The Pomodoro Technique is a time management method developed by Francesco Cirillo in the late 1980s. The technique uses a timer to break down work into intervals traditionally 25 minutes in length, separated by short breaks. These intervals are known as "pomodori", the plural of the Italian word pomodoro for "tomato". The method is based on the idea that frequent breaks can improve mental agility.
The "Pomodoro Technique" is named after the tomato-shaped kitchen timer that Cirillo used when he was a university student.
There are five basic steps to implementing the technique:
- Decide on the task to be done
- Set the pomodoro timer to n minutes (traditionally 25)
- Work on the task until the timer rings; record with an x
- Take a short break (3–5 minutes)
- After four pomodori, take a longer break (15–30 minutes)
The stages of planning, tracking, recording, processing and visualizing are fundamental to the technique. In the planning phase tasks are prioritized by recording them in a "To Do Today" list. This enables users to estimate the effort tasks require. As pomodori are completed, they are recorded, adding to a sense of accomplishment and providing raw data for subsequent self-observation and improvement.
For the purposes of the technique, "pomodoro" refers to the interval of time spent working. After task completion, any time remaining in the pomodoro is devoted to overlearning. Regular breaks are taken, aiding assimilation. A short (3–5 minute) rest separates consecutive pomodori. Four pomodori form a set. A longer (15–30 minute) rest is taken between sets.
An essential aim of the technique is to reduce the impact of internal and external interruptions on focus and flow. A pomodoro is indivisible. When interrupted during a pomodoro either the other activity must be recorded and postponed (inform – negotiate – schedule – call back) or the pomodoro must be abandoned.
The creator and others encourage a low-tech approach, using a mechanical timer, paper and pencil. The physical act of winding up the timer confirms the user's determination to start the task; ticking externalises desire to complete the task; ringing announces a break. Flow and focus become associated with these physical stimuli.
- Cirillo, Francesco. The Pomodoro Technique. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
- Cirillo, Francesco. "The Pomodoro Technique (The Pomodoro)" (PDF). Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- Shellenbarger, Sue (2009-11-18). "No Time to Read This? Read This". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2010-10-27.
- Tambini, Arielle; Ketz, Nicholas; Davachi, Lila (28 January 2010). "Enhanced Brain Correlations during Rest Are Related to Memory for Recent Experiences". Neuron 65 (2): 280–290. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.01.001.
- Olsen, Patricia R.; Remsik, Jim (19 September 2009). "For Writing Software, a Buddy System". The New York Times.
- Nöteberg, Staffan. Pomodoro Technique Illustrated. Raleigh, N.C: Pragmatic Bookshelf. ISBN 978-1-934356-50-0.
- Kaufman, Josh (2011). The Personal MBA: A World-Class Business Education in a Single Volume. Penguin UK. ISBN 978-0-14-197109-4.
- Burkeman, Oliver (2011). Help! : how to be slightly happier, slightly more successful and get a bit more done. Edinburgh: Canongate. pp. 139–140. ISBN 978-0-85786-025-5.
- Sande, Steven (2009-11-28). "The Pomodoro Technique, or how a tomato made me more productive". Tuaw.com. Retrieved 2010-10-27.
- Pash, Adam (2011). Lifehacker the guide to working smarter, faster, and better. Indianapolis, Ind: Wiley. Hack 29. ISBN 978-1-118-13345-3.
- Pomotodo Combines Pomodoro With A To-Do List That Tracks Your Progress. Mihir Patkar, Gawker Media. Lifehacker.
- Did a Popular Time Management Hack Get It All Wrong? A Better Way To Daily Productivity. Huffington Post.
- Productivity: Pomodoro technique an easy solution. The Sydney Morning Herald.