Polystichum

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Polystichum
Polystichum setiferum0.jpg
Polystichum setiferum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Pteridopsida
Order: Polypodiales
Family: Dryopteridaceae
Genus: Polystichum
Roth 1800
Species

See text.

Synonyms
  • Acropelta T.Nakai 1953
  • Aetopteron Ehrh. ex House 1920
  • Hemesteum H.Lév. 1915
  • Hypopeltis Michx. 1803
  • Papuapteris C. Chr. 1937
  • Phanerophlebia C. Presl 1836
  • Plecosorus Fée 1852
  • Sorolepidium Christ 1911[1]

Polystichum is a genus of about 260 species of ferns with a cosmopolitan distribution. The highest diversity is in eastern Asia, with about 120 species in China alone; the region from Mexico to Brazil has nearly 100 additional species; Africa (17 species), North America (15 species), and Europe (5 species) have much lower diversity. Polystichum species are terrestrial or rock-dwelling ferns of warm-temperate and montane-tropical regions (a few species grow in alpine regions).

Description[edit]

Polystichum setiferum 'Plumosum densum'

Many ferns of this genus have stout, slowly creeping rootstocks that form a crown, with a vase-like ring of evergreen fronds 30–200 cm long. The sori are round, with a circular indusium. The stipes have prominent scales. The genus differs from Dryopteris in the indusium being circular, not reniform, and in having stronger, more persistent fronds with a harder, somewhat rough, texture.

Cultivation[edit]

Several species are grown as ornamental plants in gardens. One species, Polystichum tsus-simense of eastern Asia, is commonly offered as a houseplant.

Hybrids[edit]

Hybridisation is frequent in the genus, with several named hybrids, including:-

  • P. × bicknellii (P. aculeatum × P. setiferum)
  • P. × illyricum (P. aculeatum × P. lonchitis)
  • P. × lonchitiforme (P. lonchitis × P. setiferum)
  • P. × lesliei (P. setiferum × P. munitum) first found in Surrey in 1995 and a second plant found in Cornwall in 2001.[2]

Ecology[edit]

Polystichum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Pharmacis fusconebulosa. Specimens of some of these can be found at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.

Selected species[edit]

The genus Polystichum includes, but is not limited to, the following species. In this list, a species name preceded by (=) is considered to be a synonym of the accepted species name above it.

Former species[edit]

Species that were at one time considered part of the Polystichum genus, but are now categorized elsewhere, include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Synonyms Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 25 Jan 2012
  2. ^ Murphy, Rosaline J; Page, Christopher N, Parslow, Rosemary E and Bennallick, Ian J (2012). Ferns, Clubmosses, Quillworts and Horsetails of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly. Truro: ERCCIS. ISBN 978 1 902864 07 5. 
  3. ^ P. andersonii, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Profile, 19 Jan 2012 
  4. ^ P. bonseyi Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  5. ^ P. bonseyi, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Profile, 19 Jan 2012 
  6. ^ P. brachypterum, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Profile, 19 Jan 2012 
  7. ^ P. braunii, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Profile, 19 Jan 2012 
  8. ^ P. brachypterum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  9. ^ P. capillipes Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  10. ^ P. echinatum, Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden., 19 Jan 2012 
  11. ^ P. kiusiuense Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  12. ^ P. haleakalense, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Profile, 19 Jan 2012 
  13. ^ Conspectus of Southern African Pteridophyta, J. P. Roux, Nov. 2001. p. 129
  14. ^ P. mollissimum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  15. ^ P. nakenense Chinese Plant Names www.eFloras.org 20 Dec 2012
  16. ^ P. neolobatum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  17. ^ P. ordinatum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  18. ^ P. erinaceum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  19. ^ P. brunneum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  20. ^ P. setigerum, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Profile, 20 Jan 2012 
  21. ^ P. lichiangense Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  22. ^ P. sinense Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  23. ^ P. apicisterile Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  24. ^ P. integripinnulum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  25. ^ P. conaense Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  26. ^ P. ilicifolium Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  27. ^ P. heteropaleaceum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  28. ^ P. kodamae Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  29. ^ P. xiphophyllum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  30. ^ P. gyirongense Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  31. ^ P. jizhushanense Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  32. ^ P. auriculatum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  33. ^ P. falcatum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  34. ^ P. lepidocaulon Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012

Gallery[edit]

Polystichum tsussimense
Polystichum lonchitis, Pancake Bay, Ontario

External links[edit]