Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas

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Pontifical University of
Saint Thomas Aquinas
Latin: Pontificia Studiorum Universitas a
Sancto Thoma Aquinate in Urbe
Italian: Pontificia Università San Tommaso D'Aquino
Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas logo.jpg
Seal of the University
Motto Latin: Caritas veritatis
English: The charity of truth
Established 1222, 1577, 1963
Type Pontifical University
Chancellor Bruno Cadoré, O.P.
Rector Miroslav Konštanc Adam, O.P.
Students 906 (2011–2012)[1]
Location Rome, Italy but extraterritorial of the Holy See[2] Vatican City Italy
Former names

Collegium Divi Thomae
(1577–1580)

Collegium Divi Thomae de Urbe (1580–1906)

Pontificium Collegium Divi Thomae de Urbe (1906–1908)

Pontificium Collegium Internationale Angelicum
(1908–1926)

Pontificium Institutum Internationale Angelicum
(1926–1942)

Pontificium Athenaeum Internationale Angelicum
(1942–1963)
Colors Black and white          
Athletics Clericus Cup Soccer Team
Nickname Angelicum; PUST
Mascot Minerva the Owl[3]
Website www.pust.it

The Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas (PUST), also known as the Angelicum in honor of its patron the Doctor Angelicus[4] Thomas Aquinas, is a pontifical university located in Rome, Italy. The Angelicum is directly dependent on the Pope for its status as a pontifical university as outlined in the apostolic constitution Sapientia Christiana, which also clarifies the parameters of Church authority and academic freedom.[5] The Angelicum is administered by the Catholic Order of Preachers also known as the Dominican Order and is the central locus of the authentic Dominican Thomist theological and philosophical tradition.

The Angelicum is coeducational. It offers both undergraduate and graduate degrees in Theology, Philosophy, Canon Law, and Social Sciences, as well as certificates and diplomas in related areas. Courses are offered in Italian and for some programs in English. The Angelicum is staffed by members of both the clergy and the laity and serves both religious and lay students from around the world.

History[edit]

Medieval Origin: 1222 The Santa Sabina Studium Conventuale[edit]

Shield of the Dominican Order

The Angelicum has its roots in the mission of the Dominican Order to study and to teach truth, a mission reflected in the Order's motto, veritas. The distinctively pedagogical character of the Dominican apostolate as intended by Saint Dominic de Guzman in 1214 at the birth of the Order, "the first order instituted by the Church with an academic mission,"[6] is succinctly expressed by another of the Order's mottos, contemplare et contemplata aliis tradere, (to contemplate and to bear the fruits of contemplation to others).[7] Pope Honorius III approved the Order of Preachers in December 1216 and January 1217.[8] On 21 January 1217 the papal bull Gratiarum omnium[9] confirmed the Order's pedagogical mission by granting its members the right to preach universally, a power formerly dependent on local episcopal authorization.[10]

From the outset Saint Dominic established priories focused on study and preaching which would become the Order's first studia generalia, at the Parisian convent of St. Jacques in 1217,[11] at Bologna in 1218, at Palencia and Montpellier in 1220, and at Oxford before his death in 1221.[12] By 1219 Pope Honorius III had invited Dominic and companions to taken up residence at the ancient Roman basilica of Santa Sabina, which they did by early 1220. In May 1220 at Bologna the Order's first General Chapter mandated each convent of the Order to maintain a studium.[13] The official foundation of the convent of Santa Sabina and its studium conventuale out of which the Angelicum would grow occurred with the legal transfer of the Santa Sabina complex from Pope Honorius III to the Order of Preachers on June 5, 1222.[14] St. Hyacinth of Poland and companions Bl. Ceslaus, Herman of Germany, and Henry of Moravia were among the first to enter the convent and studium at Santa Sabina where "sacred studies flourished".[15]

From its beginning the Santa Sabina studium played the special role of frequently providing papal theologians from among its members. The office of Master of the Sacred Palace has always been entrusted to a Friar of the Order of Preachers since its institution with Saint Dominic by Pope Honorius III in 1218. In 1246 Pope Innocent IV appointed Annibaldo degli Annibaldi (1220c.-1272c.) third Master of the Sacred Palace after Saint Dominic and Bartolomeo di Breganze. Annibaldi had completed his initial studies at the Santa Sabina studium conventuale and was later sent to the studium generale at Paris.[16] Aquinas dedicated to Annibaldi the Catena aurea, written a decade later during his regency at the Santa Sabina studium.

For others who attended the Santa Sabina studium conventuale see the List of people associated with the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas.

1265 Studium Provinciale[edit]

Angelicum patron, the Doctor Angelicus, Saint Thomas Aquinas, by Gentile da Fabriano c. 1400

At the general chapter of Valenciennes in 1259 Thomas Aquinas together with masters Bonushomo Britto,[17] Florentius,[18] Albert, and Peter took part in establishing a program of studies for novices and lectors including two years of philosophy, two years of fundamental theology, Church history and canon law, and four years of theology. Those who showed capacity were sent on to a studium generale to complete this course becoming lector, magister studentium, baccalaureus, and magister theologiae.[19]

The new formation program outlined at Valenciennes featured the study of philosophy as an innovation. "In the early days there was no need to study philosophy or the arts in the Order; young men entered already trained in the humanities at the university. St. Albert received his arts training at Padua, St. Thomas at Naples; they were prepared to study theology. By 1259, however, it became evident that youths entering the Order were not sufficiently trained; the new ratio studiorum of 1259 established studia philosophiae in certain provinces corresponding to the university faculty of arts."[20]

In February 1265 newly elected Pope Clement IV summoned Aquinas to Rome as papal theologian.[21] That same year in accord with the injunction of the Chapter of the Roman province at Anagni, Aquinas was assigned as regent master at the studium at Santa Sabina:

We assign Friar Thomas of Aquino to Rome, for the remission of his sins, there to take over the direction of studies.[22]

Thus the studium conventuale at Santa Sabina which had been founded in 1222 was transformed into the Order's first studium provinciale with courses under Aquinas' direction beginning September 8, 1265[23] and featuring studia philosophiae as prescribed by Aquinas and others at the 1259 chapter of Valenciennes.

The studium provinciale was an intermediate school between the studium conventuale and the studium generale. "Prior to this time the Roman Province had offered no specialized education of any sort, no arts, no philosophy; only simple convent schools, with their basic courses in theology for resident friars, were functioning in Tuscany and the meridionale during the first several decades of the order's life. But the new studium at Santa Sabina was to be a school for the province," a studium provinciale.[24] Tolomeo da Lucca, associate and early biographer of Aquinas, tells us that at Santa Sabina Aquinas taught the full range of philosophical subjects, "teaching in a new and special way almost the whole of philosophy, both moral and natural, but especially ethical and mathematical, as well as in writing and commentary."[25]

While Regent master at the Santa Sabina studium provinciale Aquinas began to compose his monumental work, the Summa theologiae, conceived of as a work suited to beginning students:

Because a doctor of catholic truth ought not only to teach the proficient, but to him pertains also to instruct beginners. as the Apostle says in 1 Corinthians 3: 1-2, as to infants in Christ, I gave you milk to drink, not meat, our proposed intention in this work is to convey those things that pertain to the Christian religion, in a way that is fitting to the instruction of beginners.[26]

At Santa Sabina Thomas composed the entire Prima Pars circulating it in Italy before departing for his second regency at Paris (1269–1272).[27]

Other works composed by Aquinas during this period at Santa Sabina include the Catena aurea in Marcum, the De rationibus fidei, the Catena aurea in Lucam, the Quaestiones disputate de potentia Dei, which report the disputations Aquinas held at Santa Sabina, the Quaestiones disputate de anima, which were held during the academic year 1265-66, Expositio et lectura super epistolas Pauli Apostoli, the Compendium theologiae, the Responsio de 108 articulis, part of the Quaestiones disputatae de malo, the Catena aurea in Ioannem, the De regno ad regem Cypri, the Quaestiones disputatae de spiritualibus creaturis, and at least the first book of the Sententia Libri De anima, a commentary on Aristotle's De anima which was contemporaneously being translated from the Greek by Aquinas' Dominican associate at Viterbo William of Moerbeke in 1267.[28]

The so-called "lectura romana" or “alia lectura fratris Thome”, a reportatio of the second commentary on the Sentences of Peter Lombard dictated by Aquinas at the Santa Sabina studium provinciale, may have been taken down by Jacob of Ranuccio while a student of Aquinas there from 1265 to 1268.[29] Jacob later was lector at Santa Sabina and served in the Roman Curia being made bishop in 1286, the year of his death.[30]

Nicholas Brunacci [1240-1322] was among Aquinas' students at the Santa Sabina studium provinciale and later at Paris. In November 1268 he accompanied Aquinas and his associate and secretary Reginald of Piperno from Viterbo to Paris to begin the academic year.[31] Albert the Great Brunacci's teacher at Cologne after 1272 called him "the second Thomas Aquinas."[32] Brunacci became lector at the Santa Sabina studium and later served in the papal curia.[33] He was a correspondent by letter with Dante Alighieri during the latter's exile from Florence.[34]

For others who attended the Santa Sabina studium provinciale see the List of people associated with the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas.

1288 Studium particularis theologiae, 1291 Studium nove logice, 1305 Studium naturarum[edit]

Hugh Aycelin, served as a lector at Santa Sabina before 1288 when he was made Cardinal.[35] By Tommaso da Modena, 1352

With the departure of Aquinas for Paris in 1268 and the passage of time the pedagogical activities of the studium provinciale at Santa Sabina were divided between two campuses. A new convent of the Order at the Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva had a modest beginning in 1255 as a community for women converts, but grew rapidly in size and importance during its transfer to the Dominicans from 1265 to 1275.[36] In 1288 the theology component of the provincial curriculum was relocated from the Santa Sabina studium provinciale to the studium conventuale at Santa Maria sopra Minerva which was redesignated as a studium particularis theologiae.[37]

Following the curriculum of studies laid out in the capitular acts of 1291 the Santa Sabina studium was redesignated as one of three studia nove logice intended to offer courses of advanced logic covering the logica nova, the Aristotelian texts recovered in the West only in the second half of the 12th century, the Topics, Sophistical Refutations, and the First and Second Analytics of Aristotle. This was an advance over the logica antiqua, which treated the Isagoge of Porphyry, Divisions and Topics of Boethius, the Categories and On Interpretation of Aristotle, and the Summule logicales of Peter of Spain.[38] In 1305 the Minerva studium became one of four studia naturarum established in the Roman province.[39]

For figures associated with the studium particularis theologiae, the studium nove logice, and the studium naturarum see the List of people associated with the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas.

1426 Studium Generale[edit]

Nolli Map, 1748, detail showing: (837) Pantheon, (842) Piazza della Minerva, and the Insula Sapientiae (Island of Wisdom) aka Insula Dominicana including (844) Church and Convent of Santa Maria sopra Minerva and former College of St. Thomas, including (843) Palazzo della Minerva c. 1560 (now Bibliotecca del Senato of the Italian government), Guidetti Cloister c. 1565[40] (nearest to Church), Cisterna Cloister,Sala del Refettorio, Sale dell'Inquisizione, and Sala delle Capriate (former library of the College of St. Thomas) on the second floor between cloisters.[41]

The General Chapter of 1304 mandated each of the Order's provinces establish a studium generale to meet the demand of the Order's rapidly growing membership.[42] The studium at Santa Maria sopra Minerva was raised to the level of studium generale for the Roman province of the Order by the year 1426 and continued in this roll until 1539.[43] It would again be affirmed as a studium generale in 1694 (see below).

On March 7, 1457, the feast of St. Thomas, humanist Lorenzo Valla delivered the annual encomium in honor of the "angelic doctor." The Dominicans of the Minerva studium generale pressed Valla not only to praise Aquinas but to voice his humanist criticism of scholastic thomism.[44]

Sisto Fabri served as professor of theology at the Santa Maria sopra Minerva studium in the mid 1550s.[45] In 1585 Fabri, who was Master of the Order of Preachers from 1583-1598 would undertake a reformation of the program of studies for the Order and for the studium which had been transformed into the College of St. Thomas in 1577.[46] Fabri's reform included a nine-year formation program consisting of two years of logic using the Summulae logicales of Peter of Spain alongside Aristotle's logic, three years of philosophy including the study of Aristotle's De anima, Physica, and Metaphysica, and four years of theology using the third part of Aquinas' Summa for speculative theology, and the second part for moral theology.[47] Fabri also established a professorship for the study of Hebrew at the College.[48]

In 1570 the first edition of Aquinas' opera omnia, the so-called editio piana from Pius V the Dominican Pope who commissioned it, was produced there.[49]

For other figures associated with the studium generale at Santa Maria sopra Minerva see the List of people associated with the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas.

Modern History: 1577 Collegium Divi Thomae[edit]

The late sixteenth century saw the studium at Santa Maria sopra Minerva undergo further transformation during the pontificate of Pope Gregory XIII. Aquinas, who had been canonized in 1323 by Pope John XXII, was proclaimed fifth Latin Doctor of the Church by Pius V in 1567. To honor this great doctor, in 1577 Juan Solano, O.P., former bishop of Cusco, Peru, generously funded the reorganization of the studium at the convent of the Minerva on the model of the College of St. Gregory at Valladolid in his native Spain.[50] The features of this Spanish model included a fixed number of Dominican students admitted on the basis of intellectual merit, dedicated exclusively to study in virtue of numerous dispensations from other duties, and governed by an elected Rector.[51]

The result of Solano's initiative, which underwent further structural change shortly before Solano's death in 1580, was the Collegium Divi Thomae or College of St. Thomas. At the Minerva the College occupied several existing convent structures as well as new constructions. A detail from the Nolli Map of 1748 gives some idea of the disposition of buildings when the Minerva convent housed the College.

The College cultivated the doctrines of St. Thomas Aquinas as a means of carrying out the Church's mission in the New World, where Solano had shown "much zeal in defending the rights of the Indians,"[52] and where Dominicans like Bartolomé de las Casas, "Protector of the Indians," Pedro de Cordova, critic of the Encomienda system, and Francisco de Vitoria, theorist of international law, were already engaged.[53]

At the beginning of the seventeenth century several regents of the College of St. Thomas were involved in controversies over the nature of divine grace. Diego Alvarez (1550 c.-1635), author of the De auxiliis divinae gratiae et humani arbitrii viribus and famous apologist for the Thomistic doctrines of grace and predestination, was professor of theology at the College from 1596 to 1606.[54] Tomas de Lemos (Ribadavia 1540 - Rome 1629).[55] was professor of theology at the College in 1610. In the Molinist controversy between Dominicans and Jesuits the papal commission or Congregatio de Auxiliis summoned Lemos and Diego Alvarez to represent the Dominican Order in debates before Pope Clement VIII and Pope Paul V. Lemos was editor of the Acta omnium congregationum ac disputationum, etc. and author of the much discussed Panoplia gratiae (1676).[56] In 1608 Juan Gonzalez de Albelda, author of the Commentariorum & disputationum in primam partem Summa S. Thome de Aquino (1621) was regent of studies at the College.[57] In the 1620s Juan Gonzales de Leon was regent[58] Concerning the dispute on the nature of divine grace he took up an alternative doctrine within the Thomist school, that of Juan Gonzalez d'Albeda regent at the College in 1608, that "sufficient grace not only prepares the will for a perfect act [of contrition], but also gives the will an impulse towards that act. Yet due to man's defectability that impulse is always resisted."[59]

The College maintained the Dominican tradition of textual and linguistic activities as part of the Order's missionary dimension.[60] Like Moerbeke's translations of Aristotle in the 1260s and the editio piana of 1570 (see above), editorial and translation projects were undertaken by the College's professors, the most notable of which would be the leonine edition of Aquinas' works (see below). Vincenzo Candido presided over the translation of the Bible into Arabic.[61] Candido had entered the Order at the convent of Santa Maria sopra Minerva completing there his novitiate and studies and becoming a doctor of theology,[62] and later rector of the College in 1630.[63] Candido also was part of the commission that concemned Jansenism. His own Disquisitionibus moralibus (1643) was later accused of laxims. Giuseppe Ciante (d. 1670),[64] a leading Hebrew expert of his day and author of works such as the De sanctissima trinitate ex antiquorum Hebraeorum testimonijs euidenter comprobata (1667) and De Sanctissima incarnatione clarissimis Hebraeorum doctrinis...defensa (1667), completed his studies at the college was professor of theology and philosophy there before 1640. "In 1640 Ciantes was appointed by Pope Urban VIII to the mission of preaching to the Jews of Rome (Predicatore degli Ebrei) in order to promote their conversion." In the mid-1650s Ciantes wrote a "monumental bilingual edition of the first three Parts of Thomas Aquinas’ Summa contra Gentiles, which includes the original Latin text and a Hebrew translation prepared by Ciantes, assisted by Jewish apostates, the Summa divi Thomae Aquinatis ordinis praedicatorum Contra Gentiles quam Hebraicè eloquitur…. Until the present this remains the only significant translation of a major Latin scholastic work in modern Hebrew."[65]

Tommaso Caccini (1574-1648), one of the principal critics of Galileo Galilei, was baccalaureaus at the College in 1615.[66]

Several figures associated with the College during this period were involved in the defense of the doctrine of Papal infallibility. Dominic Gravina, the most celebrated theologian of his day in Italy,[67] was professor of theology at the College in 1610.[55] Gravina was made master of sacred theology by the General Chapter of the Order at Rome in 1608. He wrote Vox turturis seu de florenti usque ad nostra tempora ... sacrarum Religionum statu (1625) in polemic with Robert Bellarmine whose De gemitu columbae (1620) criticized the decadence of religious orders.[68] Gravina, wrote concerning Papal infallibility: "To the Pontiff, as one (person) and alone, it was given to be the head;" and again, "The Roman Pontiff for the time beingis one, therefore he alone has infallibility."[69]

Vicente Ferre (+1682), author of the Commentaria scholastica in Div. Thomam (1691) as well as of several commentaries on the Summa Theologica was Regent of College from 1654 to 1672. Ferre was recognized by his contemporaries as one of the leading Thomists of his day.[70] In his De Fide Ferre writes in defense of Papal infallibility that Christ said "I have prayed for thee, Peter; sufficiently showing that the infallibility was not promised to the Church as apart from (seorsum) the head, but promised to the head, that from him it should be derived to the Church."[71]

In the late seventeenth century figures such as Gregorio Selleri who taught at the college were instrumental in fostering the condemnation of Jansenism[72]

At the general chapter of Rome in 1694 Fr. Antonin Cloche, Master General of the Dominican Order, reaffirmed the College of St. Thomas as the studium generale of the Roman province of the Order.

We institute as a studium generale of this province...the Roman College of St. Thomas at our convent of Santa Maria sopra Minerva[73]

At this time the College became an international centre of Thomistic specialization open to members of various provinces of the Dominican Order and to other ecclesiastical students, local and foreign.

In 1698, Cardinal Girolamo Casanata, Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, established the Biblioteca Casanatense at the Convent of Santa Maria sopra Minerva.[74] This library was independent of the College, sponsoring its own Chairs in Thomistic theology.[75] After the Church's loss of the temporal power in 1870 the Italian government declared the library national property but left the Dominicans in charge until 1884. Today the Library's collection of approximately 400 000 volumes, about 6 000 manuscripts, 2 200 incunabula including 64 Greek codices, and 230 Hebrew texts including 5 Samaritan codices is open to the scholarly community.

With the papal bull Pretiosus dated May 26, 1727[76] Domenican Pope Benedict XIII granted to all Dominicans major houses of study the right of conferring academic degrees in theology to students outside the Order.

In the 1748 General Chapter or the Order at Bologna it was stated that the Thomistic philosophical and theological tradition needed to be revived. In 1757 Master General, John Thomas Boxadors composed a letter to all members of the Order lamenting deviations from Thomistic doctrine, and demanded a return to the teachings of Aquinas. This letter was also published in the General Chapter Acts in Rome 1777. Responding to Boxadors and to the prevailing philosophical rationalism of the Enlightenment, Salvatore Roselli, professor of theology at the Roman College of St. Thomas,[77] published a six volume Summa philosophica (1777) giving an Aristotelian interpretation of Aquinas validating the senses as a source of knowledge.[78] While teaching at the college Roselli is considered to have laid the foundation for Neothomism in the nineteenth century.[79] According to historian J.A. Weisheipl in the late 18th and early 19th centuries "everyone who had anything to do with the revival of Thomism in Italy, Spain and France was directly influenced by Roselli’s monumental work.[80]

Vincenzo Nardini (d. 1913) completed his theological and philosophical studies at the College and became lector there in 1855 teaching mathematics, experimental physics, chemistry and astronomy. Nardini reorganized the institute of science founded at the College in 1840 by Albert Gugliemotti. He believed the doctrines of Aquinas to be the only means to reconcile science and faith. Nardini was a founding member of the Accademia Romana di San Tommaso in 1879. Between 1901 and 1902 he also founded an astronomical observatory on via di Pie’ di Marmo in Rome. In 1904 as Provincial of the Order's Roman province he proposed that the College be transformed into an international university. This was accomplished in 1908 by his successors.[81]

G. B. Embriaco's hydrochronometer in the Villa Borghese gardens, patterned after his original of 1867 in the courtyard of the College of Saint Thomas

Gian Battista Embriaco (Ceriana 1829 - Rome 1903) taught at the college.[82] Embriaco was the inventor in 1867 of the hydrochronometer,[83] examples of which were built in Rome, first in the College's courtyard at the Minerva, and later on the Pincian Hill and in the Villa Borghese gardens.[84] Embriaco had presented two prototypes of his invention at the Paris Universal Exposition in 1867 winning prizes and acclaim.[85]

The suppression of religious orders soon hampered the mission of the College. During the French occupation of Rome from 1797 to 1814 the College was in declined and briefly closed its doors from 1810 to 1815.[86] The Order gained control of the convent once again in 1815.

By the late eighteenth century professors of the College had begun to follow the Wolffianism and Eclecticism of Austrian Jesuit, Sigismund von Storchenau and Jaime Balmes with the aim of engaging modern thought. In response to this trend the General Chapter of 1838 again ordered the revival of Thomism and the use of the Summa Theologica at the College of St. Thomas.[87]

At the Minerva the Master of the Order issued a directive to re-establish the plan of study that had been in force before the French Revolution following the manual of Salvatore Roselli (1777-83) and prescribing a 5 year study of the Summa theologica for all degree candidates. The Minerva studium generale was refurbished, and a new era of Thomism was initiated led by luminaries such as Tommaso Maria Zigliara.[88]

After the Capture of Rome, the final act of the Risorgimento, the Dominicans were expropriated by the Italian government in virtue of law 1402 of 19 June 1873 and the Collegium Divi Thomae de Urbe was forced to leave the Minerva. The College continued its work at various locations in Rome.[89] Rector Zigliara, who taught at the College from 1870 to 1879, with his professors and students took refuge with the Fathers of the Holy Ghost at the French College in Rome, where lectures continued until a house near the Minerva was procured for the College.[90] Zigliara was a member of seven Roman congregations, including the Congregation of Studies and was a founding member of the Accademia Romana di San Tommaso in 1879. Zigliara's fame as a scholar at the forefront of the Neo-Thomist revival was widespread in Rome and abroad. "French, Italian, German, English, and American bishops were eager to put some of their most promising students and young professors under his tuition."[90]

The mid-19th-century revival of Thomism, sometimes called "Neo-Scholasticism" or "Neo-Thomism," had its origins in Italy. "The direct initiator of the neo-Scholastic movement in Italy was Gaetano Sanseverino, (1811–1865), a canon at Naples."[91] Other prominent figures include Zigliara, Josef Kleutgen, and Giovanni Cornoldi. The revival emphasizes the interpretative tradition of Aquinas' great commentators such as Capréolus, Cajetan, and John of St. Thomas. Its focus, however, is less exegetical and more concerned with carrying out the program of deploying a rigorously worked out system of Thomistic metaphysics in a wholesale critique of modern philosophy. Zigliara was instrumental in recovering the authentic tradition of Thomism from the influence of a tradition of the Jesuits' that was "strongly colored by the interpretation of their own great master Francisco Suárez (d. 1617), who had attempted to reconcile the Aristotelianism of Thomas with the Platonism of Scotus" [92]

In response to the disarray of religious educational institutions Pope Leo XIII in his encyclical Aeterni Patris of 4 August 1879 called for the renewal of Christian philosophy and particularly the doctrines of Aquinas:

We exhort you, venerable brethren, in all earnestness to restore the golden wisdom of St. Thomas, and to spread it far and wide for the defense and beauty of the Catholic faith, for the good of society, and for the advantage of all the sciences.[93]

Pope Leo XIII's encyclical Aeterni Patris of 1879 was a great impetus to the revival of neo scholastic Thomism. On October 15, 1879 Leo created the Pontifical Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas and ordered publication of a critical edition of the complete works of the doctor angelicus. Superintendence of the "leonine edition" was entrusted to Zigliara. Leo also founded the Angelicum's Faculty of Philosophy in 1882 and its Faculty of Canon Law in 1896. The College began once again to gain status and influence. Under Pope Leo XIII Zigliara contributed to the encyclicals Aeterni Patris and Rerum novarum.[94]

For other figures associated with the Collegium Divi Thomas (College of St. Thomas) see the List of people associated with the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas.

1906 Pontificium Collegium Divi Thomae de Urbe[edit]

Blessed Hyacinthe-Marie Cormier O.P., seated in the middle. To his right sits the Servant of God,[95] His Excellency Pio Alberto Del Corona, O.P., the Bishop of San Miniato.

At the dawn of the twentieth century the Dominican conception of intellectual formation at Rome was transformed once again. The general chapters of 1895 (Avila) and 1901 (Ghent) had called for the expansion of the College of St. Thomas to meet the growing educational needs in the modern world. The Chapter of 1904 (Viterbo) directed Hyacinthe-Marie Cormier, O.P. (1832–1916), newly elected Master General of the Order of Preachers, to develop the College into a studium generalissimum directly under his authority for the entire Dominican Order:

Romae erigatur collegium studiorum Ordinis generalissimum, auctoritate magistri generalis immediate subjectum, in quo floreat vita regularis, et ad quod mittantur fratres ex omnibus provinciis.[96]

Building on the legacy of the Order's first Roman studium at the priory of Santa Sabina founded in 1222 and the studium general that had sprung from it by 1426 at Santa Maria sopra Minerva and that in 1577 became the College of Saint Thomas, Cormier stated his intention to establish this new studium generalissimum as the principal vehicle of dissemination of orthodox Thomistic thought for both Dominicans and secular clergy.

In 1904 Pope Pius X allowed diocesan seminarians to attend the College. He elevated the College to the status of Pontificium on May 2, 1906 making its degrees equivalent to those of the world's other Pontifical universities.[97] By Apostolic Letter of November 8, 1908, signed on November 17, the Pope transformed the College into the Collegium Pontificium Internationale Angelicum, located on Via San Vitale 15. Cormier developed the Angelicum until his death in 1916, establishing it principal guidelines,[98] giving it his motto as Master General, caritas veritatis, "the charity of truth."[99] Cormier, also noted for the spiritual quality of his retreats and powerful preaching, was declared Blessed by Pope John Paul II on November 20, 1994.

In response to the call for a renewal of Thomism sounded by Aeterni Patris rectors Tommaso Maria Zigliara (1833–1893), Alberto Lepidi (1838–1922), and Sadoc Szabó brought the college to a high degree of excellence. Enrollment climbed from 120 in 1909 to over 1,000 during the 1960s.[100] Under the leadership of Szabó the number of subjects taught at the Angelicum included archeology, geology, paleography, Christian art, biology, mathematics, physics, and astronomy.[101]

In the first half of the twentieth century Angelicum professors Edouard Hugon, Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange and others carried on Leo's call for a Thomist revival. The core philosophical commitments of the revival, which after Zigliara traditionally are those of the Angelicum, were later summarized in “Twenty-Four Thomistic Theses” approved by Pope Pius X.[102] Due to its rejection of attempts to synthesize Thomism with non-Thomistic categories and assumptions neo-scholastic Thomism has sometimes been called “Strict Observance Thomism.”[103]

In 1909 there were 26 professors. Beyond philosophy and theology subject included archeology, geology, paleography, Christian art, biology, mathematics, physics, and astronomy. In 1918 Garrigou-Lagrange initiated courses in sacred art, mysticism, and aesthetics.[104]

Garrigou-Lagrange has been calle "torchbearer of orthodox Thomism" against Modernism in the period between World War II and the Cold War.[105] He is commonly held to have influenced the decision in 1942 to place the privately circulated book Une école de théologie: le Saulchoir (Étiolles 1937) by Marie-Dominique Chenu O.P. on the Vatican's "Index of Forbidden Books" as the culmination of a polemic within the Dominican Order between the Angelicum supporters of a speculative scholasticism and the French revival Thomists who were more attentive to historical hermeneutics, such as Yves Congar O.P.. Congar's Chrétiens désunis was also suspected of Modernism because its methodology derived more from religious experience than from syllogistic analysis.[106]

Noted philosopher and theologian Santiago Maria Ramirez y Ruiz de Dulanto (1891-1967) completed his licentiate and doctorate in philosophy at the Angelicum from 1913 to 1917 with a dissertation entitled De quidditate Incarnationis, becoming lector on 27 June 1917 and teaching there from 1917 to 1920.[107] Ramirez relates that Pope Pius XI delivered a talk to the professors and students of the Angelicum held on 12 December 1924 in which he reaffirmed the doctrinal authority of St. Thomas Aquinas.[108]

June 29, 1923 on the occasion of the sixth centenary of the canonization of Thomas Aquinas Pius XI's encyclical Studiorum ducem singled out the Pontifical Angelicum College as the official sedes Thomae:

It will be fitting...that the institutes where sacred studies are cultivated express their holy joy, before all the Pontifical Angelicum College where Thomas could be said to dwell in his own house, and then all the other ecclesiastial schools that are in Rome.[109]

The reputation of the College during this period was summed up by one of the Angelicum's most illustrious alumni and faculty members in the mid-twentieth century, Cornelio Fabro, who called the Angelicum the "avant-garde of the doctrinal mission of the Dominican Order in Rome, and of traditional Thomism whose distinguished exponents included T. Zigliara, A. Lepidi, T. Pègues, E. Hugon, A. Zacchi, R. Garrigou-Lagrange, and M. Cordovani."[110] The notoriety of the College was further fostered by annual celebrations of the Feast of its patron St. Thomas Aquinas including a "preaching tridiuum", a pontifical Mass and an academic symposium at the Angelicum[109] June 8, 1923 Szabó founded Unio thomistica, an association of Angelicum students and alumni dedicated to defense of Thomistic doctrine. Its publication originally entitled Unio thomistica would continue under the title Angelicum, a trimesterly journal with articles in Italian, French, English, German, and Spanish treating theology, philosophy, canon law, and social sciences.[111]

An 18th-century view of the Church of Saints Dominic and Sixtus at center left, and the former Dominican convent that now houses the Angelicum at center right

The year 1926 saw the Angelicum become an institute with its change of name to Pontificium Institutum Internationale Angelicum. During the academic year 1927-28 Angelicum professor Mariano Cordovani began a Philosophy Circle that continued into the 1960s as a forum for laity to explore contemporary philosophical issues.[112]

In 1927 the Italian government decided to sell the former convent of Santi Domenico e Sisto. The convent, which had been established by Pope Pius V for Dominican nuns in 1575, was expropriated by the Italian government on September 9, 1871 in virtue of the law of suppression of religious orders. Blessed Buenaventura García de Paredes, Master General of the Order, seeing the opportunity to recuperate the Dominican patrimony, suggested to Benito Mussolini that selling the convent to the Order would return the property to its original owners, and that it could be used to house the Angelicum[113]

By decree of 2 June 1928 the Italian Minister of Justice authorized the College of St. Thomas to purchase from the Italian State for the agreed price of nine million lire (L. 9,000,000) the complex of buildings constituting the former convent of Saints Dominic and Sixtus [114] In this way Paredes activated Cormier's plan for the Angelicum to be established at a site whose amplitude was more fitting to its new status.

For the academic year 1928-1929 Paredes celebrated the inaugural Mass in the Church of Saints Dominic and Sixtus and Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange gave the solemn inaugural lecture.[115] Because the convent buildings required extensive renovation classes were not held there until 1932.

From 1928 to 1932 the convent was renovated to house classrooms, an aula magna and an aula minor, amphitheaters with seating capacities of 1,100 and 350 respectively. In November 1932 the Angelicum opened its doors at the appropriately more extensive complex of buildings comprising the ancient Dominican convent of Saints Dominic and Sixtus.

The Angelicum changed names once again in 1942 becoming the Pontificium Athenaeum Internationale Angelicum.

In 1951 the Institute of Social Sciences was founded within the Faculty of Philosophy by Fr. Raimondo Spiazzi (1918–2002). Spiazzi, a prolific author and editor of the works of Aquinas, completed his doctorate in Sacred Theology at the Angelicum in 1947 with a dissertation entitled "Il cristianesimo perfezione dell'uomo. Spiazzi directed the Institute of Social Sciences until 1957 and continued teaching there until 1972.[116] This Institute was established as the Faculty Faculty of Social Sciences (FASS) in 1974. Mieczyslaw Albert Krapiec, leading exponent of the Lublin School of philosophy in Poland, received a doctorate in theology from the Angelicum in 1948.[117]

In 1950 the Angelicum's Institute of Spirituality was founded by Paul-Pierre Philippe within the Faculty of Theology to promote scientific and systematic study of ascetical and mystical theology, and to offer preparation for spiritual directors. The Institute was approved by the Congregation for Catholic Education on 1 May 1958.[118] Today the Institute is presided over by Paul Murray, lecturer in Spiritual Theology at the Angelicum. Murry was awarded the Magister Sacrae Theologiae by the Master General of the Order on September 20, 2011.[119]

During the tenure of Michael Browne as Master of the Order of Preachers and Chancellor of the Angelicum, Pope Pius XII addressed the academic community of the Angelicum in a radio message on 14 January 1957. The pontiff encouraged the Angelicum's diligent pursuit of Thomistic doctrine and imparted his apostolic blessing on its future projects.[120]

Benedict Augustine Blank, former Provincial of the Western Province of the Dominican Order was rector of the Angelicum from 1952 to 1955.[121]

For other figures associated with the Pontificium Collegium Divi Thomae de Urbe see the List of people associated with the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas.

1963 Pontificia Studiorum Universitas a Sancto Thoma Aquinate in Urbe[edit]

During the tenure of Aniceto Fernández as Master of the Order of Preachers (1962–1974)[122] and the rectorate of Raymond Sigmond O.P. (1961-1964)[123] Pope John XXIII visited the Angelicum[124] on March 7, 1963, the feast of the University's patron Saint Thomas Aquinas and with the motu proprio Dominicanus Ordo,[125] raised the Angelicum to the rank of Pontifical University. Thereafter it would be known as the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas in the City (Latin: Pontificia Studiorum Universitas a Sancto Thoma Aquinate in Urbe).[126]

On November 29. 1963 Egyptian scholar and peritus at Vatican II for Christian-Islamic relations Fr. Georges Anawati O.P. delivered a lecture entitled at the Angelicum "L'Islam a l'heure du Concile: prolegomenes a un dialogue islamo-chretien." [127]

On the 19th of April, 1974 Pope Paul VI delivered an allocution in the Angelicum's Aula Magna as part of the International Congress of the International Society of St. Thomas Aquinas celebrated on the occasion of the 7th Centenary of the death of the Doctor Angelicus. The Pontif described Aquinas as a teacher of the art of thinking well and expounded his doctrine proposing Aquinas as an unsurpassed master.[128]

On 17 November 1979, one year into his papacy, Pope John Paul II visited his alma mater to deliver an address marking the first centenary of the encyclical Aeterni Patris. The Pontiff reaffirmed the centrality of Aquinas' thought for the Church and the unique role of the Angelicum, where Aquinas is "as in his own home (tamquam in domo sua)," in carrying on the Thomist philosophical and theological tradition.[129]

On 24 November 1994, four days after beatifying Hyacinthe-Marie Cormier, Pope John Paul II visited the Angelicum and gave an address to faculty and students on the occasion of the dedication of the university's Aula Magna in his honor.[130]

For other figures associated with the university during this period see the List of people associated with the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas.

The Angelicum Today[edit]

Today the faculty and students of the Angelicum strive to be "modern disciples of Thomas Aquinas," "accepting all the radical changes" of the modern world "but without compromise" to the ideals of their patron Thomas Aquinas.[131] Angelicum alumnus and famed historian and philosopher James A. Weisheipl O.P. notes that since the time of Aquinas "Thomism was always alive in the Dominican Order, small as it was after the ravages of the Reformation, the French Revolution, and the Napoleonic occupation.[132] While outside the order Thomism has had varying fortunes, the Angelicum has played a central role throughout its history in preserving Thomism since the time of Aquinas' own activity at the Santa Sabina studium provinciale. Today the sedes Thomae continues to provide students and scholars with the opportunity to immerse themselves in the authentic Dominican Thomistic philosophical and theological tradition.

For the 2011-2012 academic year the student body comprised approximately 900 students coming from 95 countries. The countries represented with the most students were the United States (180), Italy (157), and India (102). About one half of the Angelicum's students are enrolled in the faculty of theology. Typically the majority of students are seminarians, student-priests, or religious sisters. However, in recent years the number of lay students has increased especially in the social sciences faculty.[133] Theology students number about 700 from around 90 countries. Of these about 70% are either priests, seminarians or religious men and women, while about 30% belong to the laity.[134]

Some comparatively recent notable figures associated with the Angelicum include Cornelio Fabro, Jordan Aumann, Christoph Cardinal Schönborn, Aidan Nichols, Wojciech Giertych, Theologian of the Pontifical Household under Pope Benedict XVI, and Bishop Charles Morerod, immediate past Rector Magnificus of the Angelicum and former Secretary of the International Theological Commission, Sr. Helen Alford, OP, Dean of the Angelicum Faculty of Social Sciences, and Consultant to the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, and Fr. Robert Christian, OP, Vice-Dean of the faculty of theology, professor of sacramental theology and ecclesiology, and Consultant to the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity. Dr. Donna Orsuto, professor of spirituality, is rector of the Lay Centre at Foyer Unitas and was recently created a Dame of the Order of St. Gregory the Great by Pope Benedict.

Academics[edit]

Quality and Ranking[edit]

The Angelicum is one of the world's Pontifical universities. Current international quality ranking services do not have a quality ranking category that reflects the unique nature and mission of Pontifical universities, nor do their methodologies take into account this unique nature and mission in a way that reflects their educational quality.[original research?] In distinction to secular or Catholic universities, which are academic institutions for the study and teaching of a broad range of disciplines, Ecclesiastical or Pontifical universities "are usually composed of three principal ecclesiastical faculties, theology, philosophy, and canon law, and at least one other faculty. A Pontifical university specifically addresses Christian revelation and disciplines correlative to the evangelical mission of the Church as set out in the apostolic constitution Sapientia christiana." [5][135]

Since 19 September 2003 the Holy See has taken part in the Bologna Process, a series of meetings and agreements between European states designed to foster comparable quality standards in higher education, and in the "Bologna Follow-up Group".[136][137][138]

The Holy See’s Agency for the Evaluation and Promotion of Quality in Ecclesiastical Universities and Faculties (AVEPRO) was established on 19 September 2007 by the Pope Benedict XVI "to promote and develop a culture of quality within the academic institutions that depend directly on the Holy See and ensure they possess internationally valid quality criteria." [135]

Academic Authorities[edit]

  • Grand Chancellor, the Master General of the Order of Preachers. On September 5, 2010 the 290th General Chapter of the Order of Preachers elected Fr. Bruno Cadoré O.P. the 87th Master General of the Order of Preachers.[139]
  • Rector Magnificus. On May 4, 2012 at 12:00 noon in the Angelicum's Aula Minor Father Miroslav Konštanc Adam, O.P.[140] was installed as Rector Magnificus of the Angelicum by taking the canonically required profession of faith and oath of fidelity that is required of all assuming an office to be exercised on the name of the Church.[141] Fr. Adam gave an Inaugural Address in the presence of Georges Marie Cardinal Cottier O.P. retired Theologian of the Pontifical Household, Archbishop Jean Louis Bruges O.P. Secretary for the Congregation for Education, Miguel Diaz Ambassador of the United States of America to the Holy See, Ed Ruane, O.P. vicar of the Master of the Order of Preachers, and the faculty and students of the Angelicum.[142]
Cloister portico with entrance to the walled garden and in the distance a fountain by Giovanni Battista Soria c. 1630.[143]
  • Vice-Rector
  • Deans of the Faculties
  • Heads of the Institutes
  • Administrator
  • Secretary General
  • Public Relations Officer
  • Prefect of the Library
  • University Chaplain

Faculties and degrees[edit]

In addition to the programs listed, which are in the Italian language, the Angelicum offers English programs in Philosophy and Theology for the first cycle, and part of the second and third cycles.[144]

Theology[145]

  • First Cycle: Baccalaureate in Sacred Theology, Sacrae Theologiae Baccalaureatus (S.T.B.)
  • Second Cycle: Licentiate in Sacred Theology, Sacrae Theologiae Licentiatus (S.T.L.)
  • Third Cycle: Doctorate in Sacred Theology, Sacrae Theologiae Doctoratus (S.T.D.)

Sections:

  • Biblical
  • Dogmatic
  • Moral
  • Thomistic
  • Spirituality
  • Ecumenism: The Angelicum is the only Pontifical university in Rome granted the right to offer advanced theology degrees in ecumenism. The Angelicum offers the licentiate degree in theology with a specialization in ecumenical studies.

Chairs of Learning:[145]

  • The J.-M. Tillard Chair of Ecumenical Studies: The Tillard Chair was dedicated February 25, 2003 in honor of Dominican Jean-Marie Tillard,[146] one of the greatest exponents of post-conciliar ecumenical movement. Tillard studied philosophy at the Angelicum from 1952 to 1953 obtaining the doctorate degree with a thesis entitled Le bonheur selon la conception de saint Thomas d’Aquin.[147] At Vatican II, Tillard served as a "peritus" for the Canadian bishops, and subsequently became a consultant to the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity.
  • The Non-Conventional Religions and Spiritualities Chair (RSNC) which promotes the study of modern and contemporary religious phenomena

Canon Law[148]

  • First Cycle: Baccalaureate in Canon Law, Juris Canonici Baccalaureatus (J.C.B.)
  • Second Cycle: Licentiate in Canon Law, Iuris Canonici Licentiatus (J.C.L.)
  • Third Cycle: Doctorate in Canon Law, Iuris Canonici Doctoratus (J.C.D.)

Philosophy[149]

  • First Cycle: Baccalaureate in Philosophy, Philosophiae Baccalaureatus (Ph.B.)
  • Second Cycle: Licentiate in Philosophy, Philosophiae Licentiatus (Ph.L.)
  • Third Cycle: Doctorate in Philosophy, Philosophiae Doctoratus (Ph.D.)

Social Sciences[150]

  • First Cycle: Baccalaureate in Social Sciences, Scientiarum Socialium Baccalaureatus
  • Second Cycle: Licentiate in Social Sciences, Scientiarum Socialium Licentiatus
  • Third Cycle: Doctorate in Social Sciences, Scientiarum Socialium Doctoratus

Chairs of Learning:

  • The Cardinal Pavan Chair for Social Ethics: The Pavan Chair was established in honor of Italian Cardinal Pietro Pavan[151] to promote interdisciplinary research on social issues and problems especially in the realm of ethics and development of the social teaching of the Church.[152]

Aggregated institutions[edit]

  • Sacred Heart Major Seminary, Detroit (USA)[153]

Affiliated institutions[edit]

  • Blackfriars Studium, Oxford (England)[154]
  • Collegio Alberoni, Piacenza (Italy)[155]
  • St. Charles Seminary, Nagpur (India)[156]
  • Dominican House of Studies, Tallaght (Ireland)[157]
  • St. Joseph’s Seminary (Dunwoodie), New York (USA)[158]
  • Istituto Teologico De America Central Intercongregacional, S. Jose (Costa Rica)
  • Sacred Heart Institute, Gozo (Malta)
  • Dominican Institute, Ibadan (Nigeria)[159]
  • Centro de Estudio de los Dominicanos del Caribe, Bayamon (Puerto Rico)
  • Studio Filosofico Domenicano, Bologna (Italy)[160] (Italian)
  • Escola Dominicana de Teologia, Alto do Ipiranga, São Paulo (Brazil)[161] (Portuguese)
  • Centro de Teologia Santo Domingo de Guzman, St. Domingo (Dominican Republic)

[edit]

  • The Institute of Spirituality[162]
  • Istituto Superiore di Scienze Religiose Mater Ecclesiae[163]
  • Istituto San Tommaso[164]

Associated institutions[edit]

  • Higher Institute for Communication and Public Opinion, Rome (Italy)[166]
  • Institut Marie-Dominique Chenu, Berlin (Germany)[167]

Related Programs[edit]

Scholarships[edit]

The Russell Berrie Fellowship in Interreligious Studies[177] targets members of the laity and clergy for the purpose of studying at the Angelicum to obtain License or Doctoral Degrees in Theology with a concentration in Inter-religious Studies. The goal of the Fellowship Program is to build bridges between Christian, Jewish, and other religious traditions by providing the next generation of religious leaders with a comprehensive understanding of and dedication to interfaith issues. The award will provide one year of financial support the Russell Berrie Foundation,[178] which carries on the values and passions of the late Russell Berrie,[179] by promoting the continuity of the Jewish tradition, and fostering religious understanding and pluralism. Financial support is intended to cover tuition, a living stipend, examination fees, a book allowance, and travel expenses to and from the recipient's home country once a year.

The William E. Simon Scholarship Fund provides financial assistance for academically qualified students who live in Rome and who would otherwise lack the resources to cover their educational expenses at the Angelicum. Each scholarship award provides no more than 40% of the total annual expense of tuition, room, board, and related fees and expenses. Annually the fund allocates 50% of its scholarships for lay students.[180]

International Dominican Foundation[181] (IDF) is a non-profit organization that provides monetary support to Dominican educational programs at the Jerusalem École Biblique, the Angelicum in Rome, and the Dominican Institute for Oriental Studies (IDEO)in Cairo.[182] The IDF made grants of approximately $270,000.00 for the academic year 2011-2012, the major part of which went the Angelicum in accord with the William E. Simon Scholarship, the McCadden-McQuirk Foundation, and the Réginald de Rocquois Foundation.[183]

United States Federal Loan Program[edit]

The Angelicum is listed under schools in Rome that can participate in the US Federal Loan Program.[184][185]

Academic Calendar[edit]

The regular academic year at the Angelicum runs from early October until the end of May. Some of the University's important annual events are as follows:

October Solemn Inauguration of the Academic Year and Mass of the Holy Spirit

October 22 Solemnity of the Dedication of the Church of Saints Dominic and Sixtus

November 15 Feast of Saint Albert the Great.

March 7 Feast of the University's patron Saint Thomas Aquinas

May 21 Solemn Mass for the Ending of the Academic Year and Conferral of academic degrees. Dominican feast of Bl. Hyacinthe-Marie Cormier O.P.

June A summer session runs for the month of June.

Generally administration offices remain open until the end of July, are closed for the month of August, and reopen in early September.

The Angelicum Campus[edit]

Trajan's Forum and Market with the Angelicum campus in distance at center including the Church of Saints Dominic and Sixtus. The Torre delle Milizie can be seen to the left of campus.

The Angelicum campus is located in the historic center of Rome, Italy on the Quirinal hill in the section or rione of the eternal city known as Monti. It is situated near the beginning of via Nazionale just above the ruins of Trajan's Market, the via dei Fori Imperiali, and Piazza Venezia.

The Site[edit]

The site of the Angelicum is recorded in history sometime before the year 1000 bearing the name Magnanapoli with a church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. The nature of the site before the 9th century is uncertain. One theory holds that its name Magnanapoli derives from the expression Bannum Nea Polis or "fort of the new city" from the adjacent Byzantine military citadel which included the Torre delle Milizie Rome's oldest extant tower.[186]

Architectonic Features[edit]

In 1569 Dominican Pope Pius V ordered the construction of the Church of Saints Dominic and Sixtus. This was followed in 1575 by a convent for Dominican nuns. Among the architects who worked on the complex are Vignola; Giacomo della Porta; Nicola and Orazio Torriani; and Vincenzo della Greca. The church's double staircase was added in 1654 by sculptor architect Orazio Torriani.

In 1870 the religious community was expropriated by the Italian government. The Order was able to reacquire the complex in 1927 from the Italian government. After extensive renovation and additions the Angelicum and a convent of Dominican Friars was installed there. Today the University occupies approximately the entire ground level of the complex. The remaining portion, approximately the second and third levels around the cloister together with subterranean spaces, constitutes a convent for the community of Dominican Friars that serves the University.

Angelicum main entrance, a Palladian motif portico above which are mounted the escutcheons of Pope Pius XI[187] on the left and a Dominican shield bearing one of the Dominican mottos, "laudare, benedicere, praedicare" (to praise, to bless, to preach) on the right

The main entrance of the Angelicum immediately to the right of the Church of Saints Dominic and Sixtus was built into the existing structure in the early 1930s as part of the renovations undertaken to accommodate the Angelicum at its new site. A wide flight of stairs leads to a Palladian motif portico above which are mounted a Dominican shield bearing one of the Order's mottos "laudare, benedicere, praedicare" (to praise, bless, and preach) on the right, and the escutcheons of Pope Pius XI[187] who was reigning when the Pontificium Institutum Internationale Angelicum opened its doors in 1932, on the left. The main entrance of the Angelicum was used in 2010 as a location in the film "Manuale d'amore 3". part of a 4 movie romantic comedy, directed by Giovanni Veronesi and starring Robert De Niro, and Monica Bellucci who were on campus shooting the film, as well as Riccardo Scamarcio, Laura Chiatti, Michele Placido, Carlo Verdone, Valeria Solarino, Daniele Pecci, and Donatella Finocchiaro.[188]

Under the entrance portico are two statues c. 1910 by sculptor Cesare Aureli (1843-1923) of St Albert the Great[189] on the left and St. Thomas Aquinas on the right. The base of the statue of Aquinas bears an inscription attributed to Pope Pius XI, "Sanctus Thomas Doctor angelicus hic tamquam domi suae habitat," (Saint Thomas the Angelic Doctor dwells here as in his own house), a paraphrase of the papal encyclical Studiorum ducem that singles out the Angelicum as the preeminent Thomistic center of learning: "ante omnia Pontificium Collegium Angelicum, ubi Thomam tamquam domi suae habitare dixeris".[190]

The Angelicum's statue of Aquinas is Aureli's second version of this work. The first version of 1889[191] looms majestically over the Sala di Consultazione or main reference room of the Vatican Library.[192] At the instigation of the Pontifical Roman Seminary the Vatican version of the statue was commissioned in the name of all seminaries of the world as a gift to Pope Leo XIII in celebration of his episcopal jubilee in 1893.[193] The statue has been described in the following terms:

St. Thomas seated, in his left arm holds the Summa theologica while extending his right arm in the act of protecting Christian science. Thus, he does not sit on the cathedra of a doctor but on the throne of a sovereign protector; he extends his arm to reassure, not to demonstrate. He wears on his head the doctoral birettum of the traditional type which reveals the face and expression of a profoundly educated person.... The immortal book that he clutches, the powerful arm that extends to affirm sacred science and to halt the audacity of error, are truly grand, and in the words of Leo XIII, have equaled the genius of all other great teachers.[194]

On the occasion of the blessing of this statue in 1914 Hyacinthe-Marie Cormier delivered his "Sed Contra: Allocution aux novices étudiants du Collège Angélique pour la bénédiction d'une statue de S. Thomas d'Aquin dans leur oratoire."[195]

The Angelicum Cloister[edit]

A central cloister with garden and fountain forms the heart of campus. The two basins of the ancient fountain are fed by the Acqua Felice aqueduct, one of the aqueducts of Rome, and the first new aqueduct of early modern Rome, completed in 1585 by Pope Sixtus V[196] whose birth name was Felice Peretti. It also feeds the fountain by Giovanni Battista Soria (c. 1630) at the entrance to the Angelicum's walled garden, and the fountain under the stair below the University's portineria or porter's lodge before coursing across the Quirinal hill to its terminus at the Moses fountain or Fontana dell'Acqua Felice on the Via del Quirinale.[197]

Arched porticos designed by Vignola but completed after his death flank the cloister. Ten arches on the long sides and seven on the short are sustained by pilasters in the Tuscan style rising from high plinths. A simple frieze with smooth triglyphs and metopes separates lower from upper levels.

Cloister of the Angelicum

Eleven classrooms encircle the cloister, the last of which, the Aula della Sapienza (Hall of Wisdom) is the site of the University's doctoral defenses. Also located off the cloister are the administration offices and the Sala delle Colonne, a reception room with antique marble columns and arched ceilings bearing traces of late Renaissance style frescos, which initially housed a library.

On the second level encircling the cloister are the living quarters of Dominican professors and the Sala del Senato (Academic Senate Room). The latter was the Chapter room of the convent and is appointed with a 14th-century triptych of Saint Andrew by Lippo Vanni,[198] a 13th-century crucifix, and a full-body relic of an unidentified saint encased in Imperial Roman armor.[199]

The Angelicum Auditoria[edit]

To the east of the Sala delle Colonne is the Aula Magna Giovanni Paolo II, a raked semicircular auditorium with seating for 1100 people that was constructed during 1930s renovations by Roman engineer Vincenzo Passarelli (1904–1985).[200] The Aula Magna was recently renamed after one of the Angelicum's most illustrious alumni, Pope John Paul II. The adjacent Aula Minor San Raimondo seats 350 people. Beyond these auditoria are the university's cafe, the Angelicum Bookshop, and the university's library.

The Angelicum Administration Building[edit]

The Palazzo dei Decanati (Deans' Building) is located at the West edge of campus just inside the main gates. The West boundary of the Angelicum is formed by the Salita del Grillo.

The Angelicum Library[edit]

The main part of the Angelicum library consists of that part of the textual patrimony of the Angelicum not expropriated by the Italian government with the Biblioteca Casanatense in 1870. The library originally housed 40,000 volumes in the Sala delle Colonne. As the library grew space was found under the Aula Magna for a library whose large windows face out to the palm trees of the Angelicum walled garden.[201]

Among the library's treasures is included the original copy of the doctoral thesis Doctrina de fide apud S. Ioannem a Cruce (The Doctrine of Faith in St. John of the Cross) written by the future Pope John Paul II, Fr. Karol Józef Wojtyła, under the direction of Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange and defended on 19 June 1948[202]

The Angelicum Garden[edit]

On the south side of campus the walled garden is bordered by private properties. At the garden entrance stands a fountain by Giovanni Battista Soria built circa 1630.[143] The garden is planted with trees of many kinds: orange, lemon, pistachio, olive, fig, palm and laurel, as well as with grape vines, and is an oasis of calm and silence, a figure of paradise in the midst of the bustling eternal city. In 1946 in this garden the young student Karol Wojtyla, future Pope John Paul II, would stroll and visit daily what he called the "miraculous tree," an ancient olive from which springs incredibly the branches of a palm, a fig, and a laurel.[203]

The University Church, Chapel, and Choir[edit]

Along the north side of campus are found the University's Church of Saints Dominic and Sixtus, the Blessed Sacrament Chapel, and the Choir. The church has been the subject of numerous works of art. In the 18th century Antonio Canaletto made a pen and ink study with grey wash and black chalk, today in the collection of the British Museum, described as depicting "the Church of SS Domenico e Sisto, Rome; with a sweeping double staircase to the entrance, in the foreground a man bowing to two approaching ladies."[204] Italian born American painter John Singer Sargent during his extensive travels in Italy made an oil painting of the exterior staircase and balustrade of the campus's Church of Saints Dominic and Sixtus in 1906.[205] Sargent described the ensemble as "a magnificent curved staircase and balustrade, leading to a grand façade that would reduce a millionaire to a worm".[206] The painting now hangs at the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford University. Sargent used the architectural features from this painting later in a portrait of Charles William Eliot, President of Harvard University from 1869 to 1909.[207] Sargent made several preliminary pencil sketches of the balustrade and staircase, which are in the collection of the Harvard University art collection of the Fogg Museum.[208] The Church as also been depicted by Ettore Roesler Franz and Eero Saarinen.[209] The Church and stair also feature in the 1950 film Prima comunione by director Alessandro Blasetti,[210] which is on the list of the 100 Italian films to save.[211][212]

Surrounding Area[edit]

The northern flank of campus borders via Panisperna across from the perimeter wall of the Roman Villa Aldobrandini, a 17th-century princely villa whose gardens were truncated by the construction of Via Nazionale in the 19th century, and which today houses the headquarters of the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT). Behind the campus intersecting with Via Nazionale is the "Via Mazzarino", named after Michele Mazzarino professor of theology at the College after 1628 who[213] was appointed Master of the Sacred Palace under Pope Urban VIII in 1642, and Archbishop of Aix-en-Provence in 1645 by Pope Innocent X. Mazzarino's brother Giulio Mazzarino, known as "Jules Mazarin" was chief minister under Louis XIV of France.[214] The East edge of campus is bound by Salita del Grillo beyond which is the Markets and Forum of Trajan.

General Information[edit]

Angelicum Traditions and Annual Events[edit]

Portrait of Tommaso Inghirami (ca. 1509) by Raphael (1483-1520).
  • Concert Talent Show is offered annually by students and professors consisting of a multicultural exhibition of music, song and dance from around the world.
  • The Pope John Paul II Lecture on Interreligious Understanding is delivered towards the end of each academic year and features a world religious leader or renowned expert who embodies the ideals of inter-religious understanding. The lecture is a major event at the Angelicum and attracts the Roman academic community as well as the international diplomatic community. To date the Annual Lecture has hosted an array of prominent and Internationally known academics and religious leaders as key note speakers."[236]
  • The "Occasional Lectures" series provides a forum for persons of note relevant to the university's teaching mission.
    • 2014, 7 May, Symposium in honor of Dominican Friar Giuseppe Girotti, martyr at Dachau concentration camp in 1945, to be beatified at Alba, Piedmont on 26 April, 2014.[237]
    • 2013, 16 April, Romano Prodi, former President of the European Commission and former Prime Minister of Italy gave a lectio magistralis at the Angelicum entitled “I grandi cambiamenti della politica e dell’economia mondiale: c’è un posto per l’Europa?” ("The Great Changes in Politics and the World Economy: Is there Room for Europe?). Prodi was sponsored by the Angelicum and the Università degli Studi Guglielmo Marconi[238] as promotion for the degree offered in Political Science, "Scienze Politiche e del Buon Governo."[239]
  • A Eucharistic Procession led by a notable Church dignitary takes place at the end of each academic year. Typically the procession departs at 1:00 p.m. from the Blessed Sacrament Chapel, continues around the Angelicum's central courtyard, through the main corridors and ends in the Church of Saints Dominic and Sixtus for Exposition and Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament.
    • In 2013 Miroslav Konštanc Adam, O.P., Angelicum Rector, led the procession on 15 May.[240]
    • In 2012 James D. Conley, Apostolic Administrator of the Archdiocese of Denver, USA, led the procession on 3 May.
    • In 2011 Marc Cardinal Ouellet, Prefect for the Congregation for Bishops, led the procession on 27 May.
    • In 2010 it was led by Piero Marini.
    • In 2009 Raymond Leo Burke, Prefect for the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, led the procession.
  • Eucharistic Exposition and Adoration is offered by no Pontifical University in Rome other than the Angelicum. On class days (Monday-Friday) from 8:00am–6:20pm Eucharistic Adoration takes place in the Blessed Sacrament Chapel near the entrance of the Choir at the Angelicum. Students can sign up to be "Eucharistic Guardians" for an hour giving them the opportunity to pray for a series of intentions administration, faculty, staff and students post in the intention sheet. This is organized by the University chaplaincy and the students themselves following the Dominican tradition of the Eucharist being at the center of the life of study.[241]
  • Formal Closure of the Academic Year is celebrated with a Solemn Mass at the end of May.

School Motto and Hymn[edit]

In 1908 when the College was transformed it into the Collegium Pontificium Internationale Angelicum Blessed Hyacinthe-Marie Cormier bestowed upon it his personal motto as Master General of the Order of Preachers, caritas veritatis. This Latin phrase literally translated as the charity of truth appears in The City of God[242] by St. Augustine of Hippo, and is quoted by St. Thomas Aquinas in comparing the active and the contemplative life: "Unde Augustinus dicit XIX De civ. Dei, Otium sanctum quaerit caritas veritatis; negotium justum, scilicet vitae activae, suscipit necessitas caritatis,"[243] which Aldous Huxley translates in The Perennial Philosophy as: "The love of Truth seeks holy leisure; the necessity of love undertakes righteous action."[244] Augustine's phrase also appears in the writings of William of St-Thierry[245]

The Angelicum does not currently have a school song.[246]

Angelicum Regalia[edit]

Academic dress for Angelicum graduates consists of a black toga or academic gown with trim to follow the color of the faculty, and an academic ring. In addition, for the Doctorate degree a four corned biretta is to be worn, and for the Licentiate degree a three corned biretta is to be worn.[247] Traditionally the ceremony at which the biretum is imposed is called the "birretatio".[248]

For those holding doctoral degrees from a pontifical university or faculty "the principal mark of a Doctor's dignity is the four horned biretta."[249] The 1917 Code of Canon Law canon 1378 and 1922 commentary prescribe the four corned biretum doctorale and doctoral ring or annulum doctorale for doctorates in philosophy, theology, canon law, specifying that the biretum should decorated according to the color of the faculty ("diverso colore ornatum pro Facultate").[250] The 'traditional' Angelicum biretta is white to correspond to the white Dominican habit.[251] However, the Academic Senate of the Angelicum in its May 2011 meeting indicated that for the Licentiate and Doctorate a black biretta may be used with colored piping and pom to follow the color of the faculty.[252]

The biretta is lay in origin and was adopted by the Church in the 14th century: "Many synods ordered the use of this cap [the pileus or skull cap] as a substitute for the hood, and in one instance the synod of Bergamo, 1311, ordered the clergy to wear the 'bireta on their heads after the manner of laymen'." Herbert Norris, Church Vestments: Their Origin and Development, 1950, 161).

Angelicum Athletics[edit]

The Olympic motto Citius, Altius, Fortius (Faster, Higher, Sronger) was coined by Henri Didon OP, for a Paris youth gathering in 1891, and later proposed as the official Olympic motto by his friend Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 and made official in 1924. Didon completed his theological studies at the College of Saint Thomas in 1862.[253][254]

The Clericus Cup is a soccer tournament that takes place annually between the various pontifical universities of Rome. The teams are composed of seminarians, priests, and lay students studying in each of the pontifical universities. The league was started by Cardinal Secretary of State, Tarcisio Bertone who is an unapologetic football fan. The Angelicum first participated in 2011, and came in 2nd place in 2012. During the history of the Clericus Cup, players have come from 65 countries, with the majority coming from Brazil, Italy, Mexico, and the United States. The annual tournament is organized by the Centro Sportivo Italiano. Officially, the goal of the league is to "reinvigorate the tradition of sport in the Christian community." In other words, to provide a venue for friendly athletic competition among the thousands of seminarians and lay students, representing nearly a hundred countries, who study in Rome.[255]

In November 2011 Minerva the Owl was voted in as the Angelicum mascot.[3]

Student Housing[edit]

The Angelicum does not provide housing primarily intended for lay students. However, assistance finding local student housing is offered by the Angelicum Office of Student Affairs (ASPUST).[256] The office is located in the Palazzo dei Decanati or Deans' Building at the West end of campus, just inside the gates to the right.

The Lay Centre at Foyer Unitas is an international college for lay students within walking distance of the Angelicum.

The Convitto San Tommaso was established by the Dominican Order in 1963 as a place of residence in Rome for secular priests who come to the Rome in order to pursue higher studies at one or other of the Roman Universities. There are approximately 55 student priests. They come from five continents of the world. Three Dominicans live in the house to serve the practical and spiritual needs of the house: the Rector, the Spiritual Director, and the Bursar. The life of the house focuses on daily celebration of the Eucharist.[257]

Student Activities[edit]

The following is a sample of student activities:

  • The Associazione Studentesca Pontificia Università San Tommaso (ASPUST), or Student Association of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas, is housed in the Angelicum Office of Student Affairs.[258]

ASPUST holds elections for its offers in mid November each year.
ASPUST offers services to students and prospective students of the Angelicum such as information about health services and insurance, information about apartment hunting, other services relating to public transportation, computers, cafeterias, and a blog that reports on student activities.

  • At various times during the academic year one of the Faculties or the Student Association sponsors a day-long pilgrimage for students and faculty to locales such as Assisi, Norcia, Cascia, Subiaco, Orvieto, Siena, or Roccasecca, birthplace of St. Thomas Aquinas.
  • Chaplaincy of the Angelicum sponsors a "Karol Wojtyla Discussion Group" that meets weekly.
  • The Angelicum Choir meets for practice each week in the Chapel.[259]

Bookstore[edit]

The Angelicum Bookshop is run by Libreria Leoniana of Rome. Located on near the University Library, it specializes in ecclesiastical literature, Italian and foreign language literature, and provides stationary, photo-reproduction, computer, and bindery services. Hours during the academic year are 9:00am to 1:00pm and 3:00pm to 6:00pm. It is closed Saturdays and the month of August.[260]

Publications and Media[edit]

  • Angelicum, the official journal of the University, was founded in 1924 to promote the authentic tradition of Dominican Thomism, Angelicum fosters engagement with contemporary intellectual culture from a historical and systematic perspective. Angelicum publishes articles on topics in theology, philosophy, canon law, and social science in the principal European languages.[261]
  • Oikonomia is the journal founded in 1999 at the Faculty of Social Sciences (FASS) of the Angelicum. It is a collaborative project of the lecturers and students of the faculty, and of scholars who work with the FASS. The issues that are covered are those of the social sciences, as we understand them in our tradition, covering five areas: philosophy, law, history, psico-sociological, economics. The subjects treated as the journal's editorial profile has developed have ranged from theoretical issues to reports on conferences, to reviews of important new books. Particular attention is given in every number to selecting a text from the recent or distant past, but which always has particular significance for the main theme of the number; this text, the "classic page", is always directly connected with the editorial. The editorial committee ensures only that a correct methodology has been employed by the author of contributions. It does not vet the content of the articles, for which the sole responsibility lies with the authors.[262]
  • Studi is a series of monographs produced by the Istituto San Tommaso[164] treating Thomistic themes including historical and contemporary hermeneutics of St. Thomas. A recent contribution to his series is the volume Sanctitatis causae - Motivi di santità e cause di canonizzazione di alcuni maestri medievali, eds Margherita Maria Rossi e Teodora Rossi.
  • Angelicum University Press (AUP) was founded in 2002 to oversee the publication projects of the Angelicum.
  • The Angelicum sponsors the "Angelicum University Channel," an online video channel that features news coverage of major Angelicum events and initiatives.
  • The Angelicum Office of Public Relations sponsors the "Angelicum Newsletter Blog" and the "Angelicum Alumni Website".

Notables[edit]

The following are some Angeliocum notables from the relatively recent past. For a more complete list of notables from all periods of the Angelicum's history see List of people associated with the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas

Some Recent Alumni[edit]

Angelicum alumnus Pope John Paul II in 1993
  • Barry Miller S.M., 1959 Doctorate in Philosophy. Miller (1923-2006) completed his doctorate with a dissertation entitled Knowledge Through Affective Connaturality, which was later published as The Range of the Intellect, Chapman, London 1961.[271]

Some Recent Faculty and Staff[edit]

Réginald Marie Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P., Angelicum professor of Philosophy and Theology 1909-1960 .

For a more complete list of notable Angelicum faculty throughout its history see List of people associated with the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas

  • Thomas Pègues O.P., 1909-1921 Theology.[278] His 21-volume Catéchisme de la Somme théologique, 1919, which was translated into English in 1922,[279]
  • Mariano Cordovani O.P.,[264] 1910-1912 Theology, 1912-1921 Philosophy, 1927-1932 Rector.[280]
  • Jacques Marie Vosté O.P., 1911-1949 Theology.[281]
  • Abelardo Lobato Casado O.P., 1960-1989 Ontology, Dean of Philosophy Faculty 1967-1989.[285]
  • Helen Alford O.P., 1996 Social Sciences, 2001-present Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences.[286]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cf. "The 2011-2012 Official Numbers" Angelicum Newsletter Blog, (November 11, 2011)
  2. ^ http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1660/Vatican-City-State.html Accessed 16 May 2013
  3. ^ a b http://angelicumnewsletterblog.blogspot.com/2011/11/new-mascot-of-angelicumla-nuova.html
  4. ^ Walz, Xenia Thomistica, III, p. 164 n. 4. In the scholastic tradition Aquinas has been called "Doctor Angelicus" since the 15th century.
  5. ^ a b http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_jp-ii_apc_15041979_sapientia-christiana_en.html Accessed June 24, 2011; Sapientia Christiana, Section VI, Article 39
  6. ^ P. Mandonnet, "Order of Preachers", Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913; Accessed 31 December 2012
  7. ^ This motto is a paraphrase of Thomas Aquinas' teaching on the perfection of the Dominican charism, Summa theologiae, III, 40, 1 ad 2: "Vita contemplativa simpliciter est melior quam activa quae occupatur circa corporales actus, sed vita activa secundum quam aliquis praedicando et docendo contemplata aliis tradit, est perfectior quam vita quae solum contemplatur, quia talis vita praesupponit abundantiam contemplationis. Et ideo Christus talem vitam elegit." Summa Theologica, II, II, 188, 6.
  8. ^ See the papal bulls Religiosam vitam and Nos attendentes
  9. ^ Omnia disce: medieval studies in memory of Leonard Boyle, O.P.. A. Duggan, J. Greatrex, B. Bolton, L. E. Boyle, 2005, p. 202.
  10. ^ J.-P. Renard, La formation et la désignation des prédicateurs au debut de l'Ordre des Prêcheurs, Freiburg, 1977.
  11. ^ fr:Couvent des Jacobins (rue Saint-Jacques) Accessed 13 March 2013
  12. ^ http://www.domcentral.org/study/opstudy.htm Accessed June 2, 2012
  13. ^ W. Hinnebusch, The Dominicans: A Short History, 1975, Ch. 1: "By requiring that each priory have a professor it laid the foundation for the Order's schools." http://www.domcentral.org/trad/shorthistory/short01.htm Accessed 9 June 2011; Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. 10, 701. "In each convent there was also a studium particulare. Accessed 9 June 2011
  14. ^ Bullarium Ordinis FF. Praedicatorum, Tomus Primus, Ab Anno 1215 ad 1280, 15; http://books.google.com/books?id=fTcNTiUqC9oC&pg=PA15#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 13 March 2013: "Anno 1222, Die 5 Junii, Honorius Episcopus, Servus Servorum Dei, dilectis filiis Magistro, & Fratribus Ordinis Predicatorum, Salutem. & Apostlicam Benedictionem. Quia omnibus ex officio nostro, licet immeriti, presumus, merito vobis, qui vestro ministerio proficere cupitis universis, commoda, cum convenit, ministramus; ut sic Ministri Christi & dispensatores Mysteriorum Dei per nostrum ministerium honorentur. Cum igitur certum hospitium non haberetis in Urbe, ubi eo forsan plus prodesse potestis, quo ibi tam indigene, quam extranei congregantur: Nos tam vobis, quam multorum utilitati consulere cupientes, Ecclesiam S. Sabine, ad celebrandum, & domos, ad inhabitandum, sicut Seculares Clerici haburerunt, de consensu Fratrum nostrorum, & specialiter dilecti filii nostri tituli eiusdem Ecclesie Presbyteri Cardinalis, vobis duximus concedendam, domo ubi est Baptisterium cum horto proximo & reclusorio pro duobus Clericis reservato, qui de Parochia, & possessionibus ipsius Ecclesie, prout expediet, curam gerent, iure Cardinalis in omnibus integre conservato. Nulli ergo &c. Datum Rome Nonis junii, Pontificatus nostri Anno Sexto."; P. Mandonnet, O.P., St. Dominic and His Work, 1948, Ch. III, note 50: "If the installation at Santa Sabina does not date from 1220, at least it is from 1221. The official grant was made only in June, 1222 (Bullarium O.P., I, 15). But the terms of the bull show that there had been a concession earlier. Before that concession the Pope said that the friars had no hospitium in Rome. At that time St. Sixtus was no longer theirs; Conrad of Metz could not have alluded to St. Sixtus, therefore, when he said in 1221: "the Pope has conferred on them a house in Rome" (Laurent no. 136). It is possible that the Pope was waiting for the completion of the building that he was having done at Santa Sabina, before giving the title to the property, on June 5, 1222, to the new Master of the Order, elected not many days before." http://domcentral.org/blog/years-of-experimental-activity-1215-19/ Accessed 13 August 2013
  15. ^ Compendium Historiae Ordinis Praedicatorum, A.M. Walz, 1930, 214: "Conventus S. Sabinae de Urbe prae ceteris gloriam singularem ex praesentia fundatoris ordinis et primitivorum fratrum necnon ex residentia Romana magistrorum generalium, si de ea sermo esse potest, habet. In documentis quidem eius nonnisi anno 1222 nomen fit, ait certe iam antea nostris concreditus est. Florebant ibi etiam studia sacra." Accessed 9 April 2011; http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07591b.htm Accessed 17 February 2013. After receiving the religious habit from St. Dominic in 1220 and an abbreviated novitiate they became missionaries and spread the Order in their homelands.
  16. ^ Pio Tomasso Masetti, Monumenta et antiquitates veteris disciplinae Ordinis Praedicatorum ab anno 1216 ad 1348, 1864, http://books.google.com/books?id=bM6wwPZorcAC&pg=PA315 Accessed 17 February 2013; "Fonti anche antiche affermano che l'A., entrato ancor giovane tra i domenicani nel convento romano di S. Sabina, dopo i primi studi - verosimilmente già sacerdote - fu inviato per i gradi accademici a Parigi e qui la sua presenza è accertata solo dopo il 1255." http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/annibaldo-annibaldi_(Dizionario-Biografico)/ Accessed 22 June 2011
  17. ^ Histoire literaire de la France: XIIIe siècle, Volume 19, p. 103, http://books.google.com/books?id=LIYNAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA103&lpg=PA103&dq=bonushomo#v=onepage&q=bonushomo&f=false Accessed October 27, 2012
  18. ^ Probably Florentius de Hidinio, aka Florentius Gallicus, Histoire literaire de la France: XIIIe siècle, Volume 19, p. 104, Accessed October 27, 2012
  19. ^ Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Volume 10, p. 701. Accessed 9 June 2011
  20. ^ "The Place of Study In the Ideal of St. Dominic", J. A. Weisheipl, O.P. (1923-1984), 1960. Accessed June 2, 2012
  21. ^ A Biographical Study of the Angelic Doctor, by P. Conway, O.P., 1911, "Part III: Evening", Chapter VI - His Writings: Second Period, Accessed October 27, 2012
  22. ^ "Fr. Thome de Aquino iniungimus in remissionem peccatorum quod teneat studium Rome." Acta Capitulorum Provincialium, Provinciae Romanae Ordinis Praedicatorum, Anagni, 1265, n. 12, in Corpus Thomisticum, http://www.corpusthomisticum.org/a65.html Accessed 8 April 2011; English trans. in Saint Thomas Aquinas of the Order of Preachers (1225-1274), A Biographical Study of the Angelic Doctor, by Fr. P. Conway, O.P., 63, http://www.archive.org/stream/saintthomasaquin00conwrich/saintthomasaquin00conwrich_djvu.txt Accessed 20 March 2013
  23. ^ http://segr-did2.fmag.unict.it/vademecum/programmi0304/Corso%20monografico03%3A04.pdf Accessed 16 February 2013
  24. ^ M. M. Mulchahey, "First the bow is bent in study": Dominican education before 1350, 1998, p. 278-279. Accessed 30 June 2011
  25. ^ Ptolomaei Lucensis, Historia Ecclesiastica xxii, c. 24 http://books.google.com/books?id=Dr_3-05krE8C&pg=PT499#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 20 February 2013:"quasi totam Philosophiam sive Morelem, sive Naturalem exposuit, & in scriptura, seu commentum redegit; sed praecipue Ethical & Mathematical, quodam singulari & novo modo tradendi."; cf. In Gregorovius' History of the City of Rome In the Middle Ages, Vol V, part II, 617, note 2. http://books.google.com/books?id=JohZAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA617#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 20 February 2013History of the city of Rome in the Middle Ages, v. 5, part 2, 617, note2. Accessed 31 December 2012.
  26. ^ Summa theologiae, I, 1, prooemium:
  27. ^ J.-P. Torrell, Saint Thomas Aquinas, vol. 1, The Person and His Work, trans. Robert Royal, Catholic University, 1996, 146 ff.
  28. ^ Torrell, op. cit., 161-3.
  29. ^ http://www.smn.it/emiliopanella/nomen1/iacopo.htm Accessed Feb. 1, 2013; Emilio Panella, "Iacopo di Ranuccio da Castelbuono OP, testimone dell’“alia lectura fratris Thome”, «Memorie domenicane» 19 (1988) 369-95.
  30. ^ "Frater Iacobus Raynucii sacerdos, fuit graciosus predicator et lector arectinus et castellanus, lucanus, urbevetanus, in Tuscia provintialis vicarius, et perusinus ac etiam romanus in Sancta Sabina tempore quo curia erat in Urbe. Qui et fuit in pluribus capitulis diffinitor, postmodum prior perusinus; demum factus prior in Sancta Sabina, per papam Honorium de Sabello residentem ibidem, propter suam laudabilem vitam et celebrem opinionem que de ipso erat in romana curia, factus est [1286] episcopus florentinus" (Cr Pg 29v). "Fuit magister eximius in theologia et multum famosus in romana curia; qui actu existens lector apud Sanctam Sabinam" (Cr Ov 28) http://www.e-theca.net/emiliopanella/lector12.htm Accessed May 9, 2011
  31. ^ http://aquinatis.blogspot.com/2008/05/vida-de-santo-toms-de-aquino.html Accessed June 22, 2011: "A mediados de noviembre abandonó Santo Tomás la ciudad de Viterbo en compañía de fray Reginaldo de Piperno y su discípulo fray Nicolás Brunacci." http://www.brunacci.it/s--tommaso.html Accessed June 22, 2011
  32. ^ History of Italian Philosophy, Volume 1, 85, by Eugenio Garin, http://books.google.com/books?id=sVP3vBmDktQC&pg=PA85&lpg=PA85&dq=brunacci#v=onepage&q=brunacci&f=false Accessed June 29, 2011; http://www.brunacci.it/s--tommaso.html Accessed June 22, 2011: "Per l'acutezza del suo ingegno, dopo aver studiato nella sua provincia, ebbe l'alto onore di accompagnare S. Tommaso a Parigi nel novembre del 1268. Rimase in quello studio fino al 1272 e di là passò a Colonia sotto la disciplina di Alberto Magno."
  33. ^ Frater Nicolaus Brunatii [† 1322] sacerdos et predicator gratiosus, fuit lector castellanus, arectinus, perusinus, urbevetanus et romanus apud Sanctam Sabinam tempore quo papa erat in Urbe, viterbiensis et florentinus in studio generali legens ibidem annis tribus (Cr Pg 37v). Cuius sollicita procuratione conventus perusinus meruit habere gratiam a summo pontifice papa Benedicto XI ecclesiam scilicet et parrochiam Sancti Stephani tempore quo [maggio 13041 ipse prior actu in Perusio erat (Cr Pg 38r). http://www.e-theca.net/emiliopanella/lector12.htm Accessed May 9, 2011
  34. ^ http://www.brunacci.it/nicola-brunacci.html Accessed August 22, 2012
  35. ^ "Frater Hugo de Bidiliomo provincie Francie, magister fuit egregius in theologia et mul<tum> famosus in romana curia; qui actu lector existens apud Sanctam Sabinam, per papam Nicolaum quartum eiusdem ecclesie factus cardinalis" [16.V.1288]; postmodum per Celestinum papain [1294] est ordinatus in episcopum ostiensem (Cr Pg 3r). http://www.e-theca.net/emiliopanella/lector12.htm Accessed May 9, 2011; See also Rome Across Time and Space: Cultural Transmission and the Exchange of Ideas, 2011, p. 275. http://books.google.com/books?id=xGiHbiqknLgC&pg=PA275#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 10 July 2011
  36. ^ Compendium Historiae Ordinis Praedicatorum, A.M. Walz, Herder 1930, 214: Romanus conventus S. Mariae supra Minervam anno 1255 ex conditionibus parvis crevit. Tunc enim paenitentibus feminis in communi regulariter ibi 1252/53 viventibus ad S. Pancratium migratis fratres Praedicatores domum illam relictam a Summo Pontifice habendam petierunt et impetranint. Qua demum feliciter obtenda capellam hospitio circa annum 1255 adiecerunt. Huc evangelizandi causa fratres e conventu S. Sabinae descendebant. http://www.archive.org/stream/MN5081ucmf_3/MN5081ucmf_3_djvu.txt Accessed 17 May 2011
  37. ^ Marian Michèle Mulchahey, "First the bow is bent in study": Dominican education before 1350, 1998, p. 323. http://books.google.com/books?id=bK9axCYcbFIC&pg=PA323 Accessed 26 May 2011
  38. ^ Marian Michèle Mulchahey, "First the bow is bent in study": Dominican education before 1350, 1998, pp. 236-237. http://books.google.com/books?id=bK9axCYcbFIC&pg=PA236 Accessed 30 June 2011
  39. ^ Marian Michèle Mulchahey, "First the bow is bent in study": Dominican education before 1350, 1998, 269. http://books.google.com/books?id=bK9axCYcbFIC&pg=PA269 Accessed June 29, 2011
  40. ^ http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/guidetto-guidetti_(Dizionario-Biografico)/ Accessed August 30, 2012
  41. ^ http://english.camera.it/serv_cittadini/1660/1662/4661/documentotesto.asp ; http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=FE63C3CADF407B24
  42. ^ William Hinnebusch, The Dominicans: A Short History, 1975, Chapter 2, http://www.saintwiki.com/index.php?title=Hinnebusch/The_Dominicans:_A_Short_History/Chapter_II Accessed 19 July 2012; Acta capitulorum generalium O.P. 1304: "Quelibet autem provincia exceptis Dacie, Grecie, Terre Sancte provideant ut semper in aliquo conventu ydoneo sit generale studium et solempne..." http://books.google.com/books?id=JSC8AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA251#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed Nov. 7, 2012
  43. ^ In This Light Which Gives Light: A History of the College of St. Albert the Great, Christopher J. Renz, p. 42 states of the Minerva studium: "For a period of time (1426-1539) it was recorded as a studium generale of the Order." http://books.google.com/books?id=t8qt63uOg6IC&pg=PA42#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 25 February 2013
  44. ^ a b Lorenzo Valla: umanesimo, riforma e controriforma : studi e testi, 2002, by Salvatore Ignazio Camporeale, 150-152. http://books.google.com/books?id=IN1oGqYCnacC&pg=150 Accessed 10 April 2013. "Fu lo stesso Valla ad individuare il nucleo essenziale della controversia teologica circa il tomismo contemporaneo nel dibattito commeorative che si svolse, il 7 marzo 1457...per la festa di S. Tommaso. ... Il Valla, dunque, e' salito sul pulpito del tempio minervitano dietro pressante richiesta dei frati domenicani."
  45. ^ See J. Quétif-J. Echard, Scriptores Ordinis praedicatorum, II, pp. 265 s.
  46. ^ http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/sisto-fabri_(Dizionario-Biografico)/ Accessed 10 August 2013
  47. ^ ' http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/sisto-fabri_(Dizionario-Biografico)/; Ordinationes ... pro studiorum reformatione, G. Marescotti: Florence 1585. http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk5KAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA230&lpg=PA230&dq=%22pro+studiorum#v=onepage&q=%22pro%20studiorum&f=false Accessed 10 August 2013
  48. ^ http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/sisto-fabri_(Dizionario-Biografico)/ Accessed 10 August 2013.
  49. ^ In This Light Which Gives Light: A History of the College of St. Albert the Great, Christopher J. Renzi, p. 42: http://books.google.com/books?id=t8qt63uOg6IC&pg=PA42#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 24 April 2011
  50. ^ Carlo Longo O.P., La formazione integrale domenicana al servizio della Chiesa e della società, Edizioni Studio Domenicano, 1996, "J. Solano O.P. (1505 ca.-1580) e la fondazione del "collegium S, Thomae de Urbe (1577)": "Si andava allora imponendo come modello di formazione teologica il progetto al quale aveva dato inizio alla fine del secolo precedente il vescovo domenicano spagnolo Alonoso de Burgos (+1499), il quale, a partire dal 1487 ed effettivamente dal 1496, a Valladolid aveva fondato il Collegio di San Gregorio, redigendone statuti che, integrati successivamente, sarebbero divenuti modello di una nuova forma di esperienza formativa." http://books.google.com/books?id=gMW2uqe2MCwC&pg=PA156#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 21 April 2011
  51. ^ Longo, op. cit.: "Quel collegio nasceva come una comunita` domenicana a numero chiuso, dedita esclusivamente allo studio e governata da un rettore, eletto dapprina annualmente e poi ogni due anni. Vi si accedeva per meriti intellettuali e, usufruendo di molte dispense, non si era distolti da altre occupazioni nel proprio impegno di studio e di ricerca." For a description of this system Longo refers the reader to: G. De Arriaga-M.M. Hoyos, Historia del Colegio de San Gregorio deValladolid, I, Valladolid 1928, pp 61-79, 421-449.]
  52. ^ Wilson, James; Fiske, John, ed. (1887). "Solano, Juan". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography V. D. Appleton and Company. p. 604. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  53. ^ Cf. Edward Kaczyński O.P., Pontifical University of St. Thomas "Angelicum" in: Grzegorz Gałązka, Pontifical Universities and Roman Athenaea, Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2000, p. 52. ISBN 88-209-2967-8 (casebound) or ISBN 88-209-2966-X (paperbound)
  54. ^ http://oce.catholic.com/index.php?title=Diego_Alvarez Accessed 1 July 2011
  55. ^ a b http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/domenico-gravina/ Accessed May 25, 2012
  56. ^ Enciclopedia Treccani, http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/tomas-de-lemos/ Accessed May 25, 2012
  57. ^ Scriptores Ordinis PraedicatorumII, 1721, by Jacques Quetif, 427. http://books.google.com/books?id=RtE2uzZ5uzoC&pg=PA427&#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed June 22, 2011; God's permission of sin: negative or conditioned decree? Michael D. Torre, 131, http://books.google.com/books?id=IG77CCWjT20C&pg=PA131#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed June 22, 2011
  58. ^ Augustinianum systema de gratia, ab iniqua Bajani et Janseniani erroris, 51, by Giovanni Lorenzo Berti http://books.google.com/books?id=RZXELHLInQcC&pg=PA51&dq=%22collegii#v=onepage&q=%22collegii&f=false Accessed June 22, 2011
  59. ^ God's Permission of Sin: Negative Or Conditioned Decree?: A Defense of the ..., by Michael D. Torre, 131. http://books.google.com/books?id=IG77CCWjT20C&pg=PA131#v=onepage&q&f=false
  60. ^ The Dominicans by Benedict M. Ashley, O.P., Ch. 2, "The Professors", sections on the Order's early studies of Hebrew, Arabic, and Greek. http://domcentral.org/professors-1200s/ Accessed 22 March 2013
  61. ^ http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/vincenzo-candido/ Accessed 22 March 2013; Bibliotheca sicula, sive de scriptoribus siculis, qui tum vetera, tum ... By Antonino Mongitore, 279a http://books.google.com/books?id=YQY_AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA279#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 22 March 2013
  62. ^ http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/vincenzo-candido_(Dizionario_Biografico)/ Accessed 15 February 2013
  63. ^ Monumenta et antiquitates veteris disciplinae Ordinis Praedicatorum ab anno 1216 ad 1348 vol. II, 1864, 140. http://books.google.com/books?id=bM6wwPZorcAC&pg=PA140#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed June 20, 2011; See also http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/vincenzo-candido_(Dizionario-Biografico)/ Accessed June 22, 2011
  64. ^ Galletti in Vat. Lat. 7900 f. 106; Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, Vol 4, 233, http://www.scribd.com/doc/63478112/Hierarchia-Catholica-Medii-Aevi-V4 Accessed 21 February 2013
  65. ^ "Kabbalah and Conversion: Caramuel and Ciantes on Kabbalah as a Means for the Conversion of the Jews", by Yossef Schwartz, in Un’altra modernità. Juan Caramuel Lobkowitz (1606-1682): enciclopedia e probabilismo, eds. Daniele Sabaino and Paolo C. Pissavino (Pisa: Edizioni EPS 2012): 175-187, 176-7, http://www.academia.edu/2353870/Kabbalah_and_Conversion_Caramuel_and_Ciantes_on_Kabbalah_as_a_Means_for_the_Conversion_of_the_Jews Accessed 16 March 2012. See Summa divi Thomae Aquinatis ordinis praedicatorum Contra Gentiles quam Hebraicè eloquitur Iosephus Ciantes Romanus Episcopus Marsicensis ex eodem Ordine assumptus, ex typographia Iacobi Phaei Andreae filii, Romae 1657.
  66. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=MsAAAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA87#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 2 July 2011. See also: http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/galileo/keyfigures.html#Tommaso Caccini Accessed 2 July 2011. http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/tommaso-caccini_(Dizionario_Biografico)/ Accessed 18 February 2013
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  68. ^ http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/domenico-gravina/ Accessed 9 March 2013; Cf. Geschichte der Moralstreitigkeiten in der römisch-katholischen ..., Volume 2, 309, by Johann Joseph Ignaz von Döllinger, Franz Heinrich Reusch; http://books.google.com/books?id=hauwAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA309#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 9 March 2013; Storia della spiritualità italiana By Costanzo Cargnoni, 375-6, http://books.google.com/books?id=BfYiHmsYVuwC&pg=PA375#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 9 March 2013
  69. ^ De supremo Judice controv. Fidei et de Papae Infallib. in Decret. Fidei, Morum, etc, quaest. 1, apud Rocaberti, Bibliotheca Maxima Pontificia, 1695-99, tom viii, 392. http://books.google.com/books?id=_MMPAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA105#v=onepage&q&f=false
  70. ^ Remigius Coulon, "Ferre: Vincent", in: Dictionary of Catholic Theology, ed. by A. Vacant, E. Mangenor and E. Amann, Vol 5/2, Paris 1913, 2176 -2177.
  71. ^ De Fide, quaest. xii, apud Rocaberti, tom. xx, p. 388, quoted in The Vatican Council and Its Definitions: Pastoral Letter to the Clergy, Henry Edward Manning (1871), 105. http://books.google.com/books?id=_MMPAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA105#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 17 February 2013. Ferre also writes:"The exposition of certain Paris (doctors) is of no avail, who affirm that Christ only promised that the faith should not fail of the Church founded upon Peter; and not that it should not fail in the successors of Peter taken apart from (seorsum) the Church"
  72. ^ http://www2.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1726-ii.htm Accessed February 5, 2013
  73. ^ Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostril giorni, Gaetano Moroni, Vol XIV, Venice, 1842, Vol. XIV, p. 214: "Nel capitol generale, tenuto in Roma nell’anno 1694, sotto il generalto del p. Cloche, il Collegio di S. Tommaso d’Aquino venne dichiarato studio generale della provincia romana" http://books.google.com/books?id=rl09AAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=snippet&q=%22Collegio%20di%20s.%20tommaso%22&f=false Accessed 2 September 2011; Acta capituli generalis provincialium Romae, Vol. 8, 1670-1721), 28 May 1694, p. 299: "Instituimus in studium generale huius provinciae ultra studium generale Perusinum collegium s. Thomae Romanum aggregatum conventui nostro s. Mariae super Minervam, ipsique collegio nostro Romano concedimus privilegia, quibus studia generalia seu universitates in ordine nostro per capitula generalia instituta potiuntur et gaudent, approbantes omnes ordinationes a magistris ordinis pro bono regimine huius studii seu collegii a tempore suae erectionis factas, ita tamen ut magistri ordinis eas innovare et immutare valeant, cum ad ratiorem studii vel observantiae regularis rigorem et studentium profectum expedire iudicaverint." http://www02.us.archive.org/stream/actacapitulorumg13domi/actacapitulorumg13domi_djvu.txt Accessed November 1, 2012
  74. ^ The Casanatense Library
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  76. ^ http://www.liberius.net/articles/Les_colleges_ecclesiastiques_de_Rome.pdf Accessed 26, May, 2014
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  78. ^ http://www.saintwiki.com/index.php?title=Hinnebusch/The_Dominicans:_A_Short_History/Chapter_IX Accessed 30 August 2013
  79. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/article-1G2-3407709691/roselli-salvatore-maria.html, Roselli, Salvatore Maria, New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2003, Roensch, F. J.: "...he furnished the basis for the Thomistic reconstruction of the 19th century; http://www.scholasticon.fr/Database/Scholastiques_fr.php?ID=1101 Accessed 28 June 2014; Scholasticon calls Roselli "l'un des principaux ancêtres du néo-thomisme du XIXe siècle. Accessed 28 June 2014
  80. ^ “The Revival of Thomism: An Historical Survey,” James Weisheipl, 1962 http://domcentral.org/blog/the-revival-of-thomism-an-historical-survey-weisheipl/ Accessed 30 August 2013
  81. ^ http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/vincenzo-nardini_res-988c6266-a2ba-11e2-9d1b-00271042e8d9_(Dizionario-Biografico)/ Accessed 17 August 2013
  82. ^ The Dominicans by Benedict M. Ashley, O.P., Ch. 8, "The Age of Compromise (1800s), Revival and Expansion", http://domcentral.org/the-age-of-compromise-1800s/ 20 March 2013
  83. ^ http://www.casanatense.it/index.php/it/gli-editoriali/72-stampe-e-disegni/153-orologi.html?showall=1 Accessed 20 March 2013: "E' infatti del 1867 l'invenzione dell'idrocronometro, dovuta al padre domenicano Giovanni Battista Embriaco, che attese ai suoi studi di meccanica applicata all'orologeria nella solitudine del convento della Minerva."
  84. ^ Memorie dei più insigni pittori, scultori e architetti domenicani, Vol. 2 By V. Fortunato Marchese,513, http://books.google.com/books?id=ff9AAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA513#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 20 March 2013
  85. ^ it:Idrocronometro Accessed 20 March 2013; "Storia del Progetto" https://www.comune.roma.it/wps/portal/pcr?contentId=NEW148084&jp_pagecode=newsview.wp&ahew=contentId:jp_pagecode Accessed 20 March. 2013
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  87. ^ The Dominicans by Benedict M. Ashley, O.P., Chapter 9, "The Age of Compromise" http://domcentral.org/blog/the-age-of-compromise-1800s/ Accessed 14 August 2013
  88. ^ "A Remembrance of Pope Leo XIII: The Encyclical Aeterni Patris", in 100 Years of Thomism, 1981, The Center For Thomistic Studies, 14-15.
  89. ^ The Dominicans, Benedict M. Ashley, O. P., http://www.domcentral.org/study/ashley/dominicans/ashdom08.htm Accessed 26 April 2011
  90. ^ a b Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15759a.htm Accessed 24 May 2011
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  92. ^ Benedict Ashley, The Dominicans http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15759a.htm Accessed 24 May 2011; James Burtchaell, Catholic Theories of Biblical Inspiration Since 1810: A Review and Critique, Theology, Cambridge 1969, 130. http://books.google.com/books?id=dOo7AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA130#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 8 March 2013
  93. ^ Aeterni Patris, section 31, http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/leo_xiii/encyclicals/documents/hf_l-xiii_enc_04081879_aeterni-patris_en.html Accessed August 29, 2012
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  97. ^ See Acta Sanctae Sedis, Ephemerides Romanae, vol. 39 , 1906 http://www.vatican.va/archive/ass/documents/ASS%2039%20%5B1906%5D%20-%20ocr.pdf Accessed 9 June 2011; Renzi, op. cit. 43: http://books.google.com/books?id=t8qt63uOg6IC&pg=PA43#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 24 April 2011
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  99. ^ Address of Fr. Joseph Agius, Rector Magnificus of the Angelicum on the occasion of the presentation of the Alumni Achievement Award to His Emminence John Patrick Cardinal Foley, Grand Master of The Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, Saturday, April 18, 2009. http://angelicumnewsletter.blogspot.com/2009_04_01_archive.html Accessed 24 April 2011
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  110. ^ C. Fabro, "Breve introduzione al tomismo," Roma, 1960, Ch. VII. "...si fece promotore, come avanguardia della missione dottrinale dell'Ordine domenicano nell'Urbe, del tomismo tradizionale nel quale si distinsero il card. T. Zigliara, A. Lepidi, T. Pègues, E. Hugon, A. Zacchi, R. Garrigou-Lagrange (n. nel 1877), M. Cordovani (1883-1950). " http://www.storialibera.it/epoca_medioevale/XII_XIII_secolo/san_tommaso_d_aquino/articolo.php?id=2072&titolo=Scolastica%20e%20tomismo Accessed 27 April 2012
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  155. ^ http://www.collegioalberoni.it/insegnamenti.php Accessed 15 April 2013
  156. ^ St. Charles Seminary, Nagpur (India)
  157. ^ http://www.stmarys-tallaght.ie/portal/home Accessed 15 April 2013
  158. ^ St. Joseph’s Seminary (Dunwoodie), New York (USA)
  159. ^ Dominican Institute, Ibadan (Nigeria)
  160. ^ Studio Filosofico Domenicano, Bologna (Italy)
  161. ^ Escola Dominicana de Teologia, Alto do Ipiranga, São Paulo (Brazil)
  162. ^ Handbook of Studies, 2012-2013: [3] Accessed 15 July 2013
  163. ^ Istituto Superiore di Scienze Religiose Mater Ecclesiae
  164. ^ a b Istituto San Tommaso
  165. ^ Accessed October 5, 2012
  166. ^ Higher Institute for Communication and Public Opinion, Rome (Italy)
  167. ^ Institut Marie-Dominique Chenu, Berlin (Germany)
  168. ^ AngelicumSTOQ (Science, Theology and the Ontological Quest)
  169. ^ Accessed October 5, 2012
  170. ^ http://www.stthomas.edu/catholicstudies/rome/undergrad.html Accessed 5 April 2013
  171. ^ [4]
  172. ^ Ethical Leadership International Program
  173. ^ Management and Corporate Social Responsibility
  174. ^ Management of the Organizations of the Third Sector
  175. ^ The Pope John Paul II Center for Interreligious Dialogue
  176. ^ http://angelicumnewsletterblog.blogspot.com/ Accessed 15 May 2013
  177. ^ Russell Berrie Fellowship in Inter-religious Studies
  178. ^ Russell Berrie Foundation
  179. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/27/business/russell-berrie-69-founder-of-a-toy-and-gift-company.html Accessed 15 May 2013
  180. ^ http://www.pustphilo.org/pust/borse/index.php Accessed May 27, 2012
  181. ^ International Dominican Foundation
  182. ^ https://internationaldominicanfoundation.org/
  183. ^ http://www.domlife.org/2012Stories/files/IDF_newsletter_summer2012.pdf
  184. ^ https://sites.google.com/site/laystudentsinrome2/fundingyoureducation Accessed February 6, 2013.
  185. ^ Go to the fafsa.ed.gov website. Click on "School Code Search". Under the requested State look for “foreign country” and for city put in “Rome” to find the federal school code search. The Angelicum is listed as "PONTIFICIA UNIVERSITA SAN TOMMASO"
  186. ^ http://www.romasegreta.it/l.go-magnanapoli.html Accessed Sept. 17, 2012
  187. ^ a b http://saints.sqpn.com/ncd06623.htm Accessed September 8, 2012
  188. ^ http://angelicumnewsletterblog.blogspot.com/2010/10/cinecitta-visits-angelicum.html Accessed 20 April
  189. ^ http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/cesare-aureli_(Dizionario-Biografico)/ Accessed September 8, 2012; http://nunspeak.wordpress.com/tg/st-albertus-magnus/ Accessed September 9, 2012
  190. ^ http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/pius_xi/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xi_enc_19230629_studiorum-ducem_lt.html Accessed September 8, 2012
  191. ^ "...nel Maggio 1889, getto' le fondamenta di un nuovo fabbricato, per costruirvi una spaziosa e comoda sala... In questo frattempo nel Vaticano usciva compiuta dallo scapello dell'insigne artista Cesare Aureli la magnifica statua di S. Tommaso d'Aquino..." http://books.google.com/books?id=_No_AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA84&lpg=PA84#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 8 March 2013, Le nuove sale della Biblioteca Leonina in Vaticano, by Prof. Antonio Sacco, Assistente nella Biblioteca Vaticana, 21-22, in Nel giubileo episcopale di Leone XIII. omaggio della Biblioteca vaticana, XIX Febbraio, Anno M DCCCXCIII
  192. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=G7sfGuQOM2EC&pg=PA85&lpg=PA85&dq=%22Vatican#v=onepage&q=%22Vatican&f=false Accessed September 9, 2012. The Angelicum statue appears on the cover of Parola, publication of the Angelicum association of students, ASPUST. http://angelicumnewsletterblog.blogspot.com/2012/02/solennita-di-san-tommaso.html Accessed September 9, 2012. A photograph of Pope Benedict XVI in the Vatican Library with the original version of the statue can be found at: http://lavignadelsignore.blogspot.com/2010/12/la-visita-del-papa-alla-biblioteca.html Accessed September 9, 2012
  193. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=_No_AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA84#v=onepage&q&f=false http://books.google.com/books?id=-HsQAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA744 Accessed 15 February 2013
  194. ^ Le nuove sale della Biblioteca Leonina in Vaticano, by Prof. Antonio Sacco, Assistente nella Biblioteca Vaticana, 21-22, in Nel giubileo episcopale di Leone XIII. omaggio della Biblioteca vaticana, XIX Febbraio, Anno M DCCCXCIII, by Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, http://books.google.com/books?id=_No_AAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA75#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 8 March 2013: "S. Tommaso seduto, nella sinistra tiene il libro della Summa theologica, mentre stende la destra in atto di proteggere la scienza cristiana. Quindi non siede sulla cattedra di dottore, ma sul trono di sovrano protettore; stende il braccio a rassicurare, non a dimostrare. Ha in testa il dottorale berretto, e conservando il suo tipo tradizionale, rivela nel volto e nell'atteggiamento l'uomo profondamente dotto. L'autore non ha avuto da ispirarsi in altr'opera che esistesse sul soggetto, quindi ha dovuto, può dirsi, creare questo tipo, ed è riuscito originale e felice nella sua creazione.... Quel libro immortale che stringe: quel braccio potente, che sis stende ad affermare la scienza sacra, e ad infrenare l'audacia errore, sono veramente del grande, il quale, secondo il detto di Leone XIII, ha eguagliato il genio di tutti gli altri grandi maestri."
  195. ^ http://books.google.com/books/about/Sed_Contra.html?id=e5-3HAAACAAJ Accessed 18 April 2013
  196. ^ http://www.romasegreta.it/ss.domenico-e-sisto.html Accessed August 27, 2012
  197. ^ N. Cardano, "La mostra dell'Acqua Felice", in Il Trionfo dell'acqua (Rome, 1986:250-54)
  198. ^ http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/lippo-vanni_(Enciclopedia-dell'-Arte-Medievale)/ Accessed 3-2-2014
  199. ^ Pro Unione, 16 October 2010: "In what had been the chapter room, and serves now as the Sala de Senato, the full-body relic of an unnamed saint rests in the armor of an imperial roman soldier under the altar, unbeknownst to even some of the faculty" http://prounione.wordpress.com/tag/angelicum/page/2/ Accessed 20 August 2012
  200. ^ Enciclopedia Treccani http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/vincenzo-passarelli
  201. ^ http://www.pust.it/index.php/en/library/general-information/storia Accessed August 21, 2012
  202. ^ http://www.vatican.va/news_services/press/documentazione/documents/santopadre_biografie/giovanni_paolo_ii_biografia_prepontificato_en.html#1948 Accessed 6 October 2012.
  203. ^ http://angelicumnewsletterblog.blogspot.com/2011_05_01_archive.html Accessed August 21, 2012. "Nel chiostro, che profumo viene dall’aranceto: lo stesso profumo che, ha raccontato il cardinale Mejìa, don Karol amava così tanto che strappava le foglie e se le strofinava sulle dita, annusando l’odore dolce del Mediterraneo. Compagno schivo, di poche parole, che amava passeggiare solo nel giardino; e sempre si soffermava davanti al grande ulivo secolare che ancora meraviglia i visitatori, perché dai suoi grossi rami si dipartono – incredibile – un tralcio di palma, uno di fico e uno di alloro. L’«albero miracoloso», lo chiamava don Karol, che ogni giorno andava a trovarlo."
  204. ^ http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/search_object_details.aspx?objectid=713994&partid=1 Accessed 6 April 2013
  205. ^ Twentieth C. Paintings in Asholeum Museum by Katharine Eustace, 17-19, http://books.google.com/books?id=mXFAr_4aCMEC&pg=PA19#v=onepage&q&f=false
  206. ^ http://www.ashmolean.org/ash/objects/paintings/WA1929.7.php Accessed 24 February 2013
  207. ^ http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/HVDpresidents/eliot.php Accessed 24 February 2013
  208. ^ http://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/310499 Accessed 24 February 2013
  209. ^ http://www.marks4antiques.com/apa/Eero-Saarinen-Finnish-1910-1961--S-S--32294#sthash.E60JQE3W.dpbs Accessed 7 April 2013
  210. ^ Alessandro Blasetti Accessed 7 April 2013
  211. ^ http://www.architettiroma.it/archivarch/scheda_film.asp?id_film=40 Accessed 7 April 2013; http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/100_film_italiani_da_salvare Accessed 4 April 2013; Cento film e un'Italia da non dimenticare; Ecco i cento film italiani da salvare Corriere della Sera
  212. ^ http://www.cinegiornalisti.com/magazineonlinevisualizza_new.asp?id=900
  213. ^ http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/michele-al-secolo-alessandro-mazzarino_(Dizionario-Biografico)/ Accessed 15 February 2013
  214. ^ Hotels, mansions, Aix en Provence history - Tourism France
  215. ^ http://angelicumnewsletterblog.blogspot.com/2009_11_01_archive.html Accessed 9 April 2013
  216. ^ http://angelicumnewsletterblog.blogspot.com/2008/11/inaugurazione-dell-accademico-2008-2009.html Accessed 16 April 2013
  217. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jSjOho4eZhg Accessed August 28, 2012
  218. ^ "Movimento operaio e unità dell'Europa" http://books.google.com/books?id=XrF8Tr2Rq98C&pg=PT208&lpg=PT208&dq=angelicum+%22de+gaspari&source=bl&ots=CCgoTNJS72&sig=wEDs4kyo6AR8E2l6OaNLesmN1Ms&hl=en&sa=X&ei=08lcUN3BAajL0AHcsYGICQ&ved=0CCcQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=angelicum%20%22de%20gaspari&f=false Accessed September 21, 2012
  219. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vc1NUcE1Owk&noredirect=1 August 28, 2012
  220. ^ http://www.es.catholic.net/santoral/articulo.php?id=38310 Accessed 5, June, 2013
  221. ^ M.H. Laurent, OP, "Autour de la fete de Saint Thomas", in Revue thomiste XI, 1935, 257-263.
  222. ^ http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/de-grandis-vincenzo-detto-il-romano_(Dizionario_Biografico)/ Accessed 15 April
  223. ^ Adami, Osservazioni per ben regolare il coro della Cappella Pontificia, 156, in Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri by Gaetano Moroni, 135. http://books.google.com/books?id=GChTAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA135#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 15 April 2013
  224. ^ it:Sebastiano Galeati Accessed 16 April 2013
  225. ^ Il Rosario, Volume 10, 192 http://books.google.com/books?id=c88WAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA191#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 16 April 2013
  226. ^ La filosofia scolastica di San Tommaso e di Dante: ad uso dei licei, by , 1889, 107, http://books.google.com/books?id=WHoNAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA107#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 13 May 2013
  227. ^ http://www.protrevi.com/protrevi/Lucarin1.asp Accessed 17 April 2013
  228. ^ http://www.gcatholic.org/dioceses/romancuria/d60.htm Accessed 17 April 2013
  229. ^ "Laudatio s. Thomae Aquinatis," Bibliotheca historica Medii Aevi: Wegweiser durch die Geschichtswerke des ..., p. 1601, by August Potthast http://books.google.com/books?id=Yr8VdwQblhIC&pg=PA1601#v=onepage&q&f=false
  230. ^ El sacrosanto y ecuménico Concilio de Trento, Ignacio López de Ayala, 429. http://books.google.com/books?id=VmasMhMqjlQC&pg=PA429&lpg=PA429&dq=%22Fr.+Juan+Gallo%22&source=bl&ots=rR6CGGqkMI&sig=nGt-iw67BRGgYqo2FIov2QaVuT8&hl=en&sa=X&ei=j-2qU6qOCZCPqAbV-ICgAw&ved=0CFIQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=%22Fr.%20Juan%20Gallo%22&f=false Accessed 25 June, 2014
  231. ^ Colección de documentos inéditos papa la historia de España, 1846, Madrid, 33. https://archive.org/stream/coleccindedocu09madruoft/coleccindedocu09madruoft_djvu.txt Accessed 25 June, 2014
  232. ^ Giuseppe de Novaes, Vita di Paolo IV, tom VII, 137, in Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri by Gaetano Moroni, 135: "ordino' la cappella Cardinalizia nella chiesa di s. Maria sopra Minerva nel giorno dedicato a celebrare la memoria di s. Tommaso d'Aquino, le cui lodi egli stesso egregiamente espose..." http://books.google.com/books?id=GChTAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA135#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 15 April 2013
  233. ^ http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/francesco-maturanzio_(Dizionario-Biografico)/ Accessed 15 May 2013; Reprinted in G. Zappacosta, Il Gymnasium perugino e altri studi sull’umanesimo umbro (con testi inediti e rari), ed. V. Licitra, Rome 1984, pp. pp. 112-125; cf. 16-36, 97-214.
  234. ^ http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/inghirami-tommaso-detto-fedra_(Dizionario_Biografico)/ Accessed 18 April 2013
  235. ^ Rerum italicarum scriptores : raccolta degli storici italiani dal cinquecento al millecinquecento, 548, NOV 15 1949. https://archive.org/stream/p1brerumitalicaru32card/p1brerumitalicaru32card_djvu.txt Accessed 25 June, 2014; http://www.enciclopedia-aragonesa.com/voz.asp?voz_id=2013 Accessed 25 June, 2014
  236. ^ http://www.russellberriefoundation.org/Initiative_jr_Angelicum.php
  237. ^ http://angelicumnewsletterblog.blogspot.com/ Accessed 28 April, 2012
  238. ^ it:Università degli Studi "Guglielmo Marconi" Accessed 17, 2013
  239. ^ http://angelicumnewsletterblog.blogspot.com/ Accessed 17 April
  240. ^ http://angelicumnewsletterblog.blogspot.com/ Accessed 17 May 2013
  241. ^ http://angelicumnewsletterblog.blogspot.com/2010/03/eucharistic-adoration-at-angelicum.html
  242. ^ Augustine of Hippo, The City of God, 19
  243. ^ Summa theologiae IIa, IIae, 182, 1 ad 3
  244. ^ The Perennial Philosophy, Aldous Huxley, 300, http://books.google.com/books?id=l1fs25HbCY0C&pg=PA300#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 19 March 2013
  245. ^ William of St-Thierry, Expositio super Cantico canticorum, PL 180, 507 A-B: "Maneat semper intus caritas veritatis cum exire cogitur in aliena necessitas caritatis. Jan Van Ruusbroec: The Sources, Content, and Sequels of His Mysticism ed. P. Mommaers, N. De Paepe, 84 http://books.google.com/books?id=c_VgaSN9xTsC&pg=PA84#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 19 March 2013
  246. ^ http://angelicumnewsletterblog.blogspot.com/2012/01/angelicum-hymn.html Accessed 19 March 2013
  247. ^ Academic regalia of the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas
  248. ^ Accessed 8 March 2013
  249. ^ John Abel Nainfa, Costume of Prelates of The Catholic Church: According To Roman Etiquette, 164.
  250. ^ See Commentarium Codicis Iuris Canonici, 1922, Liber III, Pars IV, Tit. XXII, which clarifies that the biretum should be decorated according to the color of the faculty: Comment 262. Doctoratus ac Scentiae effectus canonici sic recensentur can. 1378: "doctoribus seu gradum academicum in una ex quatuor supradictis facultatibus supremum obtinentibus, rite creatis, seu promotis regulariter post examen, iuxta « statuta a Sede Apostolica probata » (can. 1376, § 2) saltem quoad usum validum « facultatis ab eadem Aplca. Sede concessae » (can. 1377, § 1), deferendi, extra sacras functiones, (quarum nomine ad hunc eflectum non venit ex usu sacra praedicatio), nisi aliunde amplietur eis hoc ius quoad a) annulum etiam cum gemma « ipsis a iure huius canonis concessum » (can. 136, § 2), b) et biretum doctorale, (idest: cum quatuor apicibus) utpote insigne huius gradus ac diverso colore ornatum pro Facultate.
  251. ^ Accessed 14 August 2012
  252. ^ [5]
  253. ^ German source
  254. ^ "Opening Ceremony" (pdf). International Olympics Committee. 2002. p. 3. Retrieved 23 August 2012. ; "Sport athlétique", 14 mars 1891: "[...] dans une éloquente allocution il a souhaité que ce drapeau les conduise ‘souvent à la victoire, à la lutte toujours’. Il a dit qu’il leur donnait pour devise ces trois mots qui sont le fondement et la raison d’être des sports athlétiques: citius, altius, fortius, ‘plus vite, plus haut, plus fort’.", cited in Hoffmane, Simone La carrière du père Didon, Dominicain. 1840 - 1900, Doctoral thesis, Université de Paris IV - Sorbonne, 1985, p. 926; cf. Michaela Lochmann, Les fondements pédagogiques de la devise olympique „citius, altius, fortius“
  255. ^ http://www.op-stjoseph.org/blog/clericus_cup/ Accessed 23 September 2012
  256. ^ Angelicum Office of Student Affairs
  257. ^ [6]
  258. ^ http://pustphilo.com/pust/aspust/index.php Accessed 14 April 2013
  259. ^ [7]
  260. ^ http://angelicumnewsletterblog.blogspot.com/2008/10/libreria-leonina-alla-pust.html Accessed 12 March 2013
  261. ^ Accessed 9 June 2011
  262. ^ [8]
  263. ^ Medieval Scholarship: Philosophy and the arts By Helen Damico. http://books.google.com/books?id=plHnAf32FeYC&pg=PA107&lpg=0CBkQ6AEwAQ#v=snippet&q=grabmann&f=false Accessed 9 June 2011
  264. ^ a b http://freeforumzone.leonardo.it/lofi/STELLE-DOMENICANE/D8387544.html Accessed June 22, 2011
  265. ^ http://www.news.va/en/news/the-venerable-fulton-j-sheen-a-model-of-virtue-for Accessed 8 June 2013
  266. ^ Encyclopedia of American Religious History, 921; http://books.google.com/books?id=u-_6P2rMy2wC&pg=PA921#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 3 March 2013; http://www.allendrake.com/elpasohistory/sheen/shncaps1.htm Accessed 4 July 2011
  267. ^ http://www.vatican.va/news_services/press/documentazione/documents/santopadre_biografie/giovanni_paolo_ii_biografia_prepontificato_en.html#1948 Accessed October 6, 2012. Even though his doctoral work was unanimously approved in June 1948, he was denied the degree because he could not afford to print the text of his dissertation (an Angelicum rule). In December of 1948 a revised text of his dissertation was approved by the theological faculty of Jagiellonian University in Kraków, and Wojtyła was finally awarded the degree.
  268. ^ http://www.arpato.org/chi_siamo_lobato.htm Accessed 9 June 2011
  269. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=W8Ma_qbPQMUC&pg=PA86#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 19 February 2013; http://www.santiebeati.it/dettaglio/88132 Accessed 12 July 2011
  270. ^ Dios y Audacia: Mi Juventud Junto a San Josemaría by Julián Herranz Casado, 44. http://books.google.com/books?id=W_ETvL52sJ0C&pg=PA44#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 4 April 2013
  271. ^ Analysis of Existing: Barry Miller's Approach to God, by Elmar J. Kremer, Bloomsbury, New York, London, 2005, 5. http://books.google.com/books?id=X2xVAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA5&lpg=PA5 Accessed 12 Feb., 2014
  272. ^ http://angelicumnewsletterblog.blogspot.com/ Accessed 26 June 2013
  273. ^ http://law.fordham.edu/institute-religion-law-lawyers-work/12234.htm Accessed 29 April 2012; http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2111975_2111976_2111989,00.html Accessed 30 March 2013
  274. ^ http://ncronline.org/blogs/ncr-today/papabile-day-men-who-could-be-pope-1 Accessed 29 March 2013; http://www.cantualeantonianum.com/2010/06/chi-e-marc-oullet-cardinale-e.html Accessed 12 March 2013
  275. ^ it:Tomáš Týn Accessed 8 April 2013; http://www.studiodomenicano.com/testi/tesi/Tesi78/TynTesi78_IV-XVIII.pdf Accessed 8 April 2013.
  276. ^ http://www.fides.org/eng/documents/dossier_missionari_ucisi_2007.doc; "Iraq's Persecution of Christians Continues to Spiral out of Control". Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  277. ^ Ite ad Thomam, http://iteadthomam.blogspot.com/2009/11/edouard-hugon-wikipedia-article.html Accessed 24 April 2011; http://www.catholicapologetics.info/catholicteaching/philosophy/thomast.htm Accessed 8 March 2013; Benedict M. Ashley, The Dominicans, 1990 http://domcentral.org/ecumenists-1900s/ Accessed October 7, 2012
  278. ^ Dictionnaire du monde religieux dans la France contemporaine, http://books.google.com/books?id=K4onSytrit0C&pg=PA520&lpg=PA520&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 9 June 2011
  279. ^ http://maritain.nd.edu/jmc/etext/catsum.htm Accessed 9 June 2011; Thomas Pègues (1866–1936) A French priest of the Dominican Order, Pègues served as a professor of theology at the Angelicum from 1909 to 1921. He was one of the prime movers of the anti-modernist movement of his day, as is expressed in his 1907 Revue Thomiste article "L'hérésie du renouvellement": Puisque c'est en se separant de la scolastique et de saint Thomas que la pensée moderne s'est perdue, notre unique devoir et notre seul moyen de la sauver est de lui rendre, si elle le veut, cette meme doctrine. Pègues went far towards bringing the moral theory of Neo-Thomism to a wider audience."
  280. ^ (February 25, 1883 - April 4, 1950), Cordovani began teaching dogmatic theology at the Angelicum in 1910, and was a professor of philosophy from 1912 to 1921: http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/felice-cordovani_(Dizionario-Biografico)/ Accessed May 27, 2012. Cordovani served the Angelicum from 1927 to 1932 as Rector and professor of dogmatic theology. In 1935 he became the Provincial of the Dominican Roman Province and shortly after his election was made Master of the Sacred Palace by Pope Pius XI. He contributed especially to the encyclical Divini Redemptoris (1937), and afterward published his Appunti sul comunismo moderno treating the Church's position on communism. Pope Pius XII name him by motu proprio Theologian of the Secretary of State, an ad personam nomination that was without precedent in the history of the Church. He was the protagonist of a social debate in 1943 in the "L'Osservatore Romano" entitled "Il cittadino e la società" (The Citizen and Society) which treated the social role of Catholicism. He was one of the inspirations, along with Giovanni Battista Montini, future Pope Paul VI, of the celebrated Camaldoli Conference of July 1943, which produced an eponymous economic treatise that influenced the development of post-war democratic Italy. http://www.missionariedellascuola.it/chi_siamo/fondatrice/testimonianze.html Accessed 9 June 2011
  281. ^ (Bruges, Belgium, May 3, 1883 - Rome, Feb. 24, 1949) Entered the Dominican Order in 1900 and was ordained in 1906. After studying under Paulin Ladeuze and Albin van Hoonacker at Louvain, he attended the École Biblique in 1909. Noted for his scholasticism in Syriac, particularly relating to Theodore of Mopsuestia and "Nestorian" writers. In 1929 he became a member and eventually Secretary of the Pontifical Biblical Commission, and was also consultor to several Oriental Congregations. An excellent pedagoque and endowed with great linguistic ability, he wrote on a wide variety of scriptural subjects. A Festschrift in his honor [ Angelicum 20 (1943)] http://www.encyclopedia.com/article-1G2-3407711642/vost-jacques-marie.html Accessed 30 March 2013; http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/teologia_res-ed08ee4e-87e8-11dc-8e9d-0016357eee51_(Enciclopedia-Italiana)/ Accessed 7 February 2013
  282. ^ (1878-1949) Lecturer at the University of Lublin in moral theology, rector of the university from 1922 to 1924. Woroniecki was the author of more than 70 works in moral theology and pedagogy. August 22, 1929 he was appointed professor of moral theology and pedagogy at the Angelicum. He was founder of the Missionary Dominican Sisters of Jesus and Mary. http://causesforjoy.blogspot.com/p/servants-of-god.html Accessed 1 April 2013
  283. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1984/04/10/obituaries/pierre-paul-philippe.html Accessed June 20, 2011
  284. ^ a b http://www.domenicanisantacaterina.it/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=93 Accessed 8 April 2013
  285. ^ Hombres y documentos de la filosofía española: H-LL. Vol. IV, ed. by Gonzalo Diaz Diaz. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ulx2aYE7W5kC&pg=PA726#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 30 March 2013. (San Pedro de la Viña (Zamora), Jan 20, 1925 - Granada, May 18, 2012) Lobato was a Spanish priest of the Dominican Order. He obtained his doctorate at the Angelicum under the direction of Belgian fathers Clemens Vansteenkiste (1910-1997) and Athanasius-Maria (Frans) De Vos, O.P (1909-1990) in 1952 with a dissertation entitled Avicena y santo Tomás escolásticas : la teoría del conocimiento, See http://www.bautz.de/bbkl/v/vansteenkiste_c.shtml Accessed 12 March 2013, Chronique générale. In: Revue Philosophique de Louvain. Quatrième série, Tome 90, N°85, 1992. pp. 106-131, 107. Lobato began teaching ontology at the Angelicum in 1960. After 1967 he was elected five times as Dean of the Philosophy Faculty. In 1974 he organized the International Congress on the VII Centenary of the Death of St. Thomas Aquinas whose theme was "Saint Thomas Aquinas and the fundamental problems of our time. In 1976 he founded, with Fr. Benedetto D'Amore, the International Society of Thomas Aquinas. Lobato was a member of the Directive Council of the Roman Pontifical Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas after 1980. In 1987 he became director of the Saint Thomas Institute of the Angelicum. In 1982 he was nominated Habitual Observer for human rights of the European Council, Directive Committee for Human Rights. In 1986 he was made Master of Sacred Theology at the Angelicum in recognition of his prodigious scholarly work. In 1999 he was nominated Conustant for the Pontifical Council for the Family. In 1999 he was made President of the Pontifical Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas by Pope John Paul II. In 2000 he was made director of the Roman journal Doctor Communis. http://www.arpato.org/chi_siamo_lobato.htm Accessed 9 June 2011
  286. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20110410071518/http://pust.it/ Accessed 9 April 2013
  287. ^ Charles Morerod, new secretary of the International Theological Commission. Rome: Rome Reports, via YouTube. 9 July 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2010. 

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Coordinates: 41°53′45″N 12°29′15″E / 41.89583°N 12.48750°E / 41.89583; 12.48750