tool to draw pollinators into cultivations and encourage them to preferentially visit and pollinate the flowering crop. By attracting pollinators like honeybees and increasing their foraging behavior, particularly in the center of large plots, we can increase grower returns and optimize yield from their plantings. ISCA Technologies, from Riverside California, created a semiochemical formulation called SPLAT Bloom, that modifies the behavior of honeybees, inciting them to visit flowers in every portion of the field. SPLAT Bloom is long-lasting semiochemical tool that increases pollination of flowering crops by honeybees, benefiting growers by enhancing on-farm environmental and economic sustainability.
- Canadian Pollination Initiative
- North American Pollinator Protection Campaign
- Pollinator Partnership
- Seeds of Diversity
- The Pollinator Pathway
- Javorek SK, Mackenzie KE, Vander Kloet SP (2002) Comparative pollination effectiveness among bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) on Lowbush Blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium angustifolium). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95: 345–351
- Ontario Beekeepers' Association
- Pollination by Honey Bees
- Custom Pollination with Honey Bees in Manitoba
- Pollination Requirements of Vine Crops, Malcolm T. Sanford, Extension Apiculturist University of Florida, 1995
- Vegetable Grower's Handbook Texas Agricultural Extension Services
- Bee pollination benefits for rockmelon crops Department of Agriculture and Food , Western Australia
- Chapter IV
- Delaplaine et al. 1994, Bee pollination of Georgia crop plants. CES Bulletin 1106
- Sihag, R.C. 1995.Pollination Biology: Environmental Factors and Pollination. Rajendra Scientific Publishers, Hisar, 195p.
- Sihag, R.C.1995. Pollination Biology: Pollination, Plant Reproduction and Crop Seed Production.Rajendra Scientific Publishers, Hisar, 210p.
- Sihag, R.C.1997. Pollination Biology: Basic and Applied Principles. Rajendra Scientific Publishers, Hisar, 215p.
- Insect Pollination Of Cultivated Crop Plants S.E. McGregor, USDA, 1976
- Raising awareness among Canadians about plant pollinators and the importance of monitoring and conserving them J. A. Dyer, Seeds of Diversity Canada, Feb. 2006