Pomak language

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Pomak language (Greek: πομακική γλώσσα, pomakiki glosa or πομακικά, pomakika, Bulgarian: помашки език, pomaški ezik, Turkish: Pomakça) is a term used in Greece[1] and Turkey[2] to refer to some of the Rup dialects of the Bulgarian language spoken by the Pomaks in Western Thrace in Greece and Eastern Thrace in Turkey. These dialects are native also in Bulgaria, and are classified as part of the Smolyan subdialect.[3]Some grammatical forms of the Rup dialects, published by the Danish linguist Pedersen in 1907, have striking resemblance to the grammatical forms of the Armenian language. [4][5] As well, the Rup dialects have slightly different forms of demonstrative suffixes (exercising also functions of the possessive pronouns) from the Bulgarian Tran dialect and the modern standard Macedonian language.[6] There are publications concerning the vocabulary of the Rup dialects[7][8] and anthroponyms of Armenian origin which overlap areas, populated by Paulicians from the 15th to 18th centuries.[9]

Also, the truth is that Pomaks use to live for centuries in Northern Bulgaria. The "Lovech Pomaks" in Northern Bulgaria, previously Paulicians, speak the Galata dialect, which covers the regiolects of the villages: Galata, Gradeshnitsa, Bulgarski Izvor, Kirchevo (Pomashka Leshnitsa), Dobrevtsi, and Rumyantsevo (Blasnichevo).[10]In the past, this dialect had covered areas of the Pleven, Lukovit, Byala Slatina, and Teteven regions.[11]

According to an alternative opinion, the Pomak language is an original Slavic language with many dialects.[12]

According to the 1935 census in Turkey, 3881 people in Eastern Thrace identified their mother tongue as Bulgarian and 18 382 as Pomak.[13] The overall statistic from 1935 shows that 41 041 people speak Pomak as their mother tongue or as a secondary dialect.[14]

In Greece the most common language name is "pomatsko", Pomak.[15] In 1996 a Pomak-Greek/Greek-Pomak dictionary was published along with Pomak language grammar book.[1] In 2011 the Greek Channel 6 based in Xanthi started broadcasting news in Pomak language.[16] For academic papers on the Pomak varieties of Greece see among others [17] [18]

The Pomak language was used mainly in oral communication. Currently in the formation of the literary standard Pomaks attempts to create script based on both the Greek and Latin alphabets. Recently, the Pomak Institute has published an alphabet with 29 letters for the Pomak language.[19]

Examples[edit]

English Rhodope Pomak Dialect (Xanthi, Komotini, Alexandroupoli)
Hello Zdravejte (Formal), Zdrasti (Informal)
I am Pomak (man) Je (ez) sam Pomak
I speak pomak Je (ez) lafim pomakika
How are you? Kak si (ti)?
Thank you Blagodarja
Good day Dobăr den
Children Detine
This chair Aisos skemle
That auntie Ainos lelka
Ibrahim is my uncle Ibrahim e moj midže
Hatidža is my sister Hatidža e moja sestra
My father Mojet bubajko
What are you doing? Kina rabutaš?
I knew Je (ez) znajeh
Do you know? Znaješ li ti?
He was a good man Toj beše dobăr čiljak
I am from Xanthi Je (ez) sam ot Skeče
One woman from the new village Ino žăna ot novoto selo
One day and one night Ino den i ino noš
Last year Lani
The cat which is close to the speaker, here and now Koteso
The cat which is close to the addressee or realis past Koteto
The cat which is distal, realis future, irrealis or habitual Koteno
This is grand-father's snake Aisos e dedvasa zmie

Some parallels on the basis of the above examples and the Armenian language:[20]

Je (other popular form "ez") – es (pronounsed, in modern Armenian reading, as the English word "yes"); aisos – ais; ainos – ain; koteso – katus; koteto – katut; koteno – katun.

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Стойков, Ст. Българска диалектология. София, 1968. (Stoykov St. Bulgarian Dialectology. Sofia, 1968).
  • Милетич, Л. Ловчанските помаци. София, Български преглед, г. V, кн. I, 1898, c. 67 - 78. (Miletic, L. The Lovech Pomaks. Sofia, Bulgarian Review, y. V, vol. I, 1898, p. 67-78).
  • Савов, В. Ловчанските помаци и техния говор. Известия на семинара по славянска филология. София, 1931, кн. VII, с. 1 - 34. (Savov, V. The Lovech Pomaks and their speech. Proceedings of the Workshop on Slavic Studies. Sofia, 1931, vol. VII, p. 1-34).
  • Миков, В. Българските мохамедани в Тетевенско, Луковитско и Белослатинско. Родина, 1940 - 1941, No 3, с. 51 - 68.(Mikov, V. Bulgarian Muslims in Teteven, Lukovit, and Byala Slatina Country. Rodina, 1940 - 1941, No 3, p. 51- 68).
  • Български диалектен атлас. София, 1980, т. IV: с. Галата /под No 1471/, с. Добревци /под No 1458/ и с. Кирчево (Помашка Лешница) /под No 2306/. (Bulgarian Dialect Atlas. Sofia, 1980, section IV: the village of Galata /under No 1471/, Dobrevtsi /under No 1458/, and Kirchevo (Pomak Leshnitsa) /under No 2306/).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Pilbrow, Tim (1997). "The Nation and its Margins: Negotiating a National Identity in Post-1989 Bulgaria". Anthropology of East Europe Review (Field and International Study Program, College of Human Ecology, Cornell University [and] Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology, Central Connecticut State University) 15 (2): 68. OCLC 475414332. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  2. ^ Turan, Ömer (2007). "Pomaks, Their Past and Present". Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs (Routledge) 19 (1): 69. doi:10.1080/13602009908716425. 
  3. ^ Bulgarian dialectology; Stoyan Stoykov; 4th edition, 2002; pp.128-143
  4. ^ Պեդերսեն, Հ. Հին հայերէնի ցուցական դերանուները, Վիեննա, 1907, էջ 7 (in Armenian). (Pedersen, H. The Demonstrative Pronouns of the Old Armenian Language. Vienna, 1907, p. 7).
  5. ^ Tumanian, E. G. (in Russian) Drevnearmianskiĭ iazyk (Classical Armenian). Moskva, “Nauka”, 1971, 448 p. (p. 274).
  6. ^ Iaroslav Iashchuk. On Possible Origin of the Postpositive Definite Article in Balkan Languages and Contribution of Armenian to Balkan Sprachbund Formation. In: Academia.edu[1]
  7. ^ http://napenalki.com/glossary.html?task=list&glossid=1&letter=%D0%99
  8. ^ Селян, Е. (in Bulgarian) Коренът "джур" в българска езикова среда. Сп. “Филология”, Изд.: СУ "Св. Кл. Охридски", София, 1983, бр. 12 - 13, с. 137 – 139. (Selian, E. The Root “Jur“ in the Bulgarian Language Environment. Magazine “Philology”. Publisher: Sofia University “St. Kl. Ohridski”, Sofia, 1983, issue 12-13, p. 137-139).
  9. ^ Голийски, П. (in Bulgarian) Ономастични и лексикални аспекти на арменското етническо присъствие в българските земи през средновековието. Автореферат на докторска дисертация. СУ "Св. Климент Охридски", ФКНФ, ЦИЕК, катедра "Класически Изток", секция "Арменска филология". София, 2005 г., 241 с. (Goliyski, P. Onomastic and lexical aspects of Armenian ethnic presence in the Bulgarian lands during the Middle Ages. Abstract of doctoral dissertation. Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski", FKNF, CELC, Department "Classic East," section "Armenian Studies." Sofia, 2005, p. 241).
  10. ^ Иванов, Й. Българска диалектология. Пловдивско Университетско Издателство “П. Хилендарски”. Пловдив, 1994 г., с. 80 (Ivanov, J. Bulgarian Dialectology. Plovdiv University Press “P. Hilendarski”. Plovdiv, 1994, p. 80).
  11. ^ Байчев,Б. Селото, градът и езикът в Ловешкия край. Университетско издателство “Св. Кл. Охридски”. София, 1996, с. 645. ( Baychev,B. Village, City and Language in the Lovech Region. Iniversity Press “St. Kl. Ohridski”, Sofia, 1996, p. 645).
  12. ^ Selian, E. The language of the Paulicians and Pomaks: http://www.saching.com/Articles/The-Language-of-the-Paulicians-and-Pomaks-17121.html.
  13. ^ Сребранов, Румен (2007). Чечкият говор (in Bulgarian). София: Академично издателство „Проф. Марин Дринов“. p. 24. ISBN 978-954-322-230-8. 
  14. ^ Ülker, Erol (2007). "Assimilation of the Muslim communities in the first decade of the Turkish Republic (1923-1934)". European Journal of Turkish Studies (Revues.org): 18. OCLC 179911432. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  15. ^ Adamou, E. 2010, Bilingual Speech and Language Ecology in Greek Thrace: Romani and Pomak in contact with Turkish, Language in Society 39/2 : 147-171pdf.
  16. ^ Хаджиев, Валентин (2011-01-30). "Гръцка тв пусна “Хабери на помацки”". 24 часа (in Bulgarian) (Медийна група България). ISSN 0861-4067. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  17. ^ Adamou, E. 2011, Temporal uses of Definite Articles and Demonstratives in Pomak (Slavic, Greece), Lingua 121(5) : 871-889.
  18. ^ Adamou, E. 2009, Le marquage différentiel de l’objet en nashta et en pomaque (Grèce). Retour sur l’hypothèse du contact, Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris, 104(1) : 383-410.
  19. ^ http://pomaknews.com/en/?p=354
  20. ^ Tumanian, E. G. (in Russian) Drevnearmianskiĭ iazyk (Classical Armenian). Moskva, “Nauka”, 1971, 448 p. (p. 24, 274, 275).