The pomegranate //, botanical name Punica granatum, is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing between 5 and 8 m (16–26 ft) tall. In the Northern Hemisphere, the fruit is typically in season from September to February, and in the Southern Hemisphere from March to May. As intact arils or juice, pomegranates are used in cooking, baking, meal garnishes, juice blends, smoothies, and alcoholic beverages, such as cocktails and wine.
The pomegranate is considered to have originated in the region between the Himalayas and Egypt, and has been cultivated since ancient times in India, Persia, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and the Arabian Peninsula. It is mentioned in many ancient texts, notably in Babylonian texts and the Book of Exodus. It was introduced into Latin America and California by Spanish settlers in 1769.
Today, it is widely cultivated throughout the Mediterranean region of southern Europe, the Middle East and Caucasus region, northern Africa and tropical Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, and the drier parts of southeast Asia. It is also cultivated in parts of California and Arizona. In recent years, it has become more common in the commercial markets of Europe and the Western Hemisphere.
- 1 Etymology and terms for pomegranate in other languages
- 2 Description
- 3 Cultivation
- 4 Cultural history
- 5 Research
- 6 Symbolism
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Etymology and terms for pomegranate in other languages
The name pomegranate derives from medieval Latin pōmum "apple" and grānātum "seeded". This has influenced the common name for pomegranate in many languages (e.g. granada in Spanish, Granatapfel or Grenadine in German, grenade in French, granatäpple in Swedish, gránátalma in Hungarian, and pomogranà in Venetian). Mālum grānātus, using the classical Latin word for apple, gives rise to the Italian name melograno, or less commonly melagrana.
Perhaps stemming from the old French word for the fruit, pomme-grenade, the pomegranate was known in early English as "apple of Grenada"—a term which today survives only in heraldic blazons. This is a folk etymology, confusing Latin granatus with the name of the Spanish city of Granada, which derives from Arabic.
The genus name Punica refers to the Phoenicians, who were active in broadening its cultivation, partly for religious reasons.
Garnet comes from Old French grenat by metathesis, from Medieval Latin granatum, here used in a different meaning: "of a dark red color". This meaning perhaps originated from pomum granatum because of the color of pomegranate pulp, or from granum in the sense of "red dye, cochineal".
While most European languages have cognate names for the fruit, stemming from Latin granatum, exceptions are the South Slavic languages, which have terms derived from Turkish nar, and ultimately from Persian anaar (انار). There is also the Albanian word shega, and the Portuguese term romã which is derived from Arabic ruman (رمان), and has cognates in other Semitic languages (e.g. Hebrew rimmon) and Ancient Egyptian rmn.
A shrub or small tree growing 6 to 10 m high, the pomegranate has multiple spiny branches, and is extremely long-lived, with some specimens in France surviving for 200 years. P. granatum leaves are opposite or subopposite, glossy, narrow oblong, entire, 3–7 cm long and 2 cm broad. The flowers are bright red and 3 cm in diameter, with three to seven petals. Some fruitless varieties are grown for the flowers alone.
The edible fruit is a berry, between a lemon and a grapefruit in size, 5–12 cm in diameter with a rounded shape and thick, reddish skin. The number of seeds in a pomegranate can vary from 200 to about 1400 seeds. Each seed has a surrounding water-laden pulp — the edible sarcotesta that forms from the seed coat — ranging in color from white to deep red or purple. The seeds are "exarillate", i.e., unlike some other species in the order, Myrtales, no aril is present. The sarcotesta of pomegranate seeds consists of epidermis cells derived from the integument. The seeds are embedded in a white, spongy, astringent membrane.
P. granatum is grown for its fruit crop, and as ornamental trees and shrubs in parks and gardens. Mature specimens can develop sculptural twisted-bark multiple trunks and a distinctive overall form. Pomegranates are drought-tolerant, and can be grown in dry areas with either a Mediterranean winter rainfall climate or in summer rainfall climates. In wetter areas, they can be prone to root decay from fungal diseases. They can be tolerant of moderate frost, down to about −12°C (10°F). 
Insect pests of the pomegranate can include the pomegranate butterfly Virachola isocrates and the leaf-footed bug Leptoglossus zonatus. Pomegranate grows easily from seed, but is commonly propagated from 25– to 50-cm hardwood cuttings to avoid the genetic variation of seedlings. Air layering is also an option for propagation, but grafting fails.
P. granatum var. nana is a dwarf variety of P. granatum popularly planted as an ornamental plant in gardens and larger containers, and used as a bonsai specimen tree. It could well be a wild form with a distinct origin. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. The only other species in the genus Punica is the Socotran pomegranate (P. protopunica), which is endemic to the island of Socotra. It differs in having pink (not red) flowers and smaller, less sweet fruit.
Several characteristics between pomegranate genotypes vary for identification, consumer preference, preferred use, and marketing, the most important of which are fruit size, exocarp color (ranging from yellow to purple, with pink and red most common), seed-coat color (ranging from white to red), hardness of seed, maturity, juice content and its acidity, sweetness, and astringency. Scientists at Indian Institute of Horticulture Research are developing varieties tolerant to bacterial blight disease using sub-Himalayan accessions.
Pomegranate is native to Iran and northeast Turkey. Pomegranates also thrive in the drier climates of California and Arizona, and have been cultivated throughout the Middle East, Southern Asia, and Mediterranean region for several millennia.
Carbonized exocarp of the fruit has been identified in early Bronze Age levels of Jericho in the West Bank, as well as late Bronze Age levels of Hala Sultan Tekke on Cyprus and Tiryns. A large, dry pomegranate was found in the tomb of Djehuty, the butler of Queen Hatshepsut in Egypt; Mesopotamian cuneiform records mention pomegranates from the mid-third millennium BC onwards.
It is also extensively grown in South China and in Southeast Asia, whether originally spread along the route of the Silk Road or brought by sea traders. Kandahar is famous in Afghanistan for its high-quality pomegranates.
Although not native to Korea or Japan, the pomegranate is widely grown there and many cultivars have been developed. It is widely used for bonsai because of its flowers and for the unusual twisted bark the older specimens can attain. The term "balaustine" (Latin: balaustinus) is also used for a pomegranate-red color.
The ancient city of Granada in Spain was renamed after the fruit during the Moorish period. Spanish colonists later introduced the fruit to the Caribbean and Latin America, but in the English colonies, it was less at home: "Don't use the pomegranate inhospitably, a stranger that has come so far to pay his respects to thee," the English Quaker Peter Collinson wrote to the botanizing John Bartram in Philadelphia, 1762. "Plant it against the side of thy house, nail it close to the wall. In this manner it thrives wonderfully with us, and flowers beautifully, and bears fruit this hot year. I have twenty-four on one tree... Doctor Fothergill says, of all trees this is most salutiferous to mankind." The pomegranate had been introduced as an exotic to England the previous century, by John Tradescant the elder, but the disappointment that it did not set fruit there led to its repeated introduction to the American colonies, even New England. It succeeded in the South: Bartram received a barrel of pomegranates and oranges from a correspondent in Charleston, South Carolina, 1764. John Bartram partook of "delitious" pomegranates with Noble Jones at Wormsloe Plantation, near Savannah, Georgia, in September 1765. Thomas Jefferson planted pomegranates at Monticello in 1771: he had them from George Wythe of Williamsburg.
After the pomegranate is opened by scoring it with a knife and breaking it open, the seeds are separated from the peel and internal white pulp membranes. Separating the seeds is easier in a bowl of water because the seeds sink and the inedible pulp floats. Freezing the entire fruit also makes it easier to separate. Another effective way of quickly harvesting the seeds is to cut the pomegranate in half, score each half of the exterior rind four to six times, hold the pomegranate half over a bowl and smack the rind with a large spoon. The seeds should eject from the pomegranate directly into the bowl, leaving only a dozen or more deeply embedded seeds to remove. The entire seed is consumed raw, though the watery, tasty sarcotesta is the desired part. The taste differs depending on the variety or cultivar of pomegranate and its ripeness.
Pomegranate juice can be sweet or sour, but most fruits are moderate in taste, with sour notes from the acidic tannins contained in the juice. Pomegranate juice has long been a popular drink in Armenian, Israeli, Persian, and Indian cuisine, and now is widely distributed in the United States and Canada.
Grenadine syrup long ago consisted of thickened and sweetened pomegranate juice, now is usually a sales name for a syrup based on various berries, citric acid, and food coloring, mainly used in cocktail mixing. In Europe, Bols still manufactures grenadine syrup with pomegranate. Before tomatoes (a New World fruit) arrived in the Middle East, pomegranate juice, molasses, and vinegar were widely used in many Iranian foods, and are still found in traditional recipes such as fesenjān, a thick sauce made from pomegranate juice and ground walnuts, usually spooned over duck or other poultry and rice, and in ash-e anar (pomegranate soup).
Pomegranate seeds are used as a spice known as anardana (from Persian: anar + dana, pomegranate + seed), most notably in Indian and Pakistani cuisine, but also as a substitute for pomegranate syrup in Persian cuisine. Dried whole seeds can often be obtained in ethnic Indian subcontinent markets. These seeds are separated from the flesh, dried for 10–15 days, and used as an acidic agent for chutney and curry preparation. Ground anardana is also used, which results in a deeper flavoring in dishes and prevents the seeds from getting stuck in teeth. Seeds of the wild pomegranate variety known as daru from the Himalayas are regarded as quality sources for this spice.
Dried pomegranate seeds, found in some natural specialty food markets, still contain some residual water, maintaining a natural sweet and tart flavor. Dried seeds can be used in several culinary applications, such as trail mix, granola bars, or as a topping for salad, yogurt, or ice cream. Chocolate-covered seeds may be added to desserts and baked items.
In the Caucasus, pomegranate is used mainly for juice. In Azerbaijan, a sauce from pomegranate juice (narsharab) is usually served with fish or tika kabab. In Turkey, pomegranate sauce (Turkish: nar ekşisi) is used as a salad dressing, to marinate meat, or simply to drink straight. Pomegranate seeds are also used in salads and sometimes as garnish for desserts such as güllaç. Pomegranate syrup or molasses is used in muhammara, a roasted red pepper, walnut, and garlic spread popular in Syria and Turkey.
In Greece, pomegranate (Greek: ρόδι, rodi) is used in many recipes, including kollivozoumi, a creamy broth made from boiled wheat, pomegranates, and raisins, legume salad with wheat and pomegranate, traditional Middle Eastern lamb kebabs with pomegranate glaze, pomegranate eggplant relish, and avocado-pomegranate dip. Pomegranate is also made into a liqueur, and as a popular fruit confectionery used as ice cream topping, mixed with yogurt, or spread as jam on toast. In Cyprus and Greece, and among the Greek Orthodox Diaspora, ρόδι (Greek for pomegranate) is used to make koliva, a mixture of wheat, pomegranate seeds, sugar, almonds, and other seeds served at memorial services.
In Mexico, they are commonly used to adorn the traditional dish chiles en nogada, representing the red of the Mexican flag in the dish which evokes the green (poblano pepper), white (nogada sauce) and red (pomegranate seeds) tricolor.
In traditional medicine
The rind of the fruit and the bark of the pomegranate tree are used as a traditional remedy against diarrhea, dysentery, and intestinal parasites. The seeds and juice are considered a tonic for the heart and throat, and classified as having bitter-astringent taste plus a range of taste from sweet to sour, depending on ripeness. Thus, pomegranate is considered a healthful counterbalance to a diet high in sweet-fatty (kapha or earth) components.
Especially when sweet, pomegranate fruit is nourishing for (pitta or fire) systems and is considered a blood builder. The astringent qualities of the flower juice, rind, and tree bark are considered valuable for a variety of purposes, such as stopping nose bleeds and gum bleeds, toning skin, (after blending with mustard oil) firming-up sagging breasts, and treating hemorrhoids. Pomegranate juice (of specific fruit strains) is also used as an eyedrop, as it is believed to slow the development of cataracts.
Ayurveda differentiates between pomegranate varieties and employs them for different remedies.
Pomegranate has been used as a contraceptive and abortifacient by means of consuming the seeds, or rind, as well as by using the rind as a vaginal suppository. This practice is recorded in ancient Indian literature, in medieval sources, and in modern folk medicine.
Pomegranate extracts (alkaloids) are used to treat intestinal parasite infestations in some nations.
Nutrients and phytochemicals
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||346 kJ (83 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||4 g|
|Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Pomegranate seeds are excellent sources of dietary fiber which is entirely contained in the edible seeds. People who choose to discard the seeds forfeit nutritional benefits conveyed by the seed fiber and micronutrients.
The most abundant polyphenols in pomegranate juice are the hydrolyzable tannins called ellagitannins formed when ellagic acid and/or gallic acid binds with a carbohydrate. The different pomegranate ellagitannins (also known as punicalagins) are: granatin A and B, punicacortein A, B, C and D, 5-O-galloylpunicacortein D, punicafolin, punigluconin, punicalagin, 1-alpha-O-galloylpunicalagin, punicalin and 2-O-galloyl-punicalin.
The red color of juice can be attributed to anthocyanins, such as delphinidin, cyaniding, and pelargonidin glycosides (delphinidin 3-glucoside and 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside and 3,5-diglucoside and pelargonidin 3-glucoside and 3,5-diglucoside). Generally, an increase in juice pigmentation occurs during fruit ripening.
In the peel
Compared to the pulp, the inedible pomegranate peel contains as much as three times the total amount of polyphenols, including condensed tannins and catechins, gallocatechins and prodelphinidins.
Potential health benefits
Pomegranate ellagitannins, also called punicalagins, have shown free-radical scavenging properties in laboratory experiments and with potential effects on humans. Punicalagins are absorbed into the human body and may have dietary value as antioxidants, but conclusive proof of efficacy in humans has not been shown. During intestinal metabolism by bacteria, ellagitannins and punicalagins are converted to urolithins, which have unknown biological activity in vivo.
In preliminary laboratory research and clinical trials, juice of the pomegranate may be effective in reducing heart disease risk factors, including LDL oxidation, macrophage oxidative status, and foam cell formation. In mice, "oxidation of LDL by peritoneal macrophages was reduced by up to 90% after pomegranate juice consumption...".
In a limited study of hypertensive patients, consumption of pomegranate juice for two weeks was shown to reduce systolic blood pressure by inhibiting serum angiotensin-converting enzyme. Juice consumption may also inhibit viral infections while pomegranate extracts have antibacterial effects against dental plaque.
Despite limited research data, manufacturers and marketers of pomegranate juice have liberally used evolving research results for product promotion, especially for putative antioxidant health benefits. In February 2010, the FDA issued a Warning Letter to one such manufacturer, POM Wonderful, for using published literature to make illegal claims of unproven antioxidant and antidisease benefits.
Many food and dietary supplement makers use pomegranate phenolic extracts as ingredients in their products instead of the juice. One of these extracts is ellagic acid, which may become bioavailable only after parent molecule punicalagins are metabolized. However, ingested ellagic acid from pomegranate juice does not accumulate in the blood in significant quantities and is rapidly excreted. Accordingly, ellagic acid from pomegranate juice does not appear to be biologically important in vivo.
Clinical trial disease targets
- prostate cancer
- prostatic hyperplasia
- rhinovirus infection
- common cold
- oxidative stress in diabetic hemodialysis
- coronary artery disease
- infant brain injury
- hemodialysis for kidney disease
- male infertility
- pregnancy complications
- erectile dysfunction
Ancient Egyptians regarded the pomegranate as a symbol of prosperity and ambition. According to the Ebers Papyrus, one of the oldest medical writings from around 1500 BC, Egyptians used the pomegranate for treatment of tapeworm and other infections.
The Greeks were familiar with the fruit far before it was introduced to Rome via Carthage. In Ancient Greek mythology, the pomegranate was known as the "fruit of the dead", and believed to have sprung from the blood of Adonis.
The myth of Persephone, the goddess of the underworld, prominently features the pomegranate. In one version of Greek mythology, Persephone was kidnapped by Hades and taken off to live in the underworld as his wife. Her mother, Demeter (goddess of the Harvest), went into mourning for her lost daughter, thus all green things ceased to grow. Zeus, the highest-ranking of the Greek gods, could not allow the Earth to die, so he commanded Hades to return Persephone. It was the rule of the Fates that anyone who consumed food or drink in the underworld was doomed to spend eternity there. Persephone had no food, but Hades tricked her into eating six pomegranate seeds while she was still his prisoner, so she was condemned to spend six months in the underworld every year. During these six months, while Persephone sits on the throne of the underworld beside her husband Hades, her mother Demeter mourns and no longer gives fertility to the earth. This was an ancient Greek explanation for the seasons. Dante Gabriel Rossetti's painting Persephona depicts Persephone holding the fatal fruit. The number of seeds Persephone ate varies, depending on which version of the story is told. The number ranges from three to seven, which accounts for just one barren season if it is just three or four seeds, or two barren seasons (half the year) if she ate six or seven seeds.
The pomegranate also evoked the presence of the Aegean Triple Goddess who evolved into the Olympian Hera, who is sometimes represented offering the pomegranate, as in the Polykleitos' cult image of the Argive Heraion (see below). According to Carl A. P. Ruck and Danny Staples, the chambered pomegranate is also a surrogate for the poppy's narcotic capsule, with its comparable shape and chambered interior. On a Mycenaean seal illustrated in Joseph Campbell's Occidental Mythology 1964, figure 19, the seated Goddess of the double-headed axe (the labrys) offers three poppy pods in her right hand and supports her breast with her left. She embodies both aspects of the dual goddess, life-giving and death-dealing at once. The Titan Orion was represented as "marrying" Side, a name that in Boeotia means "pomegranate", thus consecrating the primal hunter to the Goddess. Other Greek dialects call the pomegranate rhoa; its possible connection with the name of the earth goddess Rhea, inexplicable in Greek, proved suggestive for the mythographer Karl Kerenyi, who suggested the consonance might ultimately derive from a deeper, pre-Indo-European language layer.
In the fifth century BC, Polycleitus took ivory and gold to sculpt the seated Argive Hera in her temple. She held a scepter in one hand and offered a pomegranate, like a 'royal orb', in the other. "About the pomegranate I must say nothing," whispered the traveller Pausanias in the 2nd century, "for its story is somewhat of a holy mystery." In the Orion story, Hera cast pomegranate-Side (an ancient city in Antalya) into dim Erebus — "for daring to rival Hera's beauty", which forms the probable point of connection with the older Osiris/Isis story. Since the ancient Egyptians identified the Orion constellation in the sky as Sah the "soul of Osiris", the identification of this section of the myth seems relatively complete.[original research?] Hera wears, not a wreath nor a tiara nor a diadem, but clearly the calyx of the pomegranate that has become her serrated crown. The pomegranate has a calyx shaped like a crown. In Jewish tradition, it has been seen as the original "design" for the proper crown. In some artistic depictions, the pomegranate is found in the hand of Mary, mother of Jesus.
Within the Heraion at the mouth of the Sele, near Paestum, Magna Graecia, is a chapel devoted to the Madonna del Granato, "Our Lady of the Pomegranate", "who by virtue of her epithet and the attribute of a pomegranate must be the Christian successor of the ancient Greek goddess Hera", observes the excavator of the Heraion of Samos, Helmut Kyrieleis.
In modern times, the pomegranate still holds strong symbolic meanings for the Greeks. On important days in the Greek Orthodox calendar, such as the Presentation of the Virgin Mary and on Christmas Day, it is traditional to have at the dinner table polysporia, also known by their ancient name panspermia, in some regions of Greece. In ancient times, they were offered to Demeter and to the other gods for fertile land, for the spirits of the dead and in honor of compassionate Dionysus. When one buys a new home, it is conventional for a house guest to bring as a first gift a pomegranate, which is placed under/near the ikonostasi (home altar) of the house, as a symbol of abundance, fertility, and good luck. Pomegranates are also prominent at Greek weddings and funerals. When Greeks commemorate their dead, they make kollyva as offerings, which consist of boiled wheat, mixed with sugar and decorated with pomegranate. It is also traditional in Greece to break a pomegranate on the ground at weddings and on New Years. Pomegranate decorations for the home are very common in Greece and sold in most home goods stores.
Pomegranates were known in Ancient Israel as the fruits which the scouts brought to Moses to demonstrate the fertility of the "promised land". The Book of Exodus describes the me'il ("robe of the ephod") worn by the Hebrew high priest as having pomegranates embroidered on the hem alternating with golden bells which could be heard as the high priest entered and left the Holy of Holies. According to the Books of Kings, the capitals of the two pillars (Jachin and Boaz) that stood in front of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem were engraved with pomegranates. Solomon is said to have designed his coronet based on the pomegranate's "crown" (calyx).
It is traditional to consume pomegranates on Rosh Hashana because, with its numerous seeds, it symbolizes fruitfulness. Also, it is said to have 613 seeds, which corresponds with the 613 mitzvot or commandments of the Torah. This particular tradition is referred to in the opening pages of Ursula Dubosarsky's novel Theodora's Gift.
The pomegranate appeared on the ancient coins of Judea. When not in use, the handles of Torah scrolls are sometimes covered with decorative silver globes similar in shape to "pomegranates" (rimmonim). Some Jewish scholars believe the pomegranate was the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden. Pomegranates are one of the Seven Species (Hebrew: שבעת המינים, Shiv'at Ha-Minim) of fruits and grains enumerated in the Hebrew Bible (Deuteronomy 8:8) as being special products of the Land of Israel. The pomegranate is mentioned in the Bible many times, including this quote from the Songs of Solomon, "Thy lips are like a thread of scarlet, and thy speech is comely: thy temples are like a piece of a pomegranate within thy locks." (Song of Solomon 4:3). Pomegranates also symbolize the mystical experience in the Jewish mystical tradition, or kabbalah, with the typical reference being to entering the "garden of pomegranates" or pardes rimonim; this is also the title of a book by the 16th-century mystic Moses ben Jacob Cordovero.
In European Christian Motifs
In the earliest incontrovertible appearance of Christ in a mosaic, a fourth-century floor mosaic from Hinton St Mary, Dorset, now in the British Museum, the bust of Christ and the chi rho are flanked by pomegranates. Pomegranates continue to be a motif often found in Christian religious decoration. They are often woven into the fabric of vestments and liturgical hangings or wrought in metalwork. Pomegranates figure in many religious paintings by the likes of Sandro Botticelli and Leonardo da Vinci, often in the hands of the Virgin Mary or the infant Jesus. The fruit, broken or bursting open, is a symbol of the fullness of Jesus' suffering and resurrection.
In the Qur'an
According to the Qur'an, pomegranates grow in the gardens of paradise (55:68). The Qur'an also mentions pomegranates three times (6:99, 6:141, 55:68) as examples of good things God creates.
Pomegranate, a favorite fall and winter fruit in Afghanistan, has mainly two varieties: one that is sweet and dark red with hard seeds growing in and around Kandhar province, and the other that has soft seeds with variable color growing in the central/northern region. The largest market for Afghan pomegranates is India followed by Pakistan, Dubai, Russia, United Arab Emirates and Europe.
The pomegranate is one of the main fruits in Armenian culture (the others being apricot and grapes). Its juice is famous with Armenians in food and heritage. The pomegranate is the symbol of Armenia and represents fertility, abundance and marriage. For example, the fruit played an integral role in a wedding custom widely practiced in ancient Armenia: a bride was given a pomegranate fruit, which she threw against a wall, breaking it into pieces. Scattered pomegranate seeds ensured the bride future children. In Artsakh, it was customary to put fruits next to the bridal couple during the first night of marriage, among them the pomegranate, which was said to ensure happiness. It is likely that newlyweds also enjoyed pomegranate wine. The symbolism of the pomegranate is connected with insemination. It protected a woman from infertility and protected a man's virile strength. Currently, pomegranate juice is popular with Armenians in food and heritage. The Color of Pomegranates (1968) is a movie directed by Sergei Parajanov. It is a biography of the Armenian ashug Sayat-Nova (King of Song) which attempts to reveal the poet's life visually and poetically rather than literally.
Annually in October, a cultural festival is held in Goychay, Azerbaijan known as Pomegranate Festival. The festival features Azerbaijani fruit-cuisine mainly the pomegranates from Goychay. At the festival, a parade is held with traditional Azerbaijani dances and Azerbaijani music.
Iran and ancient Persia
Pomegranate was the symbol of fertility in ancient Persian culture. In Persian mythology, Isfandiyar eats a pomegranate and becomes invincible. In the Greco-Persian Wars, Herodotus mentions golden pomegranates adorning the spears of warriors in the phalanx. Even in today's Iran, pomegranate may imply love and fertility.
Iran produces pomegranates as a common crop. Its juice and paste have a role in some Iranian cuisines, e.g. chicken, ghormas and refreshment bars. Pomegranate skins may be used to stain wool and silk in the carpet industry.
Pomegranate Festival is an annual cultural and artistic festival held during October in Tehran to exhibit and sell pomegranates, food products and handicrafts.
In some Hindu traditions, the pomegranate (Hindi: Beejapuram, literally: replete with seeds) symbolizes prosperity and fertility, and is associated with both Bhoomidevi (the earth goddess) and Lord Ganesha (the one fond of the many-seeded fruit). The Tamil name maadulampazham is a metaphor for a woman's mind. It is derived from, maadhu=woman, ullam=mind, which means as the seeds are hidden, it is not easy to decipher a woman's mind.
Introduced to China during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), the pomegranate (Chinese: 石榴; pinyin: shíliu) in olden times was considered an emblem of fertility and numerous progeny. This symbolism is a pun on the Chinese character 子 (zǐ) which, as well as meaning seed, also means "offspring" thus a fruit containing so many seeds is a sign of fecundity. Pictures of the ripe fruit with the seeds bursting forth were often hung in homes to bestow fertility and bless the dwelling with numerous offspring, an important facet of traditional Chinese culture.
- LaRue, James H. (1980). "Growing Pomegranates in California". California Agriculture and Natural Resources. Retrieved 2007-10-25.
- Morton JF (1987). "Pomegranate, Punica granatum L.". Fruits of Warm Climates. Purdue New Crops Profile. pp. 352–5. Retrieved 2012-06-14.
- Analysis of genetic diversity among wild pomegranates in Western Himalayas, using PCR methods Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- Exodus 28:33-35
- "Pomegranate. California Rare Fruit Growers". Crfg.org. Retrieved 2012-06-14.
- medieval latin etymology of pomegranate on etymonline http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=pomegranate&allowed_in_frame=0
- "Fruit of the Month − Pomegranate".
- "All hail the Pomegranate, official symbol of Granada".
- Harper, Douglas. "garnet". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- Harper, Douglas (8 Oct 2011) "Grenade" Online Etymology Dictionary
- "Does a larger pomegranate yield more seeds?". AquaPhoenix.
- Dahlgren, R. And R. F. Thorne; Thorne (1984). "The order Myrtales: circumscription, variation, and relationships". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 71 (3): 633–699. doi:10.2307/2399158. JSTOR 2399158.
- M.D. Sheets, former research assistant, M.L. DuBois, former research assistant, J.G. Williamson, professor, Horticultural Sciences Department, JCooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida Gainesville FL 32611 - "The Pomegranate"([PDF]) - Retrieved December 24, 2012
- "RHS Plant Selector - Punica granatum var. nana". Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- "Punica granatum - the Drops of Blood from Garden of Eden".
- Stover E, Mercure EW (August 2007). "The pomegranate: a new look at the fruit of paradise". HortScience 42 (5): 1088–92.
- Doijode, S. D. (2001). Seed storage of horticultural crops. New York: Food Products Press. p. 77. ISBN 1-56022-883-0.
- George Ripley, Charles Anderson Dana (1875). The American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge, Volume 13. Appleton.
... frequent reference is made to it in the Mosaic writings, and sculptured representations of the fruit are found on the ancient monuments of Egypt and in the Assyrian ruins. It is found in a truly wild state only in northern India ...
- Hopf, Maria; Zohary, Daniel (2000). Domestication of plants in the old world: the origin and spread of cultivated plants in West Asia, Europe, and the Nile Valley (3rd ed.). Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. p. 171. ISBN 0-19-850356-3.
- "History of Science: Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences". Digicoll.library.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2012-06-14.
- Osborne, Roy; Pavey, Don (2003). On Colours 1528: A Translation from Latin. Parkland, Fla: Universal Publishers. ISBN 1-58112-580-1.
- Leighton, Ann (1986). American gardens in the eighteenth century: "for use or for delight". Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. p. 242. ISBN 0-87023-531-1.
- Leighton, American Gardens, p. 272.
- "How to de-seed a pomegranate". Gourmet.com. 2008.
- Tundel, Nikki (2007-04-20). "The pomegranate hits the peak of popularity". Minnesota Public Radio News.
- "BOLS Grenadine Syrup". www.bols.de (in German). Retrieved 11 January 2014.
- Burke, Andrew (15 July 2008). Iran. Lonely Planet. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-74104-293-1. Retrieved 2010-11-29.
The anar (pomegranate) is native to the region around Iran and is eaten fresh and incorporated in a range of Persian dishes most famously in fesenjun, but also in ash-e-anar (pomegranate soup) and in rich red ab anar (pomegranate juice).
- "Ash-e Anar". Internetserver.com. Retrieved 2012-06-14.
- Bulletin — Page 52 by United States Bureau of Plant Industry, Division of Plant Industry, Queensland[clarification needed]
- Culinary cultures of Europe, Council of Europe, 2005, p. 72
- Akgün, Müge (2006-09-22). "Güllaç, a dainty and light dessert". Turkish Daily News (Istanbul: DYH). Retrieved 2007-12-26.
- Malouf, Greg and Lucy (2006). Saha. Australia: Hardie Grant Books. p. 46. ISBN 0-7946-0490-0.
- K. K. Jindal, R. C. Sharma (2004). Recent trends in horticulture in the Himalayas. Indus Publishing. ISBN 81-7387-162-0.
... bark of tree and rind of fruit is commonly used in ayurveda ... also used for dyeing ...
- "Pomegranate: The Longevity Plant". Ayurvedam.com. Retrieved 2009-11-24.
... According to Ayurveda ... checks thirst, burning sensation, and fevers. It is also useful in the treatment of diseases of the heart, throat and mouth ... slightly increases Pitta ... checks Amavaatha and Kapha ...
- Ch. Murali Manohar (2002). Ayurveda for All. Pustak Mahal. ISBN 81-223-0764-7.
- Vasant Lad (2002). Textbook of Ayurveda, Volume 1. Ayurvedic Press. ISBN 1-883725-07-0.
... she was developing cataracts ... drop of pomegranate juice in the eye ...
- Birgit Heyn (1990). Ayurveda: the ancient Indian art of natural medicine & life extension. Inner Traditions / Bear & Company. ISBN 81-223-0764-7.
- John Riddle (1992). Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the Renaissance. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts;London, England. p. 25. ISBN 0-674-16875-5.
referenced="Before analyzing the prescriptions administered orally, let us look first at the suppository recipes, five of which use pomegranate peel or rind (Punica granatum L.). Pomegranate is frequently prescribed in classical medieval medical sources and is recognized as an abortifacient in ancient Indian literature and in modern folk medicine references and as a contraceptive, in modern science studies."
- Nutrition data for raw pomegranate, Nutritiondata.com
- Schubert SY, Lansky EP, Neeman I (July 1999). "Antioxidant and eicosanoid enzyme inhibition properties of pomegranate seed oil and fermented juice flavonoids". J Ethnopharmacol 66 (1): 11–17. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00222-0. PMID 10432202.
- Antioxidant and eicosanoid enzyme inhibition properties of pomegranate seed oil and fermented juice flavonoids. Shay Yehoshua Schubert, Ephraim Philip Lansky and Ishak Neeman, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 66, Issue 1, July 1999, Pages 11–17, doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00222-0
- Identification of estrone in pomegranate seeds. Erich Heftmann, Shui-Tze Ko and Raymond D. Bennett, Phytochemistry, Volume 5, Issue 6, November 1966, Pages 1337–1339, doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)86133-6
- Identification of estrone in pomegranate (Punica granatum) extracts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Young Lim Kho, Woong Jung, Dohyeong Kwon and Jung Hoan Kim, Food Science and Biotechnology, June 2010, Volume 19, Issue 3, pages 809-813, doi:10.1007/s10068-010-0113-z
- Identification of steroid hormones in pomegranate (Punica granatum) using HPLC and GC–mass spectrometry. Don Woong Choi, Jee Yeun Kim, Seon Hee Choi, Hee Su Jung, Hyo Joo Kim, So Yean Cho, Chan Soon Kang and Seung Yeup Chang, Food Chemistry, Volume 96, Issue 4, June 2006, Pages 562–571, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.03.010
- Evolution of juice anthocyanins during ripening of new selected pomegranate (Punica granatum) clones. F. Hernández, P. Melgarejo, F. A. Tomás-Barberán and F. Artés, European Food Research and Technology, November 1999, Volume 210, Issue 1, pages 39-42, doi:10.1007/s002170050529
- Influence of processing and pasteurization on color values and total phenolic compounds of pomegranate juice. Neslihan Alper, K. Savas Bahçeci and Jale Acar, Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, October 2005, Volume 29, Issue 5-6, pages 357–368, doi:10.1111/j.1745-4549.2005.00033.x
- Singh, R. P.; Chidambara Murthy, K. N.; Jayaprakasha, G. K. (2002). "Studies on the Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) Peel and Seed Extracts Using in Vitro Models". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (1): 81–6. doi:10.1021/jf010865b. PMID 11754547.
- Quantitative determination of the polyphenolic content of pomegranate peel. C. Ben Nasr, N. Ayed, and M. Metche, Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und Forschung, 1996, Volume 203, Issue 4, pages 374-378, doi:10.1007/BF01231077
- Plumb GW; De Pascual-Teresa S, Santos-Buelga C, Rivas-Gonzalo JC, Williamson G (2002). "Antioxidant properties of gallocatechin and prodelphinidins from pomegranate peel". Redox Rep. 7 (41): 41–6. doi:10.1179/135100002125000172. PMID 11981454.
- Chidambara Murthy, K. N.; Jayaprakasha, G. K.; Singh, R. P. (2002). "Studies on Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel Extract Using in Vivo Models". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (17): 4791. doi:10.1021/jf0255735. PMID 12166961.
- Li, Y.; Guo, C.; Yang, J.; Wei, J.; Xu, J.; Cheng, S. (2006). "Evaluation of antioxidant properties of pomegranate peel extract in comparison with pomegranate pulp extract". Food Chemistry 96 (2): 254. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.02.033.
- Negi, P. S.; Jayaprakasha, G. K.; Jena, B. S. (2003). "Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of pomegranate peel extracts". Food Chemistry 80 (3): 393. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00279-0.
- Kulkarni AP, Mahal HS, Kapoor S, Aradhya SM (February 21, 2007). "In vitro studies on the binding, antioxidant, and cytotoxic actions of punicalagin". J Agric Food Chem 55 (4): 1491–500. doi:10.1021/jf0626720. PMID 17243704.
- Heber DH (October 8, 2008). "Multitargeted therapy of cancer by ellagitannins". Cancer Lett 269 (2): 262–8. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.03.043. PMID 18468784.
- Seeram NP, Henning SM, Zhang Y, Suchard M, Li Z, Heber D (1 October 2006). "Pomegranate juice ellagitannin metabolites are present in human plasma and some persist in urine for up to 48 hours". J Nutr. 136 (10): 2481–5. PMID 16988113.
- Mertens-Talcott SU, Jilma-Stohlawetz P, Rios J, Hingorani L, Derendorf H (November 2006). "Absorption, metabolism, and antioxidant effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum l.) polyphenols after ingestion of a standardized extract in healthy human volunteers". J Agric Food Chem. 54 (23): 8956–61. doi:10.1021/jf061674h. PMID 17090147.
- Bialonska D, Kasimsetty SG, Khan SI, Ferreira D (11 November 2009). "Urolithins, intestinal microbial metabolites of Pomegranate ellagitannins, exhibit potent antioxidant activity in a cell-based assay". J Agric Food Chem 57 (21): 10181–6. doi:10.1021/jf9025794. PMID 19824638.
- Larrosa M, González-Sarrías A, Yáñez-Gascón MJ, Selma MV, Azorín-Ortuño M, Toti S, Tomás-Barberán F, Dolara P, Espín JC (19 July 2009). "Anti-inflammatory properties of a pomegranate extract and its metabolite urolithin-A in a colitis rat model and the effect of colon inflammation on phenolic metabolism". J Nutr Biochem 21 (8): 717–25. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.04.012. PMID 19616930.
- Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Gaitini D et al. (June 2004). "Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years by patients with carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-media thickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation". Clin Nutr 23 (3): 423–33. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2003.10.002. PMID 15158307.
|last10=in Authors list (help);
|last11=in Authors list (help)
- Esmaillzadeh A, Tahbaz F, Gaieni I, Alavi-Majd H, Azadbakht L (2004). "Concentrated pomegranate juice improves lipid profiles in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia". J Med Food 7 (3): 305–8. doi:10.1089/1096620041938623. PMID 15383223.
- Kaplan M, Hayek T, Raz A et al. (1 August 2001). "Pomegranate juice supplementation to atherosclerotic mice reduces macrophage lipid peroxidation, cellular cholesterol accumulation and development of atherosclerosis". J Nutr. 131 (8): 2082–9. PMID 11481398.
- Aviram M, Dornfeld L, Rosenblat M et al. (May 2000). "Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidative stress, atherogenic modifications to LDL, and platelet aggregation: studies in humans and in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71 (5): 1062–76. PMID 10799367. Retrieved 2011-03-24.
- Aviram M, Dornfeld L (September 2001). "Pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces systolic blood pressure". Atherosclerosis 158 (1): 195–8. doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(01)00412-9. PMID 11500191.
- Neurath AR, Strick N, Li YY, Debnath AK (2004). "Punica granatum (Pomegranate) juice provides an HIV-1 entry inhibitor and candidate topical microbicide". BMC Infect. Dis. 4: 41. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-4-41. PMC 533885. PMID 15485580.
- Menezes SM, Cordeiro LN, Viana GS (2006). "Punica granatum (pomegranate) extract is active against dental plaque". Journal of herbal pharmacotherapy 6 (2): 79–92. doi:10.1300/J157v06n02_07. PMID 17182487.
- "Pom Wonderful Warning Letter". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2011-03-24.
- "Understanding Front-of-Package Violations: Why Warning Letters Are Sent to Industry". Retrieved 2011-03-24.
- Starling S (March 3, 2010). "FDA says Pom Wonderful antioxidant claims not so wonderful". NutraIngredients.com. Retrieved March 6, 2010.
- Seeram NP, Lee R, Heber D (October 2004). "Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice". Clin Chim Acta 348 (1–2): 63–8. doi:10.1016/j.cccn.2004.04.029. PMID 15369737.
- "NIH-listed human clinical trials on pomegranate". Clinicaltrials.gov. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
- Jayaprakasha, G. K.; Negi, P.S.; Jena, B.S. (2006). "Antimicrobial activities of pomegranate". In Seeram, Navindra P.; Schulman, Risa N.; Heber, David. Pomegranates: ancient roots to modern medicine. CRC Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-8493-9812-4.
- Hodgson, Robert Williard (1917). The pomegranate. Issue 276 of Bulletin (California Agricultural Experiment Station). p. 165.
- Graves, Robert (1992). The Greek Myths. Penguin Books. p. 95. ISBN 9780140171990.
- Ovid, Metamorphoses V 385-571
- Staples, Danny; Ruck, Carl A. P. (1994). The world of classical myth: gods and goddesses, heroines and heroes. Durham, N.C: Carolina Academic Press. ISBN 0-89089-575-9.
- "Pausanias, Description of Greece". 2,17,4. Loeb Classical Library. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
- Parashat Tetzaveh, Commentary by Peninnah Schram, Congregation B'nai Jeshurun, New York
- Sear, David R. (1978). Greek coins and their values. London: Seaby. ISBN 0-900652-46-2.
- Kyrieleis, "The Heraion at Samos" in Greek Sanctuaries: New Approaches, Nanno Marinatos and Robin Hägg, eds. 1993, p. 143.
- Christmas Traditions in Greece by folklorist Thornton B. Edwards
- Why Hebrew Goes from Right to Left: 201 Things You Never Knew about Judaism, Ronald H. Isaacs (Newark, 2008), page 129
- "A Pomegranate for All Religions" by Nancy Haught, Religious News Service
- "What’s the Truth about … Pomegranate Seeds?". Ou.org. 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2012-06-14.
- "Theodora's Gift" www.ursuladubosarsky.com retrieved July 6, 2012
- Paul Stephenson, Constantine, Roman Emperor, Christian Victor, 2010:1 and fig. 1.
- "Surat Al-'An'am (The Cattle) - سورة الأنعام". Quran.com. Retrieved 2011-12-27.
- "Surat Al-'An'am (The Cattle) - سورة الأنعام". Quran.com. Retrieved 2011-12-27.
- iguide.travel Goychay Activities: Pomegranate Festival
- Suresh Chandra (1998). Encyclopaedia of Hindu Gods and Goddesses. Sarup & Sons. ISBN 81-7625-039-2.
... Bhumidevi (the earth goddess) ... Attributes: ... pomegranate ...
- Vijaya Kumar (2006). Thousand Names of Ganesha. Sterling Publishers. ISBN 81-207-3007-0.
... Beejapoori ... the pomegranate in His hand is symbolic of bounteous wealth, material as well as spiritual ...
- Doré S.J., Henry; Kennelly, S.J. (Translator), M. (1914). Researches into Chinese Superstitions. Tusewei Press, Shanghai. Vol V p. 722
- Seeram, N. P.; Schulman, R. N.; Heber, D., eds. (2006). Pomegranates: Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-9812-4.
- Olaniyi Amos Fawole and Umezuruike Linus Opara (2013). Developmental changes in maturity indices of pomegranate fruit: A descriptive review. Sci.Hort.159:152-161
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Punica granatum.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Punica granatum|
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|
|Look up pomegranate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Pomegranate Fruit Facts, California Rare Fruit Growers
- Pomegranate - Trusted Health Information (MedlinePlus)
- Pomegranate Council (California, US) - Recipes, News, and Info