Pope Clement IX
||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (May 2014)|
|Papacy began||20 June 1667|
|Papacy ended||9 December 1669|
|Consecration||29 March 1644
by Antonio Marcello Barberini
|Created Cardinal||9 April 1657|
|Birth name||Giulio Rospigliosi|
28 January 1600|
Pistoia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany
|Died||9 December 1669
Rome, Papal State
|Other popes named Clement|
Born Giulio Rospigliosi to a noble family of Pistoia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, he was a pupil of the Jesuits. After receiving his doctorate in philosophy at the University of Pisa, he taught theology there. Later Rospigliosi worked closely with Pope Urban VIII (1623–1644), a Barberini Pope, where he worked in the Papal diplomacy as nuncio to Spain, among other posts. He was also made vicar of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome.
Rospigliosi was an accomplished man of letters, who wrote poetry, dramas and libretti, as well as what may be the first comic opera. He was also a patron of Nicolas Poussin, commissioning A Dance to the Music of Time from him and dictating its iconography.
During the reign of Pope Innocent X (1644–55), who was hostile to the Barberini and their adherents, Rospigliosi continued his appointment as papal nuncio to the court of Spain. After the accession of Pope Alexander VII (1655–67), he once again enjoyed papal favour. In 1657 he was named Cardinal-Priest of San Sisto and Secretary of State. After Alexander VII's death in 1667, an 18-day papal conclave concluded with Rospigliosi's election as Pope. Upon his succession, he took the name Clement IX.
|Papal styles of
Pope Clement IX
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Nothing remarkable occurred under Clement IX's short administration beyond the temporary adjustment of the disputes between the Holy See and those prelates of the Gallican Church who had refused to join in condemning the writings of Jansen. He was mediator during the 1668 peace of Aachen, in the wars of succession between France, Spain, England and the Netherlands.
As pope, Clement IX continued his interest in the arts. He embellished the city of Rome with famous works commissioned to Gian Lorenzo Bernini, including the angels of Ponte Sant'Angelo and the colonnade of Saint Peter's Basilica. Somewhat unusually for Popes of the era, Clement IX did not have his name displayed on monuments he built. He also opened the first public opera house in Rome, and for the Carnival celebrations of 1668, commissioned Antonio Maria Abbatini of the Sistine Chapel Choir to set to music his free Italian translation of a Spanish religious drama La Baltasara. The production had sets designed by Bernini.
Defence against the Turks
Clement IX worked to strengthen Venetian defences against the Turks on the island of Crete. However, he was unable to get wider support for this cause. At the end of October 1669 Clement IX fell ill after receiving news that the Venetian fortress of Candia in Crete had surrendered to the Turks.
Death and burial
He died in Rome, allegedly of broken heart, in December of that year. His successor, Pope Clement X (r. 1670–1676), built him an ornate tomb in the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore.
- for Stefano Landi: Il Sant'Alessio (1632)
- for Marco Marazzoli and Virgilio Mazzocchi: Chi soffre, speri (1639)
- for Luigi Rossi: Il palazzo incantato (1642)
- Rendina, Claudio (1993). I papi. Storia e segreti. Rome: Newton & Compton.
- Murata, Margaret (1981). Operas for the Papal Court, 1631–1668. UMI Research Press.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Clemens IX.|
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- "Pope Clement IX" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
- Notes on 20th century productions of Rospigliosi's operatic works
- Banca dati Giulio Rospigliosi, maintained by Danilo Romei
|Cardinal Secretary of State
|Catholic Church titles|
20 June 1667 – 9 December 1669