Polypodiales

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Polypodiales
California Arena Point fern.jpg
Polypodium californicum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Polypodiopsida /
Pteridopsida (disputed)
Order: Polypodiales
Link 1833
Families

See text.

The order Polypodiales encompasses the major lineages of polypod ferns, which comprise more than 80% of today's fern species. They are found in many parts of the world including tropical, semitropical and temperate areas. The characteristics of this group include: sporangia with a vertical annulus interrupted by the stalk and stomium; indusia laterally or centrally attached (or lost); gametophytes green, chordate, and surficial.[1]

Polypodiales may be regarded as one of the most evolutionarily advanced orders of monilophytes (ferns), based on recent genetic analysis. They arose and diversified about 100 million years ago, probably subsequent to the diversification of the angiosperms. [2]

Families[edit]

The Polypodiales order includes the following families.[3][4][5] The order in which they are listed is based on the order in which they appear in the phylogram that follows the list.

Eupolypods II

Eupolypods I

Phylogenic relationships[edit]

The following diagram showing a likely phylogenic relationship between the families of the Polypodiales is based on Lehtonen, 2011,[3] and Rothfels & al., 2012.[6]

Polypodiales


Saccolomataceae




Cystodiaceae




Lonchitidaceae



Lindsaeaceae







Pteridaceae




Dennstaedtiaceae



eupolypods II

Cystopteridaceae





Rhachidosoraceae




Diplaziopsidaceae




Aspleniaceae



Hemidictyaceae







Thelypteridaceae




Woodsiaceae





Onocleaceae



Blechnaceae




Athyriaceae







eupolypods I

Hypodematiaceae




Dryopteridaceae




Lomariopsidaceae




Nephrolepidaceae




Tectariaceae




Oleandraceae




Davalliaceae



Polypodiaceae













Obsolete families[edit]

Now-obsolete families of Polypodiales include:

  • Drynariaceae - now in Polypodiaceae
  • Grammitidaceae - now in Polypodiaceae
  • Gymnogrammitidaceae - now in Polypodiaceae
  • Loxogrammaceae - now in Polypodiaceae
  • Nephrolepidaceae - now in Lomariopsidaceae
  • Platyceriaceae - now in Polypodiaceae
  • Pleursoriopsidaceae - now in Polypodiaceae
  • Vittariaceae - now in Pteridaceae

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alan R. Smith, Kathleen M. Pryer, Eric Schuettpelz, Petra Korall, Harald Schneider & Paul G. Wolf (2006). "A classification for extant ferns". Taxon 55 (3): 705–731. doi:10.2307/25065646. 
  2. ^ Harald Schneider, Eric Schuettpelz, Kathleen M. Pryer, Raymond Cranfill, Susana Magallón, Richard Lupia (2004), "Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms", Nature 428 (6982): 553–557, doi:10.1038/nature02361, PMID 15058303 
  3. ^ a b c Samuli Lehtonen (2011). "Towards Resolving the Complete Fern Tree of Life". PLoS ONE 6 (10): e24851. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024851. PMC 3192703. PMID 22022365. 
  4. ^ Maarten J. M. Christenhusz, Xian-Chun Zhang & Harald Schneider (2011). "A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns". Phytotaxa 19: 7–54. 
  5. ^ a b Maarten J. M. Christenhusz & Harald Schneider (2011). "Corrections to Phytotaxa 19: Linear sequence of lycophytes and ferns". Phytotaxa 28: 50–52. 
  6. ^ Carl J. Rothfels, Anders Larsson, Li-Yaung Kuo, Petra Korall, Wen- Liang Chiou, Kathleen M. Pryer (2012). "Overcoming Deep Roots, Fast Rates, and Short Internodes to Resolve the Ancient Rapid Radiation of Eupolypod II Ferns". Systematic Biology 61 (1): 70. 

Sources[edit]