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Bologna sausage, also known as baloney (//), boloney or polony, is a sausage derived from and somewhat similar to the Italian mortadella, a finely hashed/ground pork sausage containing cubes of lard that originated in the Italian city of Bologna, IPA: [boˈloɲɲa] ( )). U.S. government regulations require American bologna to be finely ground, and without visible pieces of lard. Bologna can alternatively be made out of chicken, turkey, beef, pork, venison or soy protein.
Polony is the name for a large sausage made from a mixture of beef and pork that is popular in South Africa and was very popular in Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries, although seldom seen in Britain nowadays. Polony keeps well as it is highly seasoned before being hot smoked. They are then cooked in boiling water when required. The name is believed to be derived from Polonia (the old name for Poland) but some think it may be a corruption of Bologna.
Occasionally a slice of bologna is heated up so, as the fat renders, the round slice takes the shape of a bowl which may be filled with cheese or other fillings.
Sometimes referred to as garlic bologna, this sausage differs from traditional bologna due to various seasonings, most typically garlic being added to the recipe. Although referred to as German Bologna elsewhere, it is usually called Fleischwurst in Germany and Extrawurst in Austria. Other varieties, such as the French variation are sometimes called "Saucisse de Lyon" which the Swiss call Lyoner or Lyonerwurst ("Lyon sausage") and usually do not contain a noticeable amount of garlic, while Fleischwurst is often flavored with garlic, these varieties are generally an off white color, as they do not contain nitrates (which give cooked pork its pink color).
In Germany, "regular" bologna is referred to as Mortadella, and is mostly identical and made out of the same meats as its American counterpart, although it often contains pistachios. The original, larger and less finely ground Mortadella is called italienische Mortadella.
Kosher or halal bologna
Kosher or halal bologna is typically made with only beef, but sometimes made from turkey, chicken or lamb.
Lauantaimakkara is a Finnish type of bologna derived from the early Lyon sausage, the "Lyoner".
Rag bologna is a long stick, or "chub" of high fat bologna traditionally sold wrapped in a cloth rag. The recipe has a higher content of filler than that of regular bologna. Milk solids, flour, cereal and spices are added during processing, and the roll of bologna is bathed in lactic acid before being coated in paraffin wax. This type of bologna is native to West Tennessee and the surrounding regions and is not commonly available outside this area. It is generally eaten on white bread with mustard and pickles, but is also a staple of family gatherings where thick slices are smoked and barbecued along with other meats. In Newfoundland, a type of rag bologna referred to as "wax" bologna is sliced thickly and fried, which is referred to as "Newfie steak". 
South African Polony
South Africans refer to bologna exclusively as 'polony', although South African polony is typically made using highly-processed meat with a high pink slime concentration. These processed meat products are typically an artificially bright pink color, and are a low-income food due to their low cost. Large pink, bland polonies are called French Polony , with thinner rolls referred to simply as polony. Garlic Polony is also widely available.
A low-fat non-GMO soy vegan bologna style alternative is made by the Lightlife company in the United States