Polyvinylidene chloride

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Polyvinylidene chloride
Skeletal formula of polyvinylidenechloride =
Identifiers
Abbreviations PVDC
CAS number 9002-85-1
Properties
Molecular formula (C2H2Cl2)n
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) is a homopolymer of vinylidene chloride.

History[edit]

Ralph Wiley accidentally discovered polyvinylidene chloride in 1933.[1] He, then, was a college student who worked part-time at Dow Chemical lab as a dishwasher.[2] While cleaning laboratory glassware, he came across a vial he could not scrub clean. Dow researchers made this material into a greasy, dark green film,[3] first called "Eonite" and then "Saran".[2][4]

Ralph Wiley went on to become one of Dow Chemical's Research Scientists and invent and develop many plastics, chemicals and production machines.

The military sprayed Saran on fighter planes to guard against salty sea spray and carmakers used it for upholstery. Dow later devised a formulation of polyvinylidene chloride free of unpleasant odour and green colour.

The most well known use of polyvinylidene chloride came in 1953, when Saran Wrap, a plastic food wrap was introduced. In 2004, however, the formula was changed to low density polyethylene due to environmental concerns about its chlorine content.

Properties[edit]

It is a remarkable barrier against water, oxygen and aromas. It has a superior chemical resistance to alkalies and acids, is insoluble in oil and organic solvents, has very low moisture regain and is impervious to mold, bacteria, and insects. But it is soluble in polar solvents.

It has good thermal stability, but above 125 °C decomposes to produce HCl.[5]

Fiber types[edit]

Saran fiber comes in monofilament, multifilament-twist, and as a staple fiber. It is also available in thermochromic (color changing) and luminescent (glow in the dark) fibers.

Uses[edit]

Packaging[edit]

Polyvinylidene chloride is applied as a water-based coating to other plastic films such as biaxially-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). This coating increases the barrier properties of the film, reducing the permeability of the film to oxygen and flavours and thus extending the shelf life of the food inside the package. It can also impart a high gloss finish which may be aesthetically pleasing and also provides a high degree of scuff resistance to if applied over print.

Household[edit]

Cleaning cloths, filters, screens, tape, shower curtains, garden furniture.

Industry[edit]

Screens, artificial turf, waste-water treatment materials, underground materials.

Miscellaneous[edit]

Doll hair, stuffed animals, fabrics, fishnet, pyrotechnics, shoe insoles.

Disadvantages[edit]

While extremely useful as a food packaging agent, the major disadvantage of polyvinylidene chloride is that it will undergo thermally induced dehydrochlorination at temperatures very near to processing temperatures. This degradation easily propagates, leaving polyene sequences long enough to absorb visible light, and change the color of the material from colorless to an undesirable transparent brown (unacceptable for one of polyvinylidene chloride chief applications: food packaging). Therefore, there is a significant amount of product loss in the manufacturing process, which increases production and consumer costs.

Trademarks (producers)[edit]

Saran TC and Saran LS (Asahi-Kasei), Saran Wrap and Saranex (Dow Chemical), Ixan and Diofan (SolVin).

See also[edit]

PVC

References[edit]

  1. ^ John W. Klooster (30 July 2009). Icons of Invention: The Makers of the Modern World from Gutenberg to Gates. ABC-CLIO. pp. 466–. ISBN 978-0-313-34743-6. Retrieved 12 July 2012. 
  2. ^ a b David John Cole; Eve Browning; Fred E. H. Schroeder (30 April 2003). Encyclopedia of Modern Everyday Inventions. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-313-31345-5. Retrieved 12 July 2012. 
  3. ^ Andrew F. Smith (1 May 2007). The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink. Oxford University Press. p. 492. ISBN 978-0-19-530796-2. Retrieved 12 July 2012. 
  4. ^ Mary Bellis. "Saran Wrap ®". inventors.about.com. Retrieved July 12, 2012. 
  5. ^ Otto G. Piringer; A. L. Baner (17 September 2008). Plastic Packaging: Interactions with Food and Pharmaceuticals. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 41–. ISBN 978-3-527-62143-9. Retrieved 12 July 2012. 
  • B.A. Howell, J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. (ed) 1987, 25, 1681–1695.
  • B.A. Howell, B.S. Warner, C.V. Rajaram, S.I. Ahemed and Z. Ahmed, Polym. Adv. Technol., 1994, 5, 485.
  • B.A. Howell and S. M. Jane, “Impact of Moisture on the Thermal Stability of Vinylidene Chloride Copolymers”, Proceedings, 34th Annual Meeting of the North American Thermal Analysis Society, 2006.
  • R.A. Wessling, D.S. Gibbs P.T. Delassus, B.E. Obi, B.A. Howell, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 4th Edition, 1997, Vol 24, pp. 883–923.

External links[edit]