Pooleville is a rural community located in Carter County, Oklahoma, west of the Arbuckles. The post office opened January 15, 1890 and was closed July 20, 1907. The current ZIP Code is 73401 assigned to Ardmore. It was named for an Ardmore banker, E.S. Poole.
In 1907, when Oklahoma became a state, it was decided that Elk should be renamed because the mail kept getting mixed up with Elk City, and so a town meeting was called. Three possible names were chosen and sent to Washington, DC: JJ Eaves, a prominent rancher, LO Majors, the owner of the General Store, and Elzy R Poole, a pioneer rancher. After a time, Washington DC notified them that Elk, Oklahoma would now be called Pooleville. E.S. Poole was actually Edward Poole and was the son of Elzy R. Poole, in 1907 he was only 19 years old and so it is doubtful that he would be a prominent banker at that time.
During the territorial days, Pooleville was known as Elk. The Elk post office, established in District 21 of the old Indian Territory, existed from January 15, 1890, until July 20, 1907. On June 8, 1894, a sheriff's posse from Anadarko caught and killed William M. Dalton (a brother of the Daltons and member of the Doolin-Dalton Gang) near here.