Pomerania

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"Pommern" and "Pomorze" redirect here. For other uses, see Pommern (disambiguation) and Pomorze (disambiguation).
Contemporary administrative units with Pomerania in the name
Szczecin (German: Stettin)
Gdańsk (German: Danzig)

Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze, German: Pommern, Latin: Pomerania) is a historical region on the south shore of the Baltic Sea.

The name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more, which means Land at the Sea.[1] The adjective for the region is Pomeranian (Polish: pomorski, German: pommersch), inhabitants are called Pomeranians (Polish: Pomorzanie, German: Pommern).

Divided between Germany and Poland, in the narrow sense Pomerania stretches roughly from the Recknitz river near Stralsund in the west, via the Odra River delta near Szczecin, to the mouth of the Łeba river or the Żarnowieckie Lake near Lębork. In the wide meaning, it encompasses as well Pomerelia (Pomorze Gdańskie), unto the Vistula River delta near Gdańsk in the east, and also Chełmno Land in the south.[2] Contemporary Pomeranian Voivodeship encompasses only a part of historical Pomerania, and in its narrow meaning even does not belong to it.

The biggest Pomeranian islands are Rügen, Usedom/Uznam and Wolin. Pomerania belongs to the lowlands of the North European Plain. The largest Pomeranian city is Szczecin (narrow), or Gdańsk/Trójmiasto (wide). Outside its urban areas, Pomerania is characterized by farmland, dotted with numerous lakes, forests, and towns. The region was strongly affected by 20th century events: post–World War I and II border and population shifts.

Geography[edit]

Historical Pomerania (in the narrow meaning)

Borders[edit]

Pomerania is the area along the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea between the rivers Recknitz in the west and Vistula in the east.[2][3] It formerly reached perhaps as far south as the Noteć river, but since 13th century its southern boundary has been placed further north[citation needed].

Landscape[edit]

Most of the region is coastal lowland of the North European Plain; its southern, hilly parts belong to the Baltic Ridge, a belt of terminal moraines formed during the Pleistocene. Within this ridge, a chain of moraine-dammed lakes constitutes the Pomeranian Lake District. The soil is generally rather poor, sometimes sandy or marshy.[2]

The western coastline is jagged, with lots of peninsulae (e.g., DarßZingst) and islands (Rügen, Usedom, Wolin and other, small isles) enclosing numerous bays (Bodden) and lagoons (the biggest being the Lagoon of Szczecin).

The eastern coastline is smooth. Łebsko and several other lakes were formerly bays but have been cut off from the sea. The easternmost coastline along the Gdańsk Bay (with Bay of Puck) and Vistula Lagoon has the Hel peninsula and the Vistula peninsula jutting out into the Baltic.

Subregions[edit]

Historical Pomerania is currently sub-divided into the following contemporary political regions:

The bulk of historical Farther Pomerania is included within the modern West Pomeranian Voivodeship, its easternmost parts (Słupsk area) now constitute the northwestern Pomeranian Voivodeship. Farther Pomerania in turn comprised several other historical subregions itself, most notably the Principality of Cammin, County of Naugard, Lands of Schlawe and Stolp, and also the Lauenburg and Bütow Land (the last, however, sometimes regarded as a part of Pomerelia). In the 19th century, Farther Pomerania comprised also north-eastern part of historical Neumark.

Parts of Pomerania and surrounding regions have constituted a euroregion since 1995. The Pomerania euroregion comprises Germany's Vorpommern and Uckermark, Poland's Zachodniopomorskie, and Scania in Sweden. The Szczecin metropolitan area is one of many German-Polish cross-border projects in Pomerania.

Etymology[edit]

Pomerania in all languages is derived from Old Slavic po, meaning "by/next to/along", and more, meaning "sea", thus "Pomerania" literally means "seacoast" or "land at the sea", referring to its proximity to the Baltic Sea.[4]

Pomerania was first mentioned in an imperial document of 1046, referring to a Zemuzil dux Bomeranorum (Zemuzil, Duke of the Pomeranians).[5] Pomerania is mentioned repeatedly in the chronicles of Adam of Bremen (ca. 1070) and Gallus Anonymous (ca. 1113).

Differing regional names of Pomerania include: Kashubian: Pòmòrze or Pòmòrskô, Pomeranian German Pômmern, and Latin Pomerania or Pomorania.

Terminology[edit]

The term "West(ern) Pomerania" is ambiguous, since it may refer to either Vorpommern (in historical[6] and German usage), to narrow Pomerania/West Pomeranian Voivodeship (in common Polish usage), or both (in Polish historical usage).

The term Eastern Pomerania may similarly carry different meanings, referring either to historical Farther Pomerania (in historical[6] and German usage), or Pomerelia/Pomeranian Voivodeship (in Polish usage).

West Pomerania East
Stralsund Anklam Szczecin
Kołobrzeg
Słupsk
Gdynia
Gdańsk
Current regions Vorpommern
(Mecklenburg-Vorpommern)
Zachodniopomorskie
(West Pomeranian Voivodeship)
Pomeranian Voivodeship
German terminology
(corresponding English term)
Pommern[2]
(Pomerania)
Pomerellen, Pommerellen[2]
(Pomerelia)[2]
Westpreussen
(West Prussia)
Kaschubei[citation needed]
(Kashubia)
Vorpommern
in modern usage excluding Szczecin
(Western Pomerania)
(Hither Pomerania)
Hinterpommern
(Farther/Further Pomerania)
Ostpommern
(Eastern Pomerania)
Polish terminology
(corresponding English term)
Pomorze Zachodnie
(Western Pomerania)
Pomorze Wschodnie
(Eastern Pomerania)
Pomorze Gdańskie
(Gdańsk Pomerania)
before World War II Pomorze[2]
(Pomerelia,[2] literally Pomerania)
Pomorze Przednie
(Hither Pomerania)
Pomorze Tylne
(Farther/Further Pomerania)
Kashubian terminology
(corresponding English term)
Zôpadnô Pòmòrskô
(Western Pomerania)
Pòrénkòwô Pòmòrskô
(Eastern Pomerania)

History[edit]

Main article: History of Pomerania

Prehistory and Early Middle Ages[edit]

Settlement in Pomerania started by the end of the Vistula Glacial Stage, some 13,000 years ago.[7] Archeological traces have been found of various cultures during the Stone and Bronze Age, Baltic peoples, Germanic peoples and Veneti during the Iron Age and, in the Middle Ages, Slavic tribes and Vikings.[8][9][10][7][11][12][13] Starting in the 10th century, early Polish dukes on several occasions subdued parts of the region from the southeast, while the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark augmented their territory from the west and north.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20]

High Middle Ages to Early Modern Age[edit]

In the 12th century, narrow Pomerania became Christian under saint Otto of Bamberg (the Apostle of the Pomeranians); at the same time Pomerelia became a part of diocese of Włocławek. Since then, the Griffin Duchy of Pomerania stayed with the Holy Roman Empire and the Principality of Rugia with Denmark, while Pomerelia, under the ruling of Samborides, was a part of Poland.[21][22][23][23][24][25] The Teutonic Knights succeeded in integrating Pomerelia into their monastic state in the early 14th century. Meanwhile the Ostsiedlung started to turn Slavic narrow Pomerania into an increasingly German-settled area; the remaining Wends and Polish people, often known as Kashubians, continued to settle within the Pomerelia.[26][27] In 1325 the line of the princes of Rügen died out, and the principality was inherited by the Griffins.[28] In 1466, with the Teutonic Order's defeat, Pomerelia became again subject to the Polish Crown as a part of Royal Prussia.[29] While the German population in the Duchy of Pomerania adopted the Protestant reformation in 1534,[30][31][32] the Polish (along with Kashubian) population remained with the Roman Catholic Church. The Thirty Years' War severely ravaged and depopulated narrow Pomerania; few years later this same happened to Pomerelia (the Deluge).[33] With the extinction of the Griffin house during the same period, the Duchy of Pomerania was divided between the Swedish Empire and Brandenburg-Prussia in 1648, while Pomerelia remained in with the Polish Crown.

Modern Age[edit]

Prussia gained the southern parts of Swedish Pomerania in 1720,[34] Pomerelia in 1772, and the remainder of Swedish Pomerania in 1815, when French occupation during the Napoleonic Wars was lifted.[35] The former Brandenburg-Prussian Pomerania and the former Swedish parts were reorganized into the Prussian Province of Pomerania,[36] while Pomerelia was made part of the Province of West Prussia. With Prussia, both provinces joined the newly constituted German Empire in 1871. Following the empire's defeat in World War I, Pomorze Gdańskie Pomerelia returned again to the rebuilt Polish state (now the region called by the Germans as the Polish Corridor), while Gdansk/Danzig was transformed into the Free City of Danzig. Germany's Province of Pomerania was expanded in 1938 to include northern parts of the former Province of Posen–West Prussia, and in 1939 the annexed Pomorze Gdańskie/Polish Corridor became part of the wartime Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia. The Nazis deported the Pomeranian Jews to a reservation near Lublin[37] and, in Pomerelia, mass-murdered Jews, as well as Poles, as Nazi Germany considered them to be untermenschen (sub-human) races. The Polish population also suffered heavily from the German Nazi oppression, primarily the educated elite - more than 40,000 people died in executions, death camps, prisons and forced labour, primarily teachers, businessmen, priests, politicians, former army officers, and civil servants.[38] Thousands of Poles and Kashubians suffered deportation, their homes taken by the German military and civil servants, as well as some East Germans resettled between 1940-1943.

After Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II, the German–Polish border was shifted west to the Oder–Neisse line and all of Pomerania was under Soviet military control.[39][40] The German population of the areas east of the line was expelled, and the area was resettled primarily with Poles (some themselves expellees from former eastern Poland) and some Ukrainians (resettled under Operation Vistula) and Jews.[41][42][43] Most of Western Pomerania (Vorpommern) remained in Germany and today forms the eastern part of the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, while the Polish part of the region is divided between the West Pomeranian and Pomeranian voivodeships, with their capitals in Szczecin and Gdańsk, respectively. During the 1980s, the Solidarity and Die Wende ('the change') movements overthrew the Communist regimes implemented during the post-war era; since then, Pomerania is democratically governed.

Demographics[edit]

Kashubians in regional dress

Western Pomerania is inhabited by German Pomeranians. In the eastern parts, Poles are the dominating ethnic group since World War II. Kashubians, descendants of the medieval Slavic Pomeranians, are numerous in rural Pomerelia.

Polish Voivodeship/
German Landschaft
Capital Registration
plates
Area
(km²)
Population
Polish 31 December 1999
German December 2010
Territorial
code
Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
(northern half)
Bydgoszcz (Voivod office)
Toruń (Voivod council)
C 17,969.72 2,100,771 04
Pomeranian Voivodeship Gdańsk G 18,292.88 2,192,268 22
West Pomeranian Voivodeship Szczecin Z 22,901.48 1,732,838 32
Polish Pomerania and Kuyavia total 59,164.08 6,025,877
Vorpommern-Greifswald Greifswald 3,927 245,733
Vorpommern-Rügen Stralsund 3,188 230,743
German Pomerania total 7,115 476,476

Hither Pomerania[edit]

German Hither Pomerania had a population of about 470,000 in 2012 (districts of Vorpommern-Rügen and Vorpommern-Greifswald combined) - while the Polish disctricts of the region had a population of about 520,000 in 2012 (cities of Szczecin, Świnoujście and Police County combined). So overall, about 1 million people live in the historical region of Hitner Pomerania today, while the Szczecin metropolitan area reaches even further.

Cities and towns with more than 50,000 inhabitants[edit]

(with population figures for 2012):

Culture[edit]

Languages and dialects[edit]

Section of a detailed map from Meyers Kleiner Hand-Atlas published by Julius Meyer in Leipzig and Vienna in 1892.

In the German part of Pomerania, Standard German and the East Low German Pomeranian dialects Vorpommersch and Mittelpommersch are spoken, though Standard German dominates. Polish is the dominating language in the Polish part; Kashubian dialects are also spoken by the Kashubians in Pomerelia.

East Pomeranian, the East Low German dialect of Farther Pomerania and western Pomerelia, Low Prussian, the East Low German dialect of eastern Pomerelia, and Standard German were dominating in Pomerania east of the Oder-Neisse line before most of its speakers were expelled after World War II. Slovincian was spoken at the Farther Pomeranian–Pomerelian frontier, but is now extinct.

Kashubian and Low German Pomeranian dialects are also spoken by the descendants of émigrées, most notably in the Americas (e.g. Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Canada).

Cuisine[edit]

For typical food and beverages of the region, see Pomeranian cuisine.

Museums[edit]

National Museum in Szczecin (Pałac Sejmu Stanów Pomorskich, German Landeshaus)

The Pomeranian State Museum in Greifswald, dedicated to the history of Pomerania, has a variety of archeological findings and artefacts from the different periods covered in this article. At least 50 museums in Poland cover history of Pomerania, the most important of them The National Museum in Gdańsk, Central Pomerania Museum in Słupsk,[45] Darłowo Museum,[46] Koszalin Museum,[47] National Museum in Szczecin.[48]

Economy[edit]

Agriculture primarily consists of raising livestock, forestry, fishery and the cultivation of cereals, sugar beets, and potatoes. Industrial food processing is increasingly relevant in the region. Since the late 19th century, tourism has become an important sector of the economy, primarily in the numerous seaside resorts along the coast. Key producing industries are shipyards, mechanical engineering facilities (i.a. regenerative energy components), sugar refineries, paper and wood fabricators.[2] Service industries today are an important economical factor in Pomerania, most notably with logistics, information technology, life sciences/biotechnology/health care and other high tech branches often clustering around research facilities of the Pomeranian universities.

See also[edit]


Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Der Name Pommern (po more) ist slawischer Herkunft und bedeutet so viel wie „Land am Meer“. (Pommersches Landesmuseum, German)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001-07
  3. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000, Pomerania [1]
  4. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000, Pomerania [2]: "Pomerania is the medieval Latin form of German Pommern, itself a loanword in German from Slavic. The Polish word for Pomerania is Pomorze, composed of the preposition po, "along, by," and morze, "sea." The Slavic word for sea, more, which becomes morze in Polish, comes from the Indo-European noun *mori–, "sea," the source of Latin mare, "sea," and the mer- of English mermaid."
  5. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.23,24, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  6. ^ a b e.g. here (Sheperd Atlas), or in old Enc Britannica
  7. ^ a b Johannes Hoops, Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde, Walter de Gruyter, p.422, ISBN 3-11-017733-1
  8. ^ From the First Humans to the Mesolithic Hunters in the Northern German Lowlands, Current Results and Trends - THOMAS TERBERGER. From: Across the western Baltic, edited by: Keld Møller Hansen & Kristoffer Buck Pedersen, 2006, ISBN 87-983097-5-7 OCLC 43087092, Sydsjællands Museums Publikationer Vol. 1 [3]
  9. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, pp.18ff, ISBN 83-906184-8-6
  10. ^ Horst Wernicke, Greifswald, Geschichte der Stadt, Helms, 2000, pp.16ff, ISBN 3-931185-56-7
  11. ^ A. W. R. Whittle, Europe in the Neolithic: The Creation of New Worlds, Cambridge University Press, 1996, p.198, ISBN 0-521-44920-0
  12. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.22,23, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  13. ^ Joachim Herrmann, Die Slawen in Deutschland, Akademie-Verlag Berlin, 1985, pp.pp.237ff,244ff
  14. ^ Joachim Herrmann, Die Slawen in Deutschland, Akademie-Verlag Berlin, 1985, pp.261,345ff
  15. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p.32, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092:pagan reaction of 1005
  16. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.25, ISBN 3-88680-272-8: pagan uprising that also ended the Polish suzerainity in 1005
  17. ^ A. P. Vlasto, Entry of Slavs Christendom, CUP Archive, 1970, p.129, ISBN 0-521-07459-2: abandoned 1004 - 1005 in face of violent opposition
  18. ^ Nora Berend, Christianization and the Rise of Christian Monarchy: Scandinavia, Central Europe and Rus' C. 900-1200, Cambridge University Press, 2007, p.293, ISBN 0-521-87616-8, ISBN 978-0-521-87616-2
  19. ^ David Warner, Ottonian Germany: The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg, Manchester University Press, 2001, p.358, ISBN 0-7190-4926-1, ISBN 978-0-7190-4926-2
  20. ^ Michael Borgolte, Benjamin Scheller, Polen und Deutschland vor 1000 Jahren: Die Berliner Tagung über den "Akt von Gnesen", Akademie Verlag, 2002, p.282, ISBN 3-05-003749-0, ISBN 978-3-05-003749-3
  21. ^ James Thayer Addison, Medieval Missionary: A Study of the Conversion of Northern Europe Ad 500 to 1300, Kessinger Publishing, 2003, pp.57ff, ISBN 0-7661-7567-7
  22. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, pp.35ff, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092
  23. ^ a b Gerhard Krause, Horst Robert Balz, Gerhard Müller, Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Walter de Gruyter, 1997, pp.40ff, ISBN 3-11-015435-8
  24. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.34ff,87,103, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  25. ^ Jan M. Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p.43, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092
  26. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, pp.77ff, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092
  27. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.45ff, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  28. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.115,116, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  29. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.186, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  30. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.205–212, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  31. ^ Richard du Moulin Eckart, Geschichte der deutschen Universitäten, Georg Olms Verlag, 1976, pp.111,112, ISBN 3-487-06078-7
  32. ^ Gerhard Krause, Horst Robert Balz, Gerhard Müller, Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Walter de Gruyter, 1997, pp.43ff, ISBN 3-11-015435-8
  33. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.263,332,341–343,352–354, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  34. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.341-343, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  35. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.363,364, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  36. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.366, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  37. ^ Leni Yahil, Ina Friedman, Haya Galai, The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, 1932-1945, Oxford University Press US, 1991, ISBN 0-19-504523-8, p.138: February 12/13, 1940, 1,300 Jews of all sexes and ages, extreme cruelty, no food allowed to be taken along, cold, some died during deportation, cold and snow during resettlement, 230 dead by March 12, Lublin reservation chosen in winter, 30,000 Germans resettled before to make room [4]
  38. ^ [5]
  39. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.512-515, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  40. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, pp.373ff, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092
  41. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, pp.381ff, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092
  42. ^ Tomasz Kamusella in Prauser and Reeds (eds), The Expulsion of the German communities from Eastern Europe, p.28, EUI HEC 2004/1 [6]
  43. ^ Philipp Ther, Ana Siljak, Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948, 2001, p.114, ISBN 0-7425-1094-8, ISBN 978-0-7425-1094-4
  44. ^ Entwicklungsprioritäten der Metropolregion Stettin (German PDF; 1,7 MB)
  45. ^ "Muzeum Pomorza Środkowego - Strona główna". Muzeum.slupsk.pl. Retrieved 2010-07-30. 
  46. ^ "Muzeum w Darłowie - Zamek Książąt Pomorskich zaprasza". Muzeumdarlowo.pl. Retrieved 2010-07-30. 
  47. ^ "Muzeum w Koszalinie". Muzeum.koszalin.pl. Retrieved 2010-07-30. 
  48. ^ "Muzeum Narodowe w Szczecinie - Aktualności". Muzeum.szczecin.pl. Retrieved 2010-07-30. 

External links[edit]

Internet directories[edit]

Culture and history[edit]

Maps of Pomerania[edit]

Coordinates: 54°17′N 18°09′E / 54.29°N 18.15°E / 54.29; 18.15