|Native name||Spanish: Francisco|
|Papacy began||13 March 2013|
|Ordination||13 December 1969
by Ramón José Castellano
|Consecration||27 June 1992
by Antonio Quarracino
|Created Cardinal||21 February 2001
by John Paul II
|Birth name||Jorge Mario Bergoglio|
17 December 1936 |
Buenos Aires, Argentina
|Residence||Domus Sanctae Marthae|
|Previous post||Provincial superior of the Society of Jesus in Argentina (1973–1979)
Auxiliary Bishop of Buenos Aires (1992–1997)
Titular Bishop of Auca (1992–1997)
Archbishop of Buenos Aires (1998–2013)
Cardinal-Priest of San Roberto Bellarmino (2001–2013)
Ordinary of the Ordinariate for the Faithful of the Eastern Rites in Argentina (1998–2013)
President of the Argentine Episcopal Conference (2005–2011)
|Motto||Miserando atque Eligendo[a]|
|Coat of arms|
|Papal styles of
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Pope Francis (Latin: Franciscus; Italian: Francesco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio,[b] 17 December 1936) is pope of the Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio for being the Bishop of Rome, in which capacity he is also the absolute sovereign of the Vatican City State.
Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Bergoglio worked briefly as a chemical technician and nightclub bouncer before beginning seminary studies. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969 and from 1973 to 1979 was Argentina's Provincial superior of the Society of Jesus. He became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998 and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II.
Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, a papal conclave elected Bergoglio as his successor on 13 March. He chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Francis is the first Jesuit pope, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere and the first non-European pope since the Syrian Gregory III in 741, 1,272 years earlier.
Throughout his public life, both as an individual and as a religious leader, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, his concern for the poor and his commitment to dialogue as a way to build bridges between people of all backgrounds, beliefs and faiths. He is known for having a simpler and less formal approach to the papacy, most notably by choosing to reside in the Domus Sanctae Marthae guesthouse rather than the papal apartments of the Apostolic Palace used by his predecessors. In addition, due to both his Jesuit and Ignatian aesthetic, he is known for favoring simpler vestments void of ornamentation, including refusing the traditional papal mozzetta cape upon his election, choosing silver instead of gold for his piscatory ring, and keeping the same pectoral cross he had when he was cardinal. Francis has said that gay people should not be marginalized but maintained the Church's teaching against homosexual acts; as a cardinal, he opposed same-sex marriage in Argentina and elsewhere. In addition, he maintains that he is a "son of the Church" regarding loyalty to Church doctrine, has spoken against abortion as "horrific", and suggested that women be valued, but not clericalized. Summarily Pope Francis reiterates that "It is absurd to say you follow Jesus Christ but reject the Church."
Accordingly, he urged Bishop Charles J. Scicluna of Malta to speak out against adoption by same-sex couples, maintained that Catholics who remarry following divorce may not receive the Eucharist, and excommunicated a former Catholic priest for Eucharistic sacrilege and heretical views.[c] He emphasized the Christian obligation to assist the poor and the needy, and promoted peace negotiations and interfaith dialogue. Pope Francis has also announced a zero-tolerance policy towards sex abuse in the Church, saying that sex abuse was "as bad as performing a satanic mass."
- 1 Personal life
- 2 Pre-papal career
- 3 Relations with Argentine governments
- 4 Relations with religious communities and others
- 5 Papacy
- 6 Teachings
- 7 Role in international diplomacy
- 8 Public image
- 9 Titles and styles
- 10 Coat of arms
- 11 Writings
- 12 Ancestry
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 Bibliography
- 17 External links
Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born in Flores, a barrio of Buenos Aires. He was the eldest of five children of Mario José Bergoglio, an Italian immigrant accountant born in Portacomaro (Province of Asti) in Italy's Piedmont region, and his wife Regina María Sívori, a housewife born in Buenos Aires to a family of northern Italian (Piedmontese-Genoese) origin. Mario José's family left Italy in 1929, to escape the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini. His daughter María Elena confirmed that their emigration was not caused by economic reasons. She is the Pope's only living sibling. His brother Alberto died in June 2010.
In the sixth grade, Bergoglio attended Wilfrid Barón de los Santos Ángeles, a school of the Salesians of Don Bosco, in Ramos Mejía, Buenos Aires. He attended the technical secondary school Escuela Nacional de Educación Técnica N° 27 Hipólito Yrigoyen, named after a past President of Argentina, and graduated with a chemical technician's diploma. He worked for a few years in that capacity in the foods section at Hickethier-Bachmann Laboratory. Before joining the Jesuits, Bergoglio worked as a bar bouncer and as a janitor sweeping floors, and he also ran tests in a chemical laboratory.
In the only known health crisis of his youth, at the age of 21 he suffered from life-threatening pneumonia and three cysts. He had part of a lung excised shortly afterwards. Bergoglio has been a lifelong supporter of the San Lorenzo de Almagro football club. Bergoglio is also a fan of the films of Tita Merello, neorealism and tango dancing, with an "intense fondness" for the traditional music of Argentina and Uruguay known as the milonga.
Shortly after midnight, early in the morning of Tuesday, 19 August 2014, Alberto's son and Pope Francis's nephew, Emanuel Horacio Bergoglio, 35, was seriously injured when his car slammed into the back of a truck carrying grains. Emanuel's wife, Valeria Carmona, 39, and her two young sons (Pope Francis's great-nephews), Antonio Bergoglio, 8 months, and Joseph Bergoglio, 2 years old, were killed. The Vatican press office, in a statement, said that the Pope was asking for prayers for his deceased relatives.
Bergoglio studied at the archdiocesan seminary, Inmaculada Concepción Seminary, in Villa Devoto, Buenos Aires, and, after three years, entered the Society of Jesus as a novice on 11 March 1958. Bergoglio has said that as a young seminarian, he had a crush on a girl he met at an uncle's wedding, so much so that he doubted about continuing the religious career. As a Jesuit novice he studied humanities in Santiago, Chile. At the conclusion of his novitiate in the Society of Jesus, Bergoglio officially became a Jesuit on 12 March 1960, when he made the religious profession of the initial, perpetual vows of Poverty, Chastity and Obedience of a member of the order.
In 1960, Bergoglio obtained a licentiate in philosophy from the Colegio Máximo de San José in San Miguel, Buenos Aires Province. He taught literature and psychology at the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepción, a high school in Santa Fe, from 1964 to 1965. In 1966 he taught the same courses at the Colegio del Salvador in Buenos Aires.
In 1967, Bergoglio finished his theological studies and was ordained to the priesthood on 13 December 1969, by Archbishop Ramón José Castellano. He attended the Facultades de Filosofía y Teología de San Miguel (Philosophical and Theological Faculty of San Miguel), a seminary in San Miguel. He served as the master of novices for the province there and became a professor of theology.
Bergoglio completed his final stage of spiritual formation as a Jesuit, tertianship, at Alcalá de Henares, Spain. He took the final fourth vow (obedience to the pope) in the Society of Jesus on 22 April 1973, which added to the previous three. He was named Provincial Superior of the Society of Jesus in Argentina on 31 July 1973 and served until 1979. He made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1973, shortly after being named Provincial Superior, but his stay was shortened by the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War. After the completion of his term of office, in 1980 he was named the rector of the Philosophical and Theological Faculty of San Miguel in San Miguel. Before taking up this new appointment, he spent the first three months of 1980 in Ireland to learn English, staying at the Jesuit Centre in the Milltown Institute of Theology and Philosophy, Dublin. After returning to Argentina to take up his new post at San Miguel, Father Bergoglio served in that capacity until 1986. He spent several months at the Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology in Frankfurt, Germany, while considering possible dissertation topics, before returning to Argentina to serve as a confessor and spiritual director to the Jesuit community in Córdoba. In Germany he saw the painting Mary Untier of Knots in Augsburg and brought a copy of the painting to Argentina where it has become an important Marian devotion.[d] As a student at the Salesian school, Bergoglio was mentored by Ukrainian Greek Catholic priest Stefan Czmil. Bergoglio often rose hours before his classmates to concelebrate Divine Liturgy with Czmil.
Bergoglio was named Auxiliary Bishop of Buenos Aires in 1992 and ordained on 27 June 1992 as Titular Bishop of Auca, with Cardinal Antonio Quarracino, Archbishop of Buenos Aires, serving as principal consecrator. He chose as his episcopal motto Miserando atque eligendo. It is drawn from Saint Bede's homily on Matthew 9:9–13: "because he saw him through the eyes of mercy and chose him".
On 3 June 1997, Bergoglio was appointed Coadjutor Archbishop of Buenos Aires with right of automatic succession. Upon Quarracino's death on 28 February 1998, Bergoglio became Metropolitan Archbishop of Buenos Aires. In that role, Bergoglio created new parishes and restructured the archdiocese administrative offices, led pro-life initiatives, and created a commission on divorces. One of Bergoglio's major initiatives as archbishop was to increase the Church's presence in the slums of Buenos Aires. Under his leadership, the number of priests assigned to work in the slums doubled. This work led to him being called the "Slum Bishop".
Early in his time as Archbishop of Buenos Aires, Bergoglio sold off the Archdiocese's shares in multiple banks and turned its accounts into those of a normal customer in international banks. The shares in banks had led the local church to a high leniency towards high spending, and the archdiocese was nearing bankruptcy as a result. As a normal customer of the bank, the church was forced into a higher fiscal discipline.
On 6 November 1998, while remaining Archbishop of Buenos Aires, he was named ordinary for those Eastern Catholics in Argentina who lacked a prelate of their own rite. Archbishop Shevchuk has said that Bergoglio understands the liturgy, rites, and spirituality of his Greek Catholic Church and always "took care of our Church in Argentina" as ordinary for Eastern Catholics during his time as Archbishop of Buenos Aires.
In 2000, Bergoglio was the only church official to reconcile with Jerónimo Podestá, a former bishop who had been suspended as a priest after opposing the military dictatorship in 1972, and he defended Podestá's wife from Vatican attacks on their marriage. That same year, Bergoglio said the Argentine Catholic Church needed "to put on garments of public penance for the sins committed during the years of the dictatorship" in the 1970s, the years known as the Dirty War.
Bergoglio made it his custom to celebrate the Holy Thursday ritual washing of feet in places such as jails, hospitals, retirement homes or slums. In 2007, just two days after Benedict XVI issued new rules for using the liturgical forms that preceded the Second Vatican Council, Cardinal Bergoglio was one of the first bishops in the world to respond by instituting a Tridentine Mass in Buenos Aires. It was celebrated weekly.
On 8 November 2005, Bergoglio was elected president of the Argentine Episcopal Conference for a three-year term (2005–08). He was reelected to another three-year term on 11 November 2008. He remained a member of that Commission's permanent governing body, president of its committee for the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, and a member of its liturgy committee for the care of shrines. While head of the Argentine Catholic bishops' conference, Bergoglio issued a collective apology for his church's failure to protect people from the Junta during the Dirty War. When he turned 75 in December 2011, Bergoglio submitted his resignation as Archbishop of Buenos Aires to Pope Benedict XVI as required by Canon Law. Still, as he had no coadjutor archbishop, he stayed in office, waiting for an eventual replacement appointed by the Vatican.
At the consistory of 21 February 2001, Archbishop Bergoglio was created a cardinal by Pope John Paul II with the title of cardinal-priest of San Roberto Bellarmino, a church served by Jesuits and named for one. When he traveled to Rome for the ceremony, he and his sister María Elena visited the village in northern Italy where their father was born.
As cardinal, Bergoglio was appointed to five administrative positions in the Roman Curia. He was member of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, the Congregation for the Clergy, the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, the Pontifical Council for the Family and the Commission for Latin America.
Later that year, when Cardinal Edward Egan returned to New York following the September 11 attacks, Bergoglio replaced him as relator (recording secretary) in the Synod of Bishops, and, according to the Catholic Herald, created "a favourable impression as a man open to communion and dialogue".
Cardinal Bergoglio became known for personal humility, doctrinal conservatism and a commitment to social justice. A simple lifestyle contributed to his reputation for humility. He lived in a small apartment, rather than in the elegant bishop's residence in the suburb of Olivos. He took public transportation and cooked his own meals. He limited his time in Rome to "lightning visits". He was known to have a unique devotion to St. Therese of Lisieux, and he enclosed a small picture of her in the letters he wrote, calling her "a great missionary saint."
On the death of Pope John Paul II, Bergoglio attended his funeral and was considered one of the papabile for succession to the papacy. He participated as a cardinal elector in the 2005 papal conclave that elected Pope Benedict XVI. In the National Catholic Reporter John L. Allen, Jr. reported that Bergoglio was a frontrunner in the 2005 conclave. In September 2005, the Italian magazine Limes published claims that Bergoglio had been the runner-up and main challenger to Cardinal Ratzinger at that conclave and that he had received 40 votes in the third ballot, but fell back to 26 at the fourth and decisive ballot. The claims were based on a diary purportedly belonging to an anonymous cardinal who had been present at the conclave. According to Italian journalist Andrea Tornielli, this number of votes had no precedents for a Latin American papabile. La Stampa reported that Bergoglio was in close contention with Ratzinger during the election, until he made an emotional plea that the cardinals should not vote for him. According to Tornielli, Bergoglio made this request to prevent the conclave from delaying too much in the election of a pope.
As a cardinal, Bergoglio was associated with Communion and Liberation, a Catholic evangelical lay movement of the type known as associations of the faithful. He sometimes made appearances at the annual gathering known as the Rimini Meeting held during the late summer months in Italy. In 2005, Cardinal Bergoglio authorized the request for beatification—the first step towards sainthood—for six members of the Pallottine community murdered in the San Patricio Church massacre. At the same time, Bergoglio ordered an investigation into the murders themselves, which had been widely blamed on the National Reorganization Process, the military regime that ruled Argentina at the time.
Relations with Argentine governments
Bergoglio was the subject of allegations regarding the kidnapping of two Jesuit priests during Argentina's Dirty War. He feared for the priests' safety and had tried to change their work prior to their arrest; however, contrary to reports, he never tried to throw them out of the Jesuit order. In 2005, a human rights lawyer filed a criminal complaint against Bergoglio, as superior in the Society of Jesus of Argentina, accusing him of involvement in the Navy's kidnapping of the two priests in May 1976. The lawyer's complaint did not specify the nature of Bergoglio's alleged involvement, and Bergoglio's spokesman flatly denied the allegations. The lawsuit was ultimately dismissed. The priests, Orlando Yorio and Franz Jalics, had been tortured, but found alive five months later, drugged and semi-naked. Yorio accused Bergoglio of effectively handing them over to the death squads by declining to tell the regime that he endorsed their work. Yorio (who died in 2000) said in a 1999 interview that he believed that Bergoglio did nothing "to free us, in fact just the opposite". Jalics initially refused to discuss the complaint after moving into seclusion in a German monastery. However, two days after the election of Pope Francis, Jalics issued a statement confirming the kidnapping and attributing the cause to a former lay colleague who became a guerrilla, was captured, and named Yorio and Jalics when interrogated. The following week, Jalics issued a second, clarifying statement: "It is wrong to assert that our capture took place at the initiative of Father Bergoglio ... the fact is, Orlando Yorio and I were not denounced by Father Bergoglio."
Bergoglio told his authorized biographer, Sergio Rubin, that after the priests' imprisonment, he worked behind the scenes for their release; Bergoglio's intercession with dictator Jorge Rafael Videla on their behalf may have saved their lives. In 2010, Bergoglio told Sergio Rubin that he had often sheltered people from the dictatorship on church property, and once gave his own identity papers to a man who looked like him, so he could flee Argentina. The interview with Rubin, reflected in the biography El jesuita, is the only time Bergoglio has spoken to the press about those events. Alicia Oliveira, a former Argentine Judge, has also reported that Bergoglio helped people flee Argentina during the military regime. Since Francis became Pope, Gonzalo Mosca and José Caravias have related to journalists accounts of how Bergoglio helped them flee the Argentine dictatorship.
Oliveira described the future Pope as "anguished" and "very critical of the dictatorship" during the Dirty War. Oliveira met with him at the time and urged Bergoglio to speak out—he told her that "he couldn't. That it wasn't an easy thing to do." Artist and human rights activist Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1980, said: "Perhaps he didn't have the courage of other priests, but he never collaborated with the dictatorship ... Bergoglio was no accomplice of the dictatorship." Graciela Fernández Meijide, member of the Permanent Assembly for Human Rights, also said that there was no proof linking Bergoglio with the dictatorship. She told to the Clarín newspaper: "There is no information and Justice couldn't prove it. I was in the APDH during all the dictatorship years and I received hundreds of testimonies. Bergoglio was never mentioned. It was the same in the CONADEP. Nobody mentioned him as instigator or as anything." Ricardo Lorenzetti, President of the Argentine Supreme Court, also has said that Bergoglio is "completely innocent" of the accusations. Historian Uki Goñi pointed that, during the early 1976, the military regime still had a good image among society, and that the scale of the political repression was not known until much later; Bergoglio would have had little reason to suspect that the detention of Yorio and Jalics could end up in their deaths.
When Bergoglio became Pope, an alleged photo of him giving the sacramental bread to dictator Jorge Rafael Videla became viral in social networks. The photo was soon proved to be false. It was clarified that the father, whose face is not visible in the photo, was Carlos Berón de Astrada. The photo was taken at the church "Pequeña Obra de la Divina Providencia Don Orione" in 1990 (not during the dirty war), after his presidential pardon. The foto was produced by the agency AFP and it was initially published by the Crónica newspaper.
Fernando de la Rúa
Fernando de la Rúa replaced Carlos Menem as president of Argentina in 1999. As an archbishop, Bergoglio celebrated the annual Mass at the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral on the First National Government holiday, 25 May. In 2000, Bergoglio criticized the perceived apathy of society. During police repression of the riots of December 2001, he contacted the Ministry of the Interior and asked that the police distinguish rioters engaged in acts of vandalism from peaceful protesters.
When Bergoglio celebrated Mass at the Cathedral for the 2004 First National Government holiday, President Néstor Kirchner attended and heard Bergoglio request more political dialogue, reject intolerance, and criticize exhibitionism and strident announcements. Kirchner celebrated the national day elsewhere the following year and the Mass in the Cathedral was suspended. Kirchner considered Bergoglio as a political rival to the day he died in October 2010. Bergoglio's relations with Kirchner's widow and successor, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, have been similarly tense. In 2008, Bergoglio called for national reconciliation during disturbances in the country's agricultural regions, which the government interpreted as a support for anti-government demonstrators. The campaign to enact same-sex marriage legislation was a particularly tense period in their relations.
In 2006, Bergoglio publicly opposed an attempt by the Argentine government to legalize some cases of abortion. In 2007, after the government intervened to allow an abortion for a mentally handicapped woman who had been raped, Bergoglio compared the abortion with a death penalty over the unborn child. The Kirchner administration said in response that the social concerns of the Church were correct, but that relating them to abortion and euthanasia would be unjustified.[e]
When Bergoglio was elected Pope, the initial reactions were mixed. Most of the Argentine society cheered it, but the pro-government newspaper Página 12 published renewed allegations about the dirty war, and the president of the National Library described a global conspiracy theory. The president took more than an hour to congratulate him, and only did so in a passing-by reference inside a routine speech. However, as the Pope was a huge positive image in his country, Cristina Kirchner made a Copernican shift in her relation with him, and fully embraced the Francis phenomenon. On the day before his inauguration as pope, Bergoglio, now Francis, had a private meeting with Kirchner. They exchanged gifts and lunched together. This was the new pope's first meeting with a head of state, and there was speculation that the two were mending their relations.
Relations with religious communities and others
Bergoglio has written about his commitment to open and respectful interfaith dialogue as a way for all parties engaged in that dialogue to learn from one another. In the 2011 book that records his conversations with Rabbi Abraham Skorka, On Heaven and Earth, Bergoglio said:
Dialogue is born from an attitude of respect for the other person, from a conviction that the other person has something good to say. It assumes that there is room in the heart for the person's point of view, opinion, and proposal. To dialogue entails a cordial reception, not a prior condemnation. In order to dialogue it is necessary to know how to lower the defenses, open the doors of the house, and offer human warmth.
Religious leaders in Buenos Aires have mentioned that Bergoglio promoted interfaith ceremonies at the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral. For example, in November 2012 he brought leaders of the Jewish, Muslim, evangelical, and Orthodox Christian faiths together to pray for a peaceful solution to the Middle East conflicts. Rabbi Alejandro Avruj praised Bergoglio's interest in interfaith dialogue, and his commitment to mend religious divisions.
Shortly after his election, the pope called for more interreligious dialogue as a way of "building bridges" and establishing "true links of friendship between all people". He added that it was crucial "to intensify outreach to nonbelievers, so that the differences which divide and hurt us may never prevail". He said that his title of "pontiff" means "builder of bridges", and that it was his wish that "the dialogue between us should help to build bridges connecting all people, in such a way that everyone can see in the other not an enemy, not a rival, but a brother or sister to be welcomed and embraced."
Eastern Orthodox Church
Bergoglio is recognized for his efforts "to further close the nearly 1,000-year estrangement with the Orthodox Churches". Antoni Sevruk, rector of the Russian Orthodox Church of Saint Catherine the Great Martyr in Rome, said that Bergoglio "often visited Orthodox services in the Russian Orthodox Annunciation Cathedral in Buenos Aires" and is known as an advocate on behalf of the Orthodox Church in dealing with Argentina's government.
Bergoglio's positive relationship with the Eastern Orthodox Churches is reflected in the fact that Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople attended his installation. This is the first time since the Great Schism of 1054 that the Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, a position considered first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox Church organization, has attended a papal installation. Orthodox leaders state that Bartholomew's decision to attend the ceremony shows that the relationship between the Orthodox and Catholic Churches is a priority of his, but they also note that Francis's "well-documented work for social justice and his insistence that globalization is detrimental to the poor" may have created a "renewed opportunity" for the two Church communities to "work collectively on issues of mutual concern".[f]
Gregory Venables, Anglican Bishop of Argentina, said that Cardinal Bergoglio had told him very clearly that the Personal Ordinariate(s) (the branch of the Catholic Church set up for defecting Anglicans) was "quite unnecessary", and that the Catholic Church needed Anglicans as Anglicans. A spokesman for the Ordinariate said the words were those of Venables, not the Pope. Mark Hanson, then presiding bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), greeted the news of Bergoglio's election with a public statement that praised his work with Lutherans in Argentina.
Evangelical leaders including Argentine Luis Palau, who moved to the US in his twenties, have welcomed the news of Bergoglio's election as Pope based on his relations with Evangelical Protestants, noting that Bergoglio's financial manager for the Archdiocese of Buenos Aires was an Evangelical Christian whom Bergoglio refers to as a friend. Palau recounted how Bergoglio would not only relax and "drink mate" with that friend, but would also read the Bible and pray with him, based on what Bergoglio called a relationship of friendship and trust. Palau described Bergoglio's approach to relationships with Evangelicals as one of "building bridges and showing respect, knowing the differences, but majoring on what we can agree on: on the divinity of Jesus, his virgin birth, his resurrection, the second coming." As a result of Bergoglio's election, Palau predicted that "tensions will be eased."
Juan Pablo Bongarrá, president of the Argentine Bible Society, recounted that Bergoglio not only met with Evangelicals, and prayed with them—but he also asked them to pray for him. Bongarrá noted that Bergoglio would frequently end a conversation with the request, "Pastor, pray for me." Additionally, Bongarrá told the story of a weekly worship meeting of charismatic pastors in Buenos Aires, which Bergoglio attended: "He mounted the platform and called for pastors to pray for him. He knelt in front of nearly 6,000 people, and [the Protestant leaders there] laid hands and prayed."
Other Evangelical leaders agree that Bergoglio's relationships in Argentina make him "situated to better understand Protestantism". Noting that the divide between Catholicism and Protestantism is often present among members of the same families in Argentina, and is therefore an extremely important human issue, "Francis could set the tone for more compassionate conversations among families about the differences between Protestantism and Catholicism."
Bergoglio has close ties to the Jewish community of Argentina, and attended Rosh Hashanah (Jewish new year) services in 2007 at a synagogue in Buenos Aires. He told the Jewish congregation during his visit that he went to the synagogue to examine his heart, "like a pilgrim, together with you, my elder brothers". After the 1994 AMIA bombing of a Jewish Community Center that killed 85 people, Bergoglio was the first public figure to sign a petition condemning the attack and calling for justice. Jewish community leaders around the world noted that his words and actions "showed solidarity with the Jewish community" in the aftermath of this attack.
A former head of the World Jewish Congress, Israel Singer, reported that he worked with Bergoglio in the early 2000s, distributing aid to the poor as part of a joint Jewish-Catholic program called "Tzedaká". Singer noted that he was impressed with Bergoglio's modesty, remembering that "if everyone sat in chairs with handles [arms], he would sit in the one without." Bergoglio also co-hosted a Kristallnacht memorial ceremony at the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral in 2012, and joined a group of clerics from a number of different religions to light candles in a 2012 synagogue ceremony on the occasion of the Jewish festival of Hanukkah.
Pope Francis blessed the cornerstone for the building of the museum devoted to wartime Polish rescuers of Jews which is being built in the Polish village of Markowa, where the family of Józef and Wiktoria Ulma, who are now Servants of God as the Vatican is studying their cause for sainthood, were shot by the Germans for hiding their Jewish neighbors.
Abraham Skorka, the rector of the Latin-American Rabbinical Seminary in Buenos Aires, and Bergoglio published their conversations on religious and philosophical subjects as Sobre el cielo y la tierra (On Heaven and Earth). An editorial in Israel's Jerusalem Post notes that "Unlike John Paul II, who as a child had positive memories of the Jews of his native Poland but due to the Holocaust had no Jewish community to interact with in Poland as an adult, Pope Francis has maintained a sustained and very positive relationship with a living, breathing [Jewish] community in Buenos Aires."
One of the pope's first official actions was writing a letter to Rabbi Riccardo Di Segni, the Chief Rabbi of Rome, inviting him to the papal installation and sharing his hope of collaboration between the Catholic and Jewish communities. Addressing representatives of Jewish organizations and communities, Francis said that, "due to our common roots [a] Christian cannot be anti-Semitic!"
Leaders of the Islamic community in Buenos Aires welcomed the news of Bergoglio's election as pope, noting that he "always showed himself as a friend of the Islamic community", and a person whose position is "pro-dialogue". They praised Bergoglio's close ties with the Islamic community and noted his comments when Pope Benedict's 2006 Regensburg lecture was interpreted by many as denigrating Islam. According to them, Bergoglio immediately distanced himself from Benedict's language and said that statements that create outrage within the Islamic community "will serve to destroy in 20 seconds the careful construction of a relationship with Islam that Pope John Paul II built over the last 20 years."
Bergoglio visited both a mosque and an Islamic school in Argentina, visits that Sheik Mohsen Ali, the Director for the Diffusion of Islam, called actions that strengthened the relationship between the Catholic and Islamic communities. Dr. Sumer Noufouri, Secretary General of the Islamic Center of the Argentine Republic (CIRA), added that Bergoglio's past actions make his election as pope a cause within the Islamic community of "joy and expectation of strengthening dialogue between religions". Noufouri said that the relationship between CIRA and Bergoglio over the course of a decade had helped to build up Christian-Muslim dialogue in a way that was "really significant in the history of monotheistic relations in Argentina".
Ahmed el-Tayeb, Grand Imam of al-Azhar and president of Egypt's Al-Azhar University, sent congratulations after the pope's election. Al-Tayeb had "broken off relations with the Vatican" during Benedict XVI's time as pope; his message of congratulations also included the request that "Islam asks for respect from the new pontiff".
Shortly after his election, in a meeting with ambassadors from the 180 countries accredited with the Holy See, Pope Francis called for more interreligious dialogue—"particularly with Islam". He also expressed gratitude that "so many civil and religious leaders from the Islamic world" had attended his installation Mass. An editorial in the Saudi Arabian paper Saudi Gazette strongly welcomed the pope's call for increased interfaith dialogue, stressing that while the pope was "reiterating a position he has always maintained", his public call as pope for increased dialogue with Islam "comes as a whiff of fresh air at a time when much of the Western world is experiencing a nasty outbreak of Islamophobia".
Speaking to journalists and media employees on 16 March 2013, Pope Francis said he would bless them silently, "Given that many of you do not belong to the Catholic Church, and others are not believers". In his papal address on 20 March, he said the "attempt to eliminate God and the Divine from the horizon of humanity" resulted in violence, but described as well his feelings about nonbelievers: "[W]e also sense our closeness to all those men and women who, although not identifying themselves as followers of any religious tradition, are nonetheless searching for truth, goodness and beauty, the truth, goodness and beauty of God. They are our valued allies in the commitment to defending human dignity, in building a peaceful coexistence between peoples and in safeguarding and caring for creation."
Some atheists expressed hope that Francis would prove to be progressive on issues like poverty and social inequality, while others were more skeptical that he would be "interested in a partnership of equals". In May 2013, Francis said that all who do good can be redeemed through Jesus, including atheists. Francis stated that God "has redeemed all of us, all of us, with the Blood of Christ: all of us, not just Catholics. Everyone! ... Even the atheists, Everyone!” Later Thomas Rosica stated non-Catholics who "know" the Roman Catholic Church can get to Heaven only by converting to Catholicism. Outspoken atheist Richard Dawkins commented "Atheists go to heaven? Nope. Sorry world, infallible pope got it wrong. Vatican steps in with alacrity." Author Neale Donald Walsch stated, "it was regrettable that the hidden hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church chose to officially retract the recent statement on eternal damnation bravely made by its new leader, Pope Francis."
Hendrik Hertzberg suggests in the The New Yorker magazine Rosica used weasel words and left imprecise how much a non-Catholic needs to know about Catholicism before according to Church doctrine that person is required to enter the Church or be damned. Further Rosica published his statement in Toronto through Zenit News Agency rather than through the Vatican or the Holy See. Hertzberg claims imprecision is deliberate and speculates that there may be major internal disagreement between supporters and opponents of Vatican II in the Catholic Church.
In September 2013 Francis wrote an open letter to the founder of La Repubblica newspaper, Eugenio Scalfari, stating that non-believers would be forgiven by God if they followed their consciences. Responding to a list of questions published in the paper by Scalfari, who is not a Roman Catholic, Francis wrote: "You ask me if the God of the Christians forgives those who don't believe and who don't seek the faith. I start by saying—and this is the fundamental thing—that God's mercy has no limits if you go to him with a sincere and contrite heart. The issue for those who do not believe in God is to obey their conscience. Sin, even for those who have no faith, exists when people disobey their conscience."
Elected at the age of 76, Francis is reported to be in good health, and his doctors have stated that his missing lung tissue, removed in his youth, does not have a significant impact on his health. The only concern would be decreased respiratory reserve if he had a respiratory infection. In the past, one attack of sciatica in 2007 prevented him from attending a consistory and delayed his return to Argentina for several days.
As pope, his manner is less formal than that of his predecessors: a style that news coverage has referred to as "no frills," noting that it is "his common touch and accessibility that is proving the greatest inspiration." For example, on the night of his election, he took the bus back to his hotel with the cardinals, rather than be driven in the papal car. The next day, he visited Cardinal Jorge María Mejía in the hospital and chatted with patients and staff. At his first media audience, the Friday after his election, the Pope said of Saint Francis of Assisi: "The man who gives us this spirit of peace, the poor man," and he added "How I would like a poor Church, and for the poor".
In addition to his native Spanish, Francis is also conversant in Latin (the official language of the Holy See), speaks fluent Italian (the official language of Vatican City and the "everyday language" of the Holy See), and he understands the Piedmontese dialect and some Genoese, German, French, Portuguese, English, and Ukrainian.
Francis chose not to live in the official papal residence in the Apostolic Palace, but to remain in the Vatican guest house, in a suite in which he can receive visitors and hold meetings. He is the first pope since Pope Pius X to live outside the papal apartments. Francis still appears at the window of the Apostolic Palace for the Sunday Angelus.
Bergoglio was elected pope on 13 March 2013, the second day of the 2013 papal conclave, taking the papal name Francis. Francis was elected on the fifth ballot of the conclave. The Habemus Papam was delivered by Cardinal protodeacon Jean-Louis Tauran. Cardinal Christoph Schönborn later said that Bergoglio was elected following two supernatural signs, one in the conclave and hence confidential, and a Latin American couple of friends of Schönborn who whispered Bergoglio's name in Schönborn's ear; Schönborn commented "if these people say Bergoglio, that's an indication of the Holy Spirit".
Instead of accepting his cardinals' congratulations while seated on the Papal throne, Francis received them standing, reportedly an immediate sign of a changing approach to formalities at the Vatican. During his first appearance as pontiff on the balcony of Saint Peter's Basilica, he wore a white cassock, not the red, ermine-trimmed mozzetta used by the previous Popes. He also wore the same iron pectoral cross that he had worn as Cardinal Archbishop of Buenos Aires, rather than the gold one worn by his predecessors.
After being elected and choosing his name, his first act was bestowing the Urbi et Orbi blessing to thousands of pilgrims gathered in St. Peter's Square. Before blessing the pilgrims, he asked those in St. Peter's Square to pray for his predecessor, pope emeritus Benedict XVI, and for himself.
Pope Francis held his Papal inauguration on 19 March 2013 in St. Peter's Square in the Vatican. He celebrated Mass in the presence of various political and religious leaders from around the world. In his homily Pope Francis focused on the Solemnity of Saint Joseph, the liturgical day on which the Mass was celebrated.
At his first audience on 16 March 2013, Francis told journalists that he had chosen the name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi, and had done so because he was especially concerned for the well-being of the poor. He explained that, as it was becoming clear during the conclave voting that he would be elected the new bishop of Rome, the Brazilian Cardinal Cláudio Hummes had embraced him and whispered, "Don't forget the poor", which had made Bergoglio think of the saint. Bergoglio had previously expressed his admiration for St. Francis, explaining that "He brought to Christianity an idea of poverty against the luxury, pride, vanity of the civil and ecclesiastical powers of the time. He changed history."
Francis also said that some cardinal-electors had jokingly suggested to him that he should choose either "Adrian", since Pope Adrian VI had been a reformer of the church, or "Clement" as "payback" to Pope Clement XIV, who had suppressed the Jesuit order. In February 2014, it was reported that Bergoglio, had he been elected in 2005, would have chosen the pontifical name of "John XXIV" in honour of Pope John XXIII. It was said that he told Cardinal Francesco Marchisano: "John, I would have called myself John, like the Good Pope; I would have been completely inspired by him".
On 16 March 2013, Pope Francis asked all those in senior positions of the Roman Curia to provisionally continue in office. He named Alfred Xuereb as his personal secretary. On 6 April he named José Rodríguez Carballo as secretary for the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, a position that had been vacant for several months. Francis abolished the bonuses paid to Vatican employees upon the election of a new pope, amounting to approximately several million Euros, opting instead to donate the money to charity. He also abolished the €25,000 annual bonus paid to the cardinals serving on the Board of Supervisors for the Vatican bank.
On 13 April 2013, he named a group of 8 cardinals to advise him and to study a plan for revising the Apostolic Constitution on the Roman Curia, Pastor Bonus, including several known as critics of Vatican operations and only one member of the Curia. They are Giuseppe Bertello, president of the Vatican City State governorate; Francisco Javier Errazuriz Ossa from Chile; Oswald Gracias from India; Reinhard Marx from Germany; Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya from the Democratic Republic of the Congo; George Pell from Australia; Seán O'Malley from the United States; and Oscar Andres Rodriguez Maradiaga from Honduras. He appointed Bishop Marcello Semeraro secretary for the group and scheduled its first meeting for 1–3 October.
In March 2013, 21 British Catholic Peers and Members of Parliament from all parties asked Francis to allow married men in Great Britain to be ordained as priests, keeping celibacy as the rule for bishops. They asked it on the grounds that it would be anomalous that married Anglican priests can be received into the Catholic Church and ordained as priests, by means of either the Pastoral Provision of 20 June 1980 or the 2009 Anglican ordinariate, but married Catholic men cannot do the same.
Fouad Twal, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, included a call in his 2013 Easter homily for the pope to visit Jerusalem. Louis Raphael I, the Chaldean Catholic Patriarch, asked the pope to visit the "embattled Christian community" in Iraq. President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner invited the pope to visit Argentina. Kirchner extended the invitation when she visited the Vatican before the pope's inauguration, asking for his help to promote dialogue between both countries. Monsignor Michael McPartland, the Apostolic Prefect of the Falkland Islands, stated that "[Francis] must be seen as Pope first and where he comes from should not figure in the equation. But I would also like to think he would have a beneficial impact and perhaps be able to express some soothing words that would help the situation here." As of June 2014[update], Francis himself has not made any comment over the sovereignty dispute since becoming pope.
On the first Holy Thursday following his election, Francis washed and kissed the feet of ten male and two female juvenile offenders, not all Catholic, aged from 14 to 21, imprisoned at Rome's Casal del Marmo detention facility, telling them the ritual of foot washing is a sign that he is at their service. He told them to "Help one another. This is what Jesus teaches us." and "Do not let yourselves be robbed of hope." According to church experts, this was the first time that a pope had included women in this ritual. One of the male and one of the female offenders was Muslim. Canon lawyer Edward Peters criticized the inclusion of women as a break with canon law, although not with any "divine directive".
On 31 March 2013 Francis used his first Easter homily to make a plea for peace throughout the world, specifically mentioning the Middle-East, Africa, and North and South Korea. He also spoke out against those who give in to "easy gain" in a world filled with greed, and made a plea for humanity to become a better guardian of creation by protecting the environment. He said that "We ask the risen Jesus, who turns death into life, to change hatred into love, vengeance into forgiveness, war into peace." Although the Vatican had prepared greetings in 65 languages, Francis chose not to read them. According to the Vatican, the pope "at least for now, feels at ease using Italian, the everyday language of the Holy See".
On 15 April 2013 Francis reaffirmed the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith's criticism of the U.S. Leadership Conference of Women Religious. He reinstated the "program of reform", reaffirming the reprimand of American sisters (female religious) issued by his predecessor, Pope Benedict XVI. The New York Times reported that the Vatican had formed the opinion in 2012 that the sisters' group was tinged with feminist influences, focused too much on ending social and economic injustice and not enough on stopping abortion, and permitted speakers at its meetings who questioned church doctrine.
On 12 May Francis carried out his first canonizations, of candidates approved for sainthood during the reign of Benedict XVI: the first Colombian saint, Laura of Saint Catherine of Siena, the second female Mexican saint, Maria Guadalupe Garcia Zavala, both of the 20th century, and the 813 15th-century Martyrs of Otranto. He said: "While we venerate the martyrs of Otrante, ask God to support the many Christians who still suffer from violence and give them the courage and fate and respond to evil with goodness." He also commented on abortion, saying legislation should be introduced to "protect all human beings from the first moment of their existence."
He also called for a more "merciful" Church and less centralization of decision making.
Consultation with Catholic laity
A February 2014 survey by World Values Survey cited in the Washington Post and Time shows how the unity Pope Francis had created could be challenged. Although views about Francis personally were favorable, many Catholics disagreed with at least some of his teachings. The survey found that members of the Roman Catholic Church are deeply divided over abortion, artificial contraception, divorce, the ordination of women and married men.
In the same month Pope Francis asked parishes to provide answers to an official questionnaire described as a "much broader consultation than just a survey" regarding opinions among the laity. He continued to assert Catholic doctrine, in less dramatic tone than his recent predecessors, who maintained that the Catholic Church is not a democracy of popular opinion.
Linda Woodhead of Lancaster University writes of the survey Francis initiated, "it's not a survey in any sense that a social scientist would recognize." Woodhead said that many ordinary Catholics would have difficulty understanding theological jargon there. Nonetheless, Woodhead suspected the survey might be influential.
But surveys are dangerous things. They raise expectations. And they play to people's growing sense that they have voice and choice—even in a traditional Church. If it turns out that those voices are ignored or, worse, corralled more firmly into the existing sheepfold of moral teaching, the tension may reach a breaking point. Perhaps Francis is clever enough to have anticipated that, and perhaps he has subtle plans to turn such a crisis to good ends. Perhaps not.—Linda Woodhead
The Catholic Church in England and Wales as of April 2014[update] had refused to publish results of this survey; a Church spokesman said a senior Vatican official had expressly asked for summaries to remain confidential, and that orders had come from the Pope that the information should not be made public until after October. This disappointed many reformers who hoped the laity would be more involved in decision-making. Call to Action for example said, "People who had completed this "challenging" questionnaire would be saddened and perplexed if the results were withheld." Some other Roman Catholic churches, for example in Germany and Austria published summaries of the responses to the survey, which showed a wide gap between Church teaching and the behaviour of ordinary Catholics.
In a column he wrote for the Vatican's semi-official newspaper L'Osservatore Romano, the head Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, US Cardinal Raymond Leo Burke, who has a long-standing reputation as one of the church's most vocal conservative hard-liners, said that Pope Francis opposed both abortion and gay marriage. The Vatican's chief spokesman, Father Federico Lombardi, also noted in the Vatican Press Office during the 2014 consistory meetings that Pope Francis and Cardinal Walter Kasper would not change or redefine any dogmas pertaining to Church theology on doctrinal matters.
Institute for the Works of Religion
In the first months of Francis's papacy, the Institute for the Works of Religion, informally known as the Vatican Bank, said that it would become more transparent in its financial dealings There had long been allegations of corruption and money laundering connected with the bank. Francis appointed a commission to advise him about reform of the Bank, and the finance consulting firm Promontory Financial Group was assigned to carry out a comprehensive investigation of all customer contacts of the bank on these facts. Because of this affair the Promoter of Justice at the Vatican Tribunal applied a letter rogatory for the first time in the history of the Republic of Italy at the beginning of August 2013. In January 2014 Francis replaced four of the five cardinal overseers of the Vatican Bank, who had been confirmed in their positions in the final days of Benedict XVI's papacy. Lay experts and clerics were looking into how the bank was run. Ernst von Freyberg was put in charge. Moneyval feels more reform is needed, and Francis may be willing to close the bank if the reforms prove too difficult.
In January 2014 Pope Francis reduced the number of awards associated with the use of the title Monsignor from three to one, Chaplain to His Holiness. He announced that it would henceforth be awarded only to diocesan priests at least 65 years old. During his 15 years as archbishop of Buenos Aires, Francis had never asked that any of his priests receive the title, and was understood to associate the title with clerical "careerism".
At the first consistory of his papacy, held on 22 February 2014, Francis created 19 new cardinals. At the time of their elevation to that rank, 16 of these new cardinals were under eighty years of age and thus eligible to vote in a papal conclave. The new appointees included prelates from South America, Africa and Asia, including appointees in some of the world's poorest countries, such as Chibly Langlois from Haiti and Philippe Nakellentuba Ouedraogo from Burkina Faso. The consistory was a rare occasion where Francis and his predecessor, Benedict XVI, made a joint public appearance.
Francis told La Civiltà Cattolica that the church does not need to speak constantly of the issues of abortion, artificial contraception and homosexuality. He thought that other issues, notably the duty to help those who are poor and marginalized, have been neglected. He added that the church had focused in trivial issues, and as such should not be so prone to condemn, and that priests should be more welcoming. He said the confessional should be used to motivate people to better themselves.
Pope Francis said that the most powerful message of Jesus Christ is mercy. His motto, Miserando atque eligendo, is about Jesus' mercy towards sinners. The phrase is taken from a homily of St. Bede, who commented that Jesus "saw the tax collector and, because he saw him through the eyes of mercy and chose him, he said to him: 'Follow me'".[i] The motto is a reference to the moment when he found his vocation to the priesthood, at the age of 17. He started a day of student celebrations by going to confession.
As cardinal he thought Christian morality is not a titanic effort of the will, but a response to the mercy of God. It is not a matter of never falling down but of always getting up again. In this sense, he says Christian morality is a revolution. The Gospel reading for the Sunday he was scheduled to give his first public address as pope was on Jesus' forgiveness of the adulterous woman. This allowed him to discuss the principle that God never wearies of forgiving the human race, the significance of mercy, and to never tire in asking for forgiveness.
After his election Francis stated "Here too, it helps me to think of the name of Francis [of Assisi], who teaches us profound respect for the whole of creation and the protection of our environment, which all too often, instead of using for the good, we exploit greedily, to one another's detriment.". At the University of Molise he described environmental concerns as a great contemporary challenge and opposed deforestation. He believes that development should respect what Christians see as creation, and that exploiting the earth is sinful. Francis told the Second International Conference on Nutrition, held in Rome by the Food and Agriculture Organization, that a lack of protection to the ecology may generate unwanted problems. Francis plans a meeting with leaders of main religions to increase awareness of the state of the climate. A Papal Encyclical is being prepared on global warming, attempting to influence the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference. This project is opposed by Vatican conservatives and the US evangelical movement, who think that the Pope has no scientific expertise to get involved, and that the history of the relationship between religion and science would advise against it.
Another theme Pope Francis emphasized in his first address to the cardinals is the approach to evangelization. He talked about the significance of the Holy Spirit for it. It is a theme he has repeated in other occasions, specifically in his biography, where he spoke about pastoral reforms and making the Church closer to the people. He observed that the church may not attract people if they are forced to fit within complex structures and habits. He thought that the church should not regulate faith, but rather facilitate faith.
He compared the "Aparecida" document with the Evangelii nuntiandi exhortation. He pointed that the main idea of the document is to actively preach for society at large. He rejected the strong conservatism that follows documents to the letter, and encouraged a pragmatic approach instead. For instance, he proposed that if fewer people go to Mass, then the priests should find alternative ways to reach the people.
At a meeting of Latin American bishops in 2007, Bergoglio said that, despite the economic growth, poverty had not been reduced in the continent, and asked for a better income distribution. On 30 September 2009, Bergoglio spoke at a conference organized by the Argentina City Postgraduate School (EPOCA) at the Alvear Palace Hotel in which he quoted the 1992 "Documento de Santo Domingo" by the Latin American Episcopal Conference, saying "extreme poverty and unjust economic structures that cause great inequalities" are violations of human rights. He went on to describe social debt as "immoral, unjust and illegitimate".
During a 48-hour public servant strike in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Bergoglio criticized unequal treatment of the judiciary to poor and rich people. In 2002, during an economic crisis, Bergoglio harshly criticized those in power, saying, "Let's not tolerate the sad spectacle of those who no longer know how to lie and contradict themselves to hold onto their privileges, their rapaciousness, and their ill-earned wealth." During a May 2010 Mass celebrated by twenty bishops commemorating the Argentina Bicentennial in front of the basilica of Luján, an important Catholic institution and destination of pilgrimage, Bergoglio criticized the reduced social concern over poverty, and exhorted Catholics to ask the Virgin of Luján to "take care of our motherland, particularly those who are most forgotten". In line with the Catholic Church's efforts to care for AIDS victims, in 2001 he visited a hospice where he washed and kissed the feet of twelve AIDS patients. As Pope Francis he spoke out over the collapse of Rana Plaza garment factory in April 2013, which killed over a thousand people, and condemned the low pay workers received.
Pope Francis urged world leaders to prevent excessive monetary ambitions, which he said had become similar to an idolatry of money, and urged them to provide more welfare aid. Dealing with the Great Recession, the pope criticized unbridled capitalism, considering that it judged human beings purely by their ability to consume goods and made people miserable. He said that social inequality is caused by economic liberalism, and preferred economic systems with a higher intervention by the state. During a May 2014 meeting with U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, Francis called on the United Nations to encourage a better income distribution.
Pope Francis deplores modern slavery and, together with a diverse group of leaders from other religions, he signed a declaration promising to inspire action worldwide in an effort to eliminate slavery by 2020. Both Pope Francis and the declaration described slavery as a crime against humanity. During his new year mass in 2015 Francis pressed people from all cultures and religions to combat human trafficking and modern slavery according to their responsibilities. Francis said all human beings are brothers and sisters and all have a right to be free.
Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel consulted Francis on 18 May 2013, and later the same day called for more stringent controls of financial markets. Francis has referred many times to the Eurozone crisis that affect Greece and Roman Catholic Southern European nations. Nevertheless, Pope Francis considers that starvation and homeless people are bigger problems than the financial crises. George Haley of New Haven University said that Francis thinks that capitalism should reduce income disparity, and proposed that he used the diplomatic influence of the Vatican to suggest changes in national economies. Rohit Arora is concerned that Francis has not come up with any specific way to solve income inequality and believes if the pope is serious he should do so. Joseph Pastore believes the wealth of the Catholic Church prevents Francis from taking a polarizing position and is unsure how far Francis can reform the Church.
Just as the commandment "Thou shalt not kill" sets a clear limit in order to safeguard the value of human life, today we also have to say "thou shalt not" to an economy of exclusion and inequality. Such an economy kills. ... A new tyranny is thus born, invisible and often virtual, which unilaterally and relentlessly imposes its own laws and rules. To all this we can add widespread corruption and self-serving tax evasion, which has taken on worldwide dimensions. The thirst for power and possessions knows no limits.
Pope Francis' views were called Marxist by Rush Limbaugh and other conservatives as a result of his critique of capitalism with absolute market autonomy. Pope Francis responded that "Marxist ideology is wrong. But I have met many Marxists in my life who are good people, so I don't feel offended ... there is nothing in the exhortation that cannot be found in the social doctrine of the church." He later postulated that the Communists "stole" the flag of Christianity as "the flag of the poor is Christian. Poverty is at the center of the Gospel."
Soon after Francis became Pope, the Brazilian theologian Leonardo Boff, supporter of the Liberation Theology, was cited in an article praising Francis. This led to a rumor that Francis may support that theology as well, which was soon disproved. According to Catholic Herald, Francis was indeed familiar with the liberation theology and opposed it, even when his peers did not. He also wrote in the preface of a book by Uruguayan essayst Guzmán Carriquiry Lecour that the proponents of the liberation theology have been unable to reformulate it after the collapse of Marxism, and thus it became anachronic. His theologian of reference was Juan Carlos Scannone, a fellow jesuit, who did not agree with the liberation theology either.
Despite his rejection of the theology, Francis met with Gustavo Gutiérrez, who is usually regarded as its founder. Gutiérrez had co-authored a book with Gerhard Ludwig Müller, prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. The Vatican's semiofficial newspaper L'Osservatore Romano said at the time that the liberation theology should not continue to be ignored.
Historian Roberto Bosca at the University of Astral in Buenos Aires says that Pope Francis may be to some extent sympathetic towards liberation theology, save for its ideological aspects. The real cause of his opposition would have been the Montoneros, a terrorist group similar to the European Red Brigades that caused nearly 6,000 deaths. The Montoneros claimed to follow the liberation theology, and Bergoglio did not want to give "a Catholic blessing to armed insurgency".
Throughout his papacy, Pope Francis has been a vocal opponent of both the practice and legality of abortion. In March 2013, shortly after his election to the papacy, Francis sent a letter to bishops in his native Argentina, asking them to use the Aparecida document to deny communion to Catholic politicians who support legal abortion. In May 2013, Francis unexpectedly participated in Italy's pro-life march in Rome, asking its participants to protect human life "from the moment of conception". Also, as the mostly Catholic country of Ireland was preparing legislation to legalize abortion, Francis sent a message to the Irish asking them to protect the lives of both the unborn and the vulnerable people. Also in May 2013, during a Wednesday audience Francis officially blessed the pro-life march in Szczecin, Poland, one of Europe's largest pro-life events and, speaking in Italian, encouraged the Poles to defend the unborn. He mantained that human life should be respected all the way from conception to the natural death.
At a September 2013 meeting with Catholic gynecologists, Francis condemned abortion saying that: "Every child that isn't born, but is unjustly condemned to be aborted, has the face of Jesus Christ, has the face of the Lord." He advised the gynecologists to invoke the conscience clause to refuse to perform abortions, if so requested.
Francis also thought, as a Cardinal, that the church should support the women who carry on with their pregnancy despite being a single parent, rejecting the option to abort. He mantained that, in those cases, priests should not refuse to baptize those kids. Pope Francis baptised the baby of an unmarried couple in the Sistine Chapel during Baptism of the Lord mass at the Vatican.
Ordination of women
Francis spoke out often about the importance of women in the Roman Catholic Church. He considers that they have a special role in spreading the faith to their children and grandchildren. He also considers that, although the first witnesses of the resurrection of Jesus were women, their significance was ignored because for the Jewish law of the time only males were credible witness.
Francis has addressed the subject of the ordination of women a number of times. Like Benedict XVI and John Paul II before him, he views women in the Church as "special" and fundamentally different from men, as they provide it with familial love. Despite this, in the opinion of Francis, all people in the Church should follow the teachings of the Magisterium given by the men who are pope and bishops faithfully and obediently remaining loyal to the catechism. Francis was non-committal about whether women should lead more in administration and pastoral activities, but has ruled out the possibility of female priests, citing discussions of the time of John Paul II.
Erin Saiz Hanna of the Women's Ordination Conference, however, accused Francis of a selective use of evidence, as there would be other overlooked antecedents that may support the idea. She mentioned that the Pontifical Biblical Commission had once concluded that there were no scriptural or theological problems with ordaining women, and cited the attitude of Jesus towards women and their leadership in the early church. She also suggested that his rejection to the ordination of women may be at odds with his tolerance of gay priests, mentioned in the same interview.
Cardinal Timothy Dolan thinks female cardinals are a theoretical possibility because cardinals do not need to be ordained. Despite this, Francis ruled out female cardinals in December 2013. Award winning journalist Angela Bonavoglia called it an "indefensible gender apartheid" within the church.
Francis has criticized the perceived hunger of power of some sectors of the curia, which come at the expense of a proper religious life. He thinks that gossip is a danger to the reputation of people, and that the presence of cliques within organizations is a threat to both the individual and the organization. Francis thinks that priests should be in contact with the people as much as possible, and avoid isolation. He also suggests that priests should encourage people to be optimistic. He has been supported by Rome bishops, priests, deacons and seminarians from the English-speaking world who attended the second international conference of the Confraternities of Catholic Clergy.
In September 2013, Pope Francis approved the excommunication of Australian priest Greg Reynolds, the first during his papacy. He was accused of heresy and sacrilegious treatment of the consecrated host. His public preaching contradicting church teaching was also referenced in the letter of excommunication. A letter sent by Melbourne Archbishop Denis Hart to the priests of his diocese cited his support for the ordination of women and "his public celebration of the Eucharist when he did not hold faculties to act publicly as a priest". Reynolds said that his support of same sex marriage was also a factor, though not mentioned.
As a cardinal, Bergoglio's views regarding the celibacy of priests were recorded in the book On Heaven and Earth, a record of conversations conducted with a Buenos Aires rabbi. He considers that celibacy is a matter of discipline rather than faith, and that tradition and experience would advise to keep it. He noted that the Byzantine, Ukrainian, Russian, and Greek Catholic Churches allow marriage for priests, but not for bishops.[j] He said that many of those in Western Catholicism who are pushing for more discussion about the issue do so from a position of pragmatism, based on a loss of manpower. He states that "If, hypothetically, Western Catholicism were to review the issue of celibacy, I think it would do so for cultural reasons (as in the East), not so much as a universal option." He emphasized that, in the meantime, the rule must be strictly adhered to, and any priest who cannot obey it should leave the ministry.
The National Catholic Reporter's Vatican analyst, Thomas J. Reese, also a Jesuit, praised Bergoglio's use of conditional language. He said that phrases like "for the moment" and "for now" are "not the kind of qualifications one normally hears when bishops and cardinals discuss celibacy."
The initial reports that Francis considered that the use of methods intended for contraception with the purpose of preventing disease might be permissible were disputed by others who said he was "unwaveringly orthodox on matters of sexual morality". Before becoming Pope he opposed the free distribution of contraceptives when it was introduced by the Kirchner government. Francis has affirmed Catholic doctrine on artificial contraception but maintains "responsible parenthood" is important. Francis suggested population experts recommend three children in a family and added that Christians do not need to breed ‘like rabbits’. Francis encourages natural family planning such as avoiding sexual intercourse when the woman is fertile.
As bishop and Pope, Francis restated the Church's principle: that homosexual practice is intrinsically immoral, but that every homosexual person should be treated with respect and love. He opposes same-sex marriage, including the 2010 Argentine bill to legalize it. In July 2010, while the law was under consideration, he wrote a letter to Argentina's cloistered nuns in which he said the Argentine nuclear family could be seriously harmed. He thought that children would face discrimination and lose the development that a father and mother give.
Let's not be naive: This is not a simple political fight; it is a destructive proposal to God's plan. This is not a mere legislative proposal (that's just its form), but a move by the father of lies that seeks to confuse and deceive the children of God ... Let's look to St. Joseph, Mary, and the Child to ask fervently that they defend the Argentine family in this moment... May they support, defend, and accompany us in this war of God.
After L'Osservatore Romano reported this, several priests expressed their support for the law and one was defrocked. Observers believe that the church's opposition and Bergoglio's language worked in favor of the law's passage and that in response, Catholic officials adopted a more conciliatory tone in later debates on social issues such as parental surrogacy.
Rubin, Bergoglio's biographer, said that while taking a strong stand against same-sex marriage, Bergoglio raised the possibility in 2010 with his bishops in Argentina that they support the idea of civil unions as a compromise position. According to one news report by The New York Times, a majority of the bishops voted to overrule him. Miguel Woites, the director of the Catholic News Agency of Argentina, denied that Bergoglio ever made such a proposal, but additional sources, including two Argentine journalists and two senior officials of the Argentine bishops conference, supported Rubin's account.
According to two gay rights activists, Marcelo Márquez and Andrés Albertsen, in private conversations with them, Bergoglio expressed support for the spiritual needs of "homosexual people" and willingness to support "measured actions" on their behalf.
Discussing homosexuals (people in general and clergy), he said in July 2013 "If a person is gay and seeks God and has good will, who am I to judge them?", reminding people to seek and encourage obedience to God, echoing the sentiments of Saint Peter in Acts 10:34b-35, "I truly understand that God shows no partiality, but in every nation anyone" who respects God and "does what is right is acceptable". These remarks have been seen as an encouraging change of tone from the papacy, so much so that the American LGBT magazine The Advocate named Pope Francis their Person of the Year for 2013.
On 5 January 2014, the Vatican denied that the Pontiff supports gay unions. In response to various Italian tabloid articles released in the media, Vatican spokesman Father Federico Lombardi cited that various media misinterpretations are "paradoxical" and manipulative in misusing Pope Francis' words noted in response to children growing up in non-traditional families. The New York Times considers that Bergoglio may have supported gay unions in Argentina only as a negotiated compromise, but that his context as a Pope is very different.
In 2015, Pope Francis declared that "the family is threatened by growing efforts on the part of some to redefine the very institution of marriage" and suggested that same-sex marriage "disfigures God's plan for creation." The Pontiff supported the Slovak referendum on banning gay marriage and gay adoption in an address to St Peters square, stating "I wish to express my appreciation to the entire Slovak church, encouraging everyone to continue their efforts in defense of the family, the vital cell of society."
Francis condemned persecution of religious minorities in Iraq, some victims Christian. He did not mention Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant specifically but is believed to have referred to it. Francis mentioned children dying of hunger and thirst, kidnapped women, massacres and violence of all kinds. In the opinion of Francis war and hatred cannot be carried out in the name of God. Francis thanked brave people bringing aid to those driven from their homes. He confidently expects an effective solution to stop those crimes and return the area to the rule of law and, in a break with Vatican tradition, supports the use of force to stop Islamic militants from attacking religious minorities in Iraq.
Capital punishment and life imprisonment
Pope Francis proposed the abolition of both capital punishment and life imprisonment in a meeting with representatives of the International Association of Penal Law. He thinks that states should find another way to protect people from aggresion, and includes deaths caused by police brutality and extrajudicial punishment. He accepted that the Church accepts it when there are no other options to protect the people, but considers that nowadays such cases may be minimal or even nonexistent. He also thinks that life imprisonment, recently removed from the Vatican penal code, is just a variation of the death penalty.
Role in international diplomacy
Pope Francis played a key role in the talks toward restoring full diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Cuba. The restoration was jointly announced by US President Barack Obama and Cuban President Raúl Castro on Wednesday, 17 December 2014. The headline in the Los Angeles Times on 19 December 2014 was "Bridge to Cuba via Vatican," with the further lead "In a rare and crucial role, Pope Francis helped keep U.S. talks with Havana on track and guided final deal." The pope was a behind the scenes broker of the agreement, taking the role following Obama's request during his visit to the pope in March 2014. The success of the negotiations was credited to Francis because "as a religious leader with the confidence of both sides, he was able to convince the Obama and Castro administrations that the other side would live up to the deal."
In December 2014, Pope Francis declined to meet with the Dalai Lama, the Nobel Peace Prize winner in 1989. According to a New York Times report, a Vatican spokesman said "Pope Francis obviously holds the Dalai Lama in very high regard, but he will not be meeting any of the Nobel [Peace] laureates." This refusal has been interpreted as a success for China, which sees the Dalai Lama as a major critic of the Chinese regime. The last meeting between the Dalai Lama and a pope was with Benedict XVI in 2006.
Popular mainstream media frequently portray Pope Francis either as a progressive papal reformer or with liberal, moderate values. The Vatican has claimed that Western news outlets often seek to portray his message with a less-doctrinal tone of papacy, in hopes of extrapolating his words to convey a more merciful and tolerant message. Reporters have extrapolated that the Pontiff plans to change Catholic doctrine as part of a reform of the Roman Curia. In the news media, both faithful and non-believers often refer to a "honeymoon" phase in which the Pope has changed the tone on Catholic doctrines and supposedly initiated ecclesiastical reform in the Vatican.
In December 2013, both Time and The Advocate magazines named the Pontiff as their Person of the Year in praise and hopes of reforming the Roman Curia while hoping to change the Catholic Church's doctrine on various controversial issues. In addition, Esquire magazine named him as the Best-dressed man for 2013 for his simpler vestments often in tune with a modern simplistic design on sartorial fashion. Rolling Stone magazine followed in January 2014 by making the Pontiff their featured front cover. The magazine Fortune also ranked Pope Francis as number No. 1 in their list of 50 greatest leaders.
In March 2013, a new song was dedicated to Francis and released in Brazilian Portuguese, European Portuguese and Italian, titled Come Puoi ("How You Can"). Also in March, Pablo Buera, the mayor of La Plata, Argentina, announced that the city had renamed a section of a street leading up to a local cathedral Papa Francisco. There are already efforts to name other streets after him, as well as a school where he studied as a child. A proposal to create a commemorative coin as a tribute to Pope Francis was made in Argentina's lower house on 28 November 2013. On the coins it would read, "Tribute from the Argentine People to Pope Francis." beneath his face. As of May 2013, sales of papal souvenirs, a sign of popularity, were up.
Pope Francis was scheduled to preside over his first joint public wedding ceremony in a Nuptial Mass for 20 couples from the Archdiocese of Rome on Sunday, 14 September 2014, just a few weeks before the start of the 5–19 October Extraordinary Synod of Bishops on the Family. Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI did not do this during his eight-year reign from 2005–2013; his predecessor, Pope Saint John Paul II, married a group of couples from all over the world in 2000, as part of the Jubilee for Families, and before that in 1994 during the Church's Year of the Family, as well as presiding over a number of private marriages as Pope. All three married individuals during their cardinalatial years before their elections.
In early December 2014, it was announced that Argentine actor Darío Grandinetti will play Pope Francis in a new movie (will be shot in January 2015) based on Vatican correspondent Elisabettta Pique's biography "Pope Francis: Life and Revolution: A Biography of Jorge Bergoglio”.
Titles and styles
The official style of the Pope in English is His Holiness Pope Francis; in Latin, Franciscus, Episcopus Romae. Holy Father is another honorific often used for popes.
His full title, rarely used, is:
- His Holiness Francis, Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, Successor of the Prince of the Apostles, Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Sovereign of the Vatican City State, Servant of the servants of God.
The best-known title, that of "Pope", does not appear in the official list of titles, but is commonly used in the titles of documents, and appears, in abbreviated form, in their signatures as "PP." standing for Papa (Pope).
It is customary when referring to popes to translate the regnal name into local languages. Thus he is Papa Franciscus in Latin (the official language of the Holy See), Papa Francesco in Italian (the language of the Vatican), Papa Francisco in his native Spanish, and Pope Francis in English.
Coat of arms
|Library resources about
|By Pope Francis|
- Bergoglio, Jorge (1982). Meditaciones para religiosos [Meditations for the Religious] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Diego de Torres. OCLC 644781822.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (1992). Reflexiones en esperanza [Reflections of Hope] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Ediciones Universidad del Salvador. OCLC 36380521.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2003). Educar: exigencia y pasión: desafíos para educadores cristianos [To Educate: Exactingness and Passion: Challenges for Christian Educators] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 9789505124572.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2003). Ponerse la patria al hombro: memoria y camino de esperanza [Putting the Motherland on One's Shoulders: Memoir and Path of Hope] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 9789505125111.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2005). La nación por construir: utopía, pensamiento y compromiso: VIII Jornada de Pastoral Social [The Nation to Be Built: Utopia, Thought, and Commitment] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 9789505125463.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2006). Corrupción y pecado: algunas reflexiones en torno al tema de la corrupción [Corruption and Sin: Some Thoughts on Corruption] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 9789505125722.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2006). Sobre la acusación de sí mismo [On Self-Accusation, (or from the Italian, Humility: The Road towards God)] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 978-950-512-549-4.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2007). El verdadero poder es el servicio [True Power Is Service] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. OCLC 688511686.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2009). Seminario: las deudas sociales de nuestro tiempo: la deuda social según la doctrina de la iglesia [Seminar: the Social Debts of Our Time: Social Debt According to Church Doctrine] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: EPOCA-USAL. ISBN 9788493741235.
- Bergoglio, Jorge; Skorka, Abraham (2010). Sobre el cielo y la tierra [On Heaven and Earth] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana. ISBN 9789500732932.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2010). Seminario Internacional: consenso para el desarrollo: reflexiones sobre solidaridad y desarrollo [International seminar: Consensus about Development: Reflexions on Solidarity and development] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: EPOCA. ISBN 9789875073524.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2011). Nosotros como ciudadanos, nosotros como pueblo: hacia un bicentenario en justicia y solidaridad [Ourselves as Citizens, Ourselves as a People: towards a Bicentenary in Justice and Solidarity] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 9789505127443.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (1995). La vida sagrada y su misión en la Iglesia y en el mundo (in Spanish). Argentina Catholic University: Faculty of Theology. OCLC 806712655.
- Egan, Edward Michael; Bergoglio, Jorge (2001). Episcopus minister Evangelii Iesu Christi propter spem mundi: relatio post disceptationem. The Catholic Church. The Synod of Bishops. Ordinary General Assembly. E Civitate Vaticana. OCLC 749998123.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2003). "For Man". In Buzzi, Elisa. A Generative Thought: An Introduction to the Works of Luigi Giussani. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 79–83. ISBN 0773526129.
- John Paul, Pope; Castro, Fidel (2004). Bergoglio, Jorge, ed. Diálogos entre Juan Pablo II y Fidel Castro [Dialogues Between John Paul II and Fidel Castro] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Ciudad Argentina. ISBN 9789875070745.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2007). "Buscar el camino hacia el futuro, llevando consigo la memoria de las raíces". Humanitas (in Spanish) (National Humanities Institute) (47): 468–483. OCLC 176911626.
- Castiñeira de Dios, José María (2007). El santito Ceferino Namuncurá: relato en verso (in Spanish). Foreword by Jorge Bergoglio. Buenos Aires: Lumen. ISBN 9789870007340.
- Official Vatican transcript in English of IEC Catechesis The Eucharist: Gift from God for the life of the world (2008) (originally given in Spanish), 49th International Eucharistic Congress, Quebec, Canada
- Agencia Informativa Católica Argentina (1999–2012). Documentos de los obispos: Homilías y documentos del cardenal Bergoglio (in Spanish)
|Ancestors of Pope Francis|
- Jesuit formation
- Latin Church
- List of pastoral visits of Pope Francis outside Italy
- List of current Christian leaders
- List of current heads of state and government
- Press reports have provided a variety of translations for the phrase. According to Vatican Radio: "Pope Francis has chosen the motto Miserando atque eligendo, meaning lowly but chosen; literally in Latin by having mercy, by choosing him. The motto is one Francis used as bishop. It is taken from the homilies of the Venerable Bede on Saint Matthew's Gospel relating to his vocation: 'Jesus saw the tax collector and by having mercy chose him as an apostle saying to him: Follow me.'"
- Pronunciation: [ˈxorxe ˈmaɾjo βerˈɣoɣljo] (Spanish), [berˈɡɔʎʎo] (Italian)
- Aside from endorsing women's ordination and celebrating illicit Masses, Father Greg Reynolds is accused by the Holy Office of desecrating the Eucharistic species by indirectly feeding such to a dog.
- This devotion has since spread to Brazil; it "attracts people with small problems". Bergoglio had an image of Mary Untier of Knots inscribed on a chalice he presented to Pope Benedict XVI in 2005.
- The woman had been impregnated by a relative. A legal battle delayed the abortion, and once it was authorized, local medical officials deemed it dangerous to perform in the pregnancy's fourth month. Argentina's health minister, Gines Gonzalez Garcia, provided free air transportation for the woman and her mother to another city where the abortion was performed.
- One source says that the gospel was chanted in Greek during the pope's inauguration Mass in recognition of Bartholomew's historic attendance, but the Vatican News Service paraphrased Federico Lombardi of the Vatican Press Office as explaining that "[t]he Gospel will be proclaimed in Greek, as at the highest solemnities, to show that the universal Church is made up of the great traditions of the East and the West." (emphasis added)
- On the day of his election, the Vatican clarified that his official papal name was "Francis", not "Francis I". A Vatican spokesman said that the name would become Francis I if and when there is a Francis II.
- Pope John Paul I, elected in 1978, took a new combination of already used names, in honor of his two immediate predecessors, John XXIII and Paul VI.
- italics added to refer to English translation of the Latin motto
- Both in the Eastern Catholic Churches and in the Eastern Orthodox Churches, married men can be ordained to the priesthood, but priests cannot marry after having been ordained. See Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 795
- Veronica Scarisbrick (18 March 2013). "Pope Francis: "Miserando atque eligendo"...". Vatican Radio. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis was a nightclub bouncer | Sky News Australia". Skynews.com.au. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Cardinal Walter Kasper Says Pope Francis Will Bring New Life To Vatican II". Huffingtonpost.com. 13 April 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Feiden, Douglas (13 March 2013). "Pope Francis, the new leader of the Catholic Church, praised by many for practicing what he preaches, his humble nature and his empathy for the poor". New York Daily News. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- Vallely, Paul (14 March 2013). "Pope Francis profile: Jorge Mario Bergoglio, a humble man who moved out of a palace into an apartment, cooks his own meals and travels by bus". The Independent (London). Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- Povoledo, Elisabetta (22 March 2013). "Pope Appeals for More Interreligious Dialogue". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- EWTN: Threshold of Hope; 27 March 2014, Father Z: What does Prayer Really Say, Michael Voris: Saint Michael Apostolate Media
- Willey, David (16 March 2013). "Pope Francis' first moves hint at break with past, 16 March 2013". BBC. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Holy mass in the parish of St. Anna in the Vatican". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 17 March 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Pope Francis: Who am I to judge gay people?". BBC. 29 July 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- "In West Hollywood, Pope Francis' stand on gays is unimpressive". Los Angeles Times. 14 March 2013.
- Tufft, Ben (18 January 2015). "Pope Francis warns that same-sex marriage 'threatens the family' and 'disfigures God's plan for creation'". independent.co.uk. The Independent. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- Winfield, Nicole (19 January 2015). ""Same-sex marriage a threat to family" claims Pope". independent.ie. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- NEIL JEROME MORALES; PHILIP PULLELLA (16 January 2015). "Pope says 'ideological colonisation' threatens traditional family". uk.reuters.com. Reuters. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- Whaley, Floyd (16 January 2015). "As Pope Francis Visits Philippines, Tensions Between Church and Government Surface". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- ROUCHELLE R. DINGLASAN (17 January 2015). "Pope sticks to Church stand [sic] on same-sex marriages". gmanetwork.com. GMA News. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- Miller, Hayler (17 January 2015). "Pope Sends Mixed Signals on Marriage Equality". hrc.org. Human Rights Campaign. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- Michele Richinick (16 January 2015). "Pope Francis suggests gay marriage threatens traditional families". msnbc.com. MSNBC. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- "Pope, after conservatives' criticism, calls abortion "horrific"". Reuters. 13 January 2014.
- "Never be afraid of tenderness". La Stampa. 14 December 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
- "ROME REPORTS, All the news and videos on the Pope and the Vatican". Romereports.com. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Kington, Tom (5 January 2014). "Vatican says pope's comments on gay couples don't mark policy change". Los Angeles Times.
- "Pope encouraged Malta bishop to speak out against gay adoption bill :: Catholic News Agency (CNA)". Catholic News Agency. 3 January 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Uhr (24 December 2013). "Katholische Kirche – Meisner bestreitet Reformbedarf". Deutschlandfunk.de. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Thompson, Damian (27 September 2013). "Excommunicated priest Greg Reynolds celebrated illicit Mass at which Communion was given to a dog". The Telegraph (London).
- Horowitz, Alana (29 December 2013). "Pope Francis 'Shocked' By Gay Adoption Bill: Report". Huffington Post.
- "Report: Pope Francis ‘Shocked’ by Same-Sex Adoption Proposal". Time. 30 December 2013.
- Laurie Goodstein (19 September 2013). "Pope Says Church Is ‘Obsessed’ With Gays, Abortion and Birth Control". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Pope Francis Excommunicates Priest Who Backed Women's Ordination and Gays". Time. 25 September 2013.
- "BBC News – Pope to meet sex abuse victims at the Vatican". Bbc.co.uk. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Eliana Dockterman (26 May 2014). "Pope Francis Declares 'Zero Tolerance' Sex-Abuse Policy for Church". TIME. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Bowen, Jeremy (27 May 2014). "BBC News – Pope's 'zero tolerance' vow on abuse will now need action". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Claudio Iván Remeseira: Pope Francis: A humble and outspoken man, and technically also Italian NBCLatino, 14 March 2013
- Garrido, J. (16 March 2013). "Vida y trayectoria de Bergoglio en seis capítulos". La Tercera. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- "Vatican Web site, from L'Osservatore Romano, Year LXIII, number 12: biography of the Holy Father Francis". Vatican.va. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "La Nación newspaper: ... "Regina María Sívori, su mamá" ..., 17 March 2013". Lanacion.com.ar. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Stella, Gian Antonio (14 March 2013). "Tango e battesimo, fidanzata e vangelo l'alfabeto misto di Papa Francesco". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 14 March 2013.
Mio padre era di Portacomaro (Asti, ndr) e mia madre di Buenos Aires, con sangue piemontese e genovese
- "Bergoglio Card. Jorge Mario, S.I.". College of Cardinals Biographical notes. Vatican.va. 9 November 2011. Archived from the original on 14 March 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Rice-Oxley, Mark (13 March 2013). "Pope Francis: the humble pontiff with practical approach to poverty". The Guardian (UK) (London). Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Donovan, Jeffrey (13 March 2013). "Argentina's Cardinal Bergoglio Is Elected Pope Francis". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Barney Henderson (14 March 2013). "Pope Francis elected leader of Catholic Church: latest". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Rosales & Olivera 2013, p. 5.
- "Jorge is against regimes. It is because of fascism that our father emigrated". La Stampa. 17 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Falleció el hermano del Cardenal Bergoglio". Perfil. 17 June 2010. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- Hutchinson, John (16 March 2013). "From fresh-faced schoolboy to leader of 1.2 billion Catholics: Charming images shed light on Pope Francis' early life growing up in Buenos Aires". Daily Mail (London).
- "Jorge Bergoglio, un sacerdote jesuita de carrera" [Jorge Bergoglio, a career Jesuit priest]. La Nación (in Spanish). 13 March 2013.
- "Biography: who is Jorge Mario Bergoglio?". News.va. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- "Su etapa de laboratorista". Clarín. 17 March 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
- Burke, Daniel (3 December 2013). "Pope: I was once a bar bouncer". CNN. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Chua, Howard (11 December 2013). "TIME's Person of the Year 2013 Pope Francis, The People's Pope | TIME.com". Poy.time.com. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Anna Edwards (3 December 2013). "Pope Francis reveals he used to be a BOUNCER before becoming pontiff | Mail Online". London: Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Lifschitz, Alejandro (13 March 2013). "Argentina's pope a modest man focused on the poor". Reuters. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Club Atlético San Lorenzo de Almagro (14 March 2013). "Pope Francis is a card-carrying San Lorenzo supporter".
- "Bergoglio, sobre todo 'pastor', tanguero y simpatizante de San Lorenzo". Agencia Informativa Católica Argentina (in Spanish). 13 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "3 relatives of pope killed in crash in Argentina – Chicago Tribune". chicagotribune.com. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "CNS STORY: Pope asks prayers after great nephews, their mother die in car crash". Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Bergoglio, Jorge Mario". Breve biografía de obispos (in Spanish). La Agencia Informativa Católica Argentina. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis, Jorge Mario Bergoglio, S.J.". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- Connor, Tracy, "Pope Francis spoke of being 'dazzled' by girl, possible change of celibacy rule", worldnews.nbcnews.com, 21 March 2013, Retrieved 21 March 2013
- "En 1958, Bergoglio hizo su noviciado en Chile". La Segunda (in Spanish). 13 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Lanser, p. 96
- Rosales & Olivera, p. 42
- "Pope Francis: Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio named new Pope". Baltimore News Journal. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Juan Manuel Jaime – José Luis Rolón. "Official website, Facultades de Filosofía y Teología de San Miguel". Facultades-smiguel.org.ar. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church – Biographies – A". .fiu.edu. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Why Bergoglio travels so little". Vatican Insider. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- [The Vatican Today, 13 March 2013, Biograpgy: who is Jorge Mario Bergoglio?, retrieved 6 April 2013
- [The Irish Independent, 30 March 2013, , retrieved 10 November 2013
- "Neuigkeiten 14.03". Hochschule. Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Sankt Georgen. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
...einige Monate in Sankt Georgen verbrachte, um sich mit einzelnen Professoren über ein Dissertationsprojekt zu beraten. Zu einem Abschluss in Sankt Georgen ist es nicht gekommen.
- "Biografía de Jorge Bergoglio". El Litoral (in Spanish). 14 March 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "El Santuario". Parroquia San José del Talar. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Baumann, Andrea (15 March 2013). "Was Papst Franziskus in Augsburg machte". Augsburger Allgemeine (in German). Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- Bellos, Alex (23 December 2001). "Virgin painting ties Brazilians in knots". The Guardian (UK) (London). Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Jiménez, Pablo (14 March 2013). "The Pope's chalice: silver-made, austere and featuring Our Lady of Luján". Buenos Aires Herald. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Shkodziska, Oksana (13 March 2013). "Patriarch Sviatoslav: Newly Elected Pope Knows Ukrainian Catholic Church, its Liturgy and Spirituality". Religious Information Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- The titular see of Auca, established in 1969, is seated at Villafranca Montes de Oca, Spain: Titular See of Auca, Spain.
- "Francis Toughened by Argentine Politics Ready for Papal Test". Blomberg. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Glatz, Carol (15 March 2013). "Pope's episcopal motto comes from homily by English doctor of church". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "Jesuit Argentine Cardinal Bergoglio elected pope, takes name Francis". jesuit.org. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "Haley Cohen, "Slum Priest: Pope Francis' Early Year", ''The Atlantic'', 20 March 2013". Theatlantic.com. 20 March 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Puella, Phillip (9 May 2014). "U.N. should encourage redistribution of wealth, pope says". Reuters. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- Coday, Dennis (4 April 2013). "John Allen, "Former aide says Francis may close Vatican Bank", ''National Catholic Reporter'', 4 April 2013". Ncronline.org. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Magister, Sandro (2 December 2002). "Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Profession: Servant of the Servants of God". L'espresso. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Hebblethwaite, Margaret (14 March 2013). "The Pope Francis I know". The Guardian (UK) (London). Retrieved 16 March 2013.
Luro talked to me at length about her friend, of whom she has the highest opinion, and told me how she would write to him almost weekly, and he would always reply by ringing her up and having a short chat. When Podesta was dying, Bergoglio was the only Catholic cleric who went to visit him in hospital, and, when he died, the only one who showed public recognition of his great contribution to the Argentinian church.
- Calloni, Stella (13 March 2013). "Acusado de tener vínculos con la dictadura; la derecha lo defiende". La Jornada (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Magister, Sandro (2 December 2002). "Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Profession: Servant of the Servants of God". L'espresso. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Pullella, Philip (21 March 2013). "Pope to hold major Holy Week service in youth jail". Reuters. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- Rocca, Francis X. (13 March 2013). "Next pope faces global challenges". Catholic San Francisco. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Rubin, Sergio (17 September 2007). "Regresó la misa en latín, con mujeres cubiertas por mantillas" (in Spanish). Clarin.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "El latín volvió a las misas" (in Spanish). Línea Capital. 17 September 2007. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "Elige Sus Nuevas Autoridades La Conferencia Episcopal". Mercedes Ya. 7 November 2005. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "El cardenal Bergoglio fue reelegido frente a la Conferencia Episcopal". DERF. 11 November 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- Speciale, Alessandro (15 March 2013). "Vatican defends Pope Francis' actions during Argentina's 'Dirty War'". Washington Post. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "Bergoglio presenta su renuncia como arzobispo de Buenos Aires, aunque seguirá en el cargo". Terra Noticias. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- "X Ordinary General Assembly (30 September – 27 October 2001)". Synod of Bishops. Holy See. Archived from the original on 19 February 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- Poirier, José Maria (13 March 2013). "Features Quiet thunder in Argentina". Catholic Herald. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Synodus Episcoporum Bulletin 30 September – 27 October 2001". Holy See Press Office. 27 October 2001. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Allen, Jr., John L. (3 March 2013). "Profile: New pope, Jesuit Bergoglio, was runner-up in 2005 conclave". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Rubin, Sergio (14 March 2013). "'El Jesuita,' biography of Jorge Bergoglio, tells of Pope Francis' humble beginnings in the church that he maintained throughout his cardinalship". New York Daily News. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- Falasca, Sefania (November 2007). "What I would have said at the Consistory". 30 Giorni. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Maureen O'Riordan. "Saint Therese of Lisieux – "Saint Therese of Lisieux: A Gateway" Blog – Pope Francis and Saint Thérèse of Lisieux: "To depend solely on the tenderness of God"". Thereseoflisieux.org. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Argentine Cardinal Named in Kidnap Lawsuit". Los Angeles Times. 17 April 2005. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Allen, Jr., John L. (14 April 2005). "Handicapping the conclave". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- "Cardinal breaks conclave vow of secrecy". CNN. Associated Press. 23 September 2005. Archived from the original on 1 October 2005. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Wooden, Cindy (23 September 2005). "Article based on diary says German cardinal became pope with 84 votes". Catholic News. Article gives numbers for the four votes; Ratzinger had most votes, followed by Bergoglio.
- Rubin, p. 13
- Tosatti, Marco. "Ecco come andò davvero il Conclave del 2005". La Stampa (in Italian). Retrieved 13 March 2013. According to the source, Cardinal Bergoglio begged "almost in tears" ("quasi in lacrime" in Italian)
- Rubin, p. 15
- Manson, Jamie (15 March 2013). "One of Pope Francis' allegiances might tell us something about the church's future". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Sánchez Alvarado, Gretta (20 March 2013). "Francisco: 'El verdadero poder es el servicio'". El Naconal. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- McMahon, Colin (12 August 2005). "Sainthood effort for 5 slain recalls Argentine 'dirty war'". Chicago tribune. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- Schmall, Emily; Rother, Larry (13 March 2013). "A Conservative With a Common Touch". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "Bergoglio was a partner in crime in the silence of the church over the genocidal dictatorship".
- Coday, Dennis (17 March 2013). "Thomas Reese, "Francis, the Jesuits and the Dirty War", ''National Catholic Reporter'', 17 March 2013". Ncronline.org. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Argentine Cardinal Named in Kidnap Lawsuit". Los Angeles Times. 17 April 2005. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis Is Known For Simplicity And Humility". Associated Press. 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
Bergoglio—who ran Argentina's Jesuit order during the dictatorship—told Rubin that he regularly hid people on church property during the dictatorship, and once gave his identity papers to a man with similar features, enabling him to escape across the border.
- Miroff, Nick (17 March 2013). "Pope's activity in Dirty War Draws Scrutiny". Chicago Tribune (Sec. 1). Washington Post. p. 27.
- "Pope Francis: A look at the life of the first South American pontiff". The Star-Ledger. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "Declaration of Father Franz Jalics SJ" (in German). German Jesuit Web site. 15 March 2013.
- Watts, Jonathan (21 March 2013). "Pope Francis did not denounce me to Argentinian junta, says priest". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "Second Declaration of Father Franz Jalics SJ" (in German). German Jesuit Web site. 20 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis Is Known For Simplicity And Humility". Associated Press. 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
both men were freed after Bergoglio took extraordinary, behind-the-scenes action to save them—including persuading dictator Jorge Videla's family priest to call in sick so that he could say Mass in the junta leader's home, where he privately appealed for mercy.
- Pablo Javier Blanco (17 March 2013). "Dias inolvidables para su biógrafo" [Unforgettable days for his biographer]. El Papa del fin del mundo (in Spanish). Clarín. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Indart, Ramón (15 March 2013). "Alicia Oliveira: "Garré sabe todo lo que hizo Bergoglio"". Perfil (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- ""Yo pensaba si el padre éste era consciente de lo que se estaba jugando" ''La Nación'', 23 March 2013". Lanacion.com.ar. 23 March 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- ""Un cura español dice que el Papa evitó que lo mataran durante la dictadura argentina" ''El País'', 24 March 2013". Internacional.elpais.com. 24 March 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Hernandez, Vladimir (15 March 2013). "Argentina 'Dirty War' accusations haunt Pope Francis". BBC News. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- Watts, Jonathan; Goni, Uki (15 March 2013). "Pope Francis: role during Argentina's military era disputed". The Guardian.
- "'Bergoglio had no links with the dictatorship,' Peace Nobel Prize winner". Buenos Aires Herald. 14 March 2013.
- Fioriti, Santiago. "Atacan a Bergoglio porque Cristina no quería que fuera Papa". Clarín (in Spanish).
- """Bergoglio is completely innocent," says Argentina's Supreme Court", ''Vatican Insider'', 18 March 2013". Vaticaninsider.lastampa.it. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Uki Goñi (19 March 2013). "Pope Francis: what did he really do in Argentina in the 1970s?". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Joaquín Garau & Pablo Martín Fernández (19 March 2013). "The fake viral photo of pope Francis: who is the priest that gives the communion to Videla". Info Technology. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Rubin, p. 19
- Rubin, pp. 18–19
- Obarrio, Mariano (27 May 2004). "El mensaje de la Iglesia era para Kirchner" [The message of the church was for Kirchner] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Colonna, Lucas (24 May 2005). "Suspendió la Iglesia el tedeum en la Capital" [The church suspended the tedeum in the capital] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "Jorge Bergoglio y los Kirchner: años de una relación tensa" [Jorge Bergoglio and the Kirchners: years of a tense relation] (in Spanish). La Nación. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Francis X Rocca (13 March 2013). "Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio: a profile". Catholic Herald. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- Hoffman, Matthew Cullinan (5 October 2007). "Cardinal Archbishop of Buenos Aires Rages Against Abortion "Death Sentence"". LifeSiteNews. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Hoffman, Matthew Cullinan (1 October 2007). "Constitutional Struggle in Argentina Ends in Death for Unborn Child". Lifesitenews. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- Associated Press in Buenos Aires (27 March 2013). "Cristina Fernández de Kirchner turns Pope Francis from foe to friend". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "Pope's diplomacy put to test as political, religious leaders flock to Rome for installation". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Gilbert, Jonathan (18 March 2013). "Making nice? Argentina's Kirchner and Pope Francis meet in Rome". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Lefebure, Leo D., "Pope Francis and Interreligious Relations," parliamentofreligions.org, Retrieved 16 March 2013
- "Argentine Jews praise Pope Francis for interfaith dialogue", foxnews.com (from AP), 18 March 2013, Retrieved 19 March 2013
- Povoleto, Elisabetta, "Pope Francis Urges More Interreligious Dialogue", New York Times, 22 March 2013, Retrieved 26 March 2013
- "Pope Francis begins Middle East tour – Middle East". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Ritter, Karl, "Pope Francis reaches out to Jews", huffingtonpost.com, 16 March 2013, Retrieved 16 March 2013
- Faustova Milena, "Orthodox flock of Rome: hopes are high for the new pope", Radio, the Voice of Russia (english.ruvr.ru), 16 March 2013, Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Demacopoulos, George E., "The extraordinary historical significance of His Holiness' presence at Pope Francis' installation as Bishop of Rome", Archon News (Order of St. Andrew the Apostle), 19 March 2013, Retrieved 19 March 2013
- Pelowski, Alton J. (May 2013). "Our Eastern Brothers". Columbia. pp. 20–23.
- "Tomorrow, Mass of Inauguration of Bishop of Rome's Petrine Ministry". Vatican News Service. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- Affairs, Religious (15 March 2013). "The Telegraph newspaper: Pope Francis 'dismissed Anglican branch as quite unnecessary', 31 May 2013". London: Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "New pope has ties to Lutherans,says ELCA presiding bishop," ELCA news service, 13 March 2013, Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Stefan, Melissa, "Luis Palau: Why it matters that Pope Francis drinks mate with Evangelicals," Christianity Today, 14 March 2013, Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Weber, Jeremy, "Argentine Evangelicals say Bergoglio as Pope Francis 'answer to our prayers'", Christianity Today, 14 March 2013, Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Moon, Ruth, "Why Pope Francis excites (most) Evangelical leaders," Christianity Today, 14 March 2013, Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- "New pope, Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Argentina, has Jewish connections". JTA. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "New Pope's Relationship with Jews: Lit menorah during 2012 Hanukkah celebration in Argentina" (VIDEO), algemeiner.com, 16 March 2013, Retrieved 16 March 2013. The newscaster in this Argentinian television video notes that Bergoglio was the "guest of honor" and includes names and images of some of the other religious representatives who participated.
- thenews.pl, 21 November 2013, Retrieved October 26 2014
- Editorial, Jpost (14 March 2013). "Francis and the Jews in Jerusalem Post 14 March 2013". Jpost.com. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Goldman, Ari L., "Rome’s chief rabbi in the spotlight", The Jewish Week, 28 March 2013, Retrieved 1 April 2013
- Kaleem, Jaweed (26 June 2013). "Pope Francis on Jewish-Catholic Relations: Christians "Cannot Be Anti-Semitic!"". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
Pope Francis spoke out strongly on Catholic-Jewish relations, saying that "due to our common roots" a "Christian cannot be anti-Semitic!"
- West, Ed (24 June 2013). "Pope Francis condemns anti-Semitism". Catholic Herald. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- "Pope Francis 'a friend of the Islamic community", Buenos Aires Herald, 14 March 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013
- Ghosh, Palash, "Pope Francis: A friend to Muslims?", International Business Times, 15 March 2013, Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "Tawadros II thanks cardinals and Pope Francis for the "blessed choice"". Asia News. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- "Pope's call for interfaith amity", Saudi Gazette, 25 March 2013, Retrieved 26 March 2013
- Donadio, Rachel (16 March 2013). "With Blessing, Pope Shows an Openness to Other Faiths". New York Times. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- "Address of the Holy Father Pope Francis". Holy See. 20 March 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- Speciale, Alessandro (20 March 2013). "Pope Francis says atheists can be 'allies' for the church". Washington Post. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- Duke, Barry (26 March 2013). "Pope Francis extends a hand of friendship to atheists, even though we're disastrous for the world". The Freethinker. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- Wilde, Sara Lin (22 March 2013). "Pope Francis Reaches Out To the 'Nones': Can We Be The Pope's Allies?". Patheos. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- Pope Francis: God redeemed everyone, ‘not just Catholics’ Pope Francis Says Atheists Who Do Good Are Redeemed, Not Just CatholicsPope Francis says atheists can be good
- "Not so fast: Vatican says Pope Francis got it wrong, atheists do go to hell". The Washington Times. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Hertzberg, Hendrik. "The Truth about Pope Francis and Atheists". The New Yorker. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Michael Day (11 September 2013). "Pope Francis assures atheists: You don't have to believe in God to go to heaven – Europe – World – ''The Independent''". London: Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Vatican releases Pope Francis' coat of arms, motto and ring". The Telegraph (London). 18 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Lo Stemma di Papa Francesco". L'Osservatore Romano (Vatican website). Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Pope stresses simplicity, ecumenism in inaugural Mass plans". National Catholic Reporter. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis's missing lung should not be a problem, say doctors". London: The Guardian. 14 March 2013. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013.
- Park, Alice (13 March 2013). "Why Pope Francis Only Has One Lung". TIME. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis brings no-frills style to papacy", cbsnews.com, 28 March 2013, Retrieved 28 March 2013
- "Pope Francis wants a 'poor Church for the poor'". Reuters. 16 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "Pope visits ailing Argentine cardinal in hospital". ABC News. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Pope Francis wants a 'poor Church for the poor'". BBC News. 16 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Glatz, Carol (2 April 2013). "Can't chant, can't speak English? Pope says it's because he's tone-deaf". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "Pope Francis: 13 key facts about the new pontiff". The Guardian (London). 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "Briefing di padre Lombardi". News.va. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "Francis and those humble gestures by the Pope, he does not sit on a throne, paying the bill at the hotel" (in Italian). 14 March 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- Peter Walker, Paul Owen and David Batty (14 March 2013). "Pope Francis, first day after election – live updates | World news". London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Ukraninian Catholics Welcome Pope Who Speaks Their Language". Euronews. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- Willey, David, News analysis sidebar to "Pope Francis delivers Easter plea for peace", bbc.co.uk, 31 March 2013, Retrieved 31 March 2013
- Wooden, Cindy (26 March 2013). "Pope Francis to live in Vatican guesthouse, not papal apartments". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Speciale, Alessandro, "Pope Francis ops for Vatican guesthouse instead of spacious papal apartment", Religion News Service, 26 March 2013, Retrieved 27 March 2013
- "FRANCISCUS". Holy See. 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 13 March 2013.
Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum; habemus Papam: Eminentissimum ac Reverendissimum Dominum, Dominum Georgium MariumSanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalem Bergoglio qui sibi nomen imposuit Franciscum
- "Habemus Papam! Cardinal Bergoglio Elected Pope Francis". News.va. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Argentina Named as New Pope of the Roman Catholic Church". CNBC. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "White smoke: Cardinals elect new pope on fifth ballot". The Catholic Sun. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Suarez, Ray. "A New Pope, and Maybe a New Era". PBS.org. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Bingham, John (14 May 2013). "Pope Francis elected after supernatural 'signs' in the Conclave, says Cardinal". London: Telegraph.co.uk.
- "Habemus Papam: New Pope, new lifestyle in the Vatican". New Europe. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Uebbing, David. "Pope Francis' personality begins to change routines". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Philippi, Dieter. "The Mozzetta of the Pope". Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- "VIDEO: Watch Pope Francis Deliver First Blessing". Fox News Insider. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis delivers first blessing, asks world for prayers | Reuters". In.reuters.com. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis in plea for poor as inauguration Mass held". BBC News. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "Full Text of Pope Francis's Homily". Vatican.va. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis explains decision to take St Francis of Assisi's name". London: The Guardian. 16 March 2013. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013.
- "New Pope Fra [n]cis visits St. Mary Major, collects suitcases and pays bill at hotel". NEWS.VA. 14 March 2013. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013.
- Michael Martinez, CNN Vatican analyst: Pope Francis' name choice 'precedent shattering', CNN (13 March 2013). Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Laura Smith-Spark et al. : Pope Francis explains name, calls for church 'for the poor' CNN,16 March 2013
- "Pope Francis wants 'poor Church for the poor'". BBC News (BBC). 16 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Bethune, Brian, "Pope Francis: How the first New World pontiff could save the church", macleans.ca, 26 March 2013, Retrieved 27 March 2013
- Alpert, Emily (13 March 2013). "Vatican: It's Pope Francis, not Pope Francis I". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013.
- Knowles, Leo (2003). Modern Heroes of the Church. Huntington, IN: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing. p. 115. ISBN 1931709467.
- Audience to Representatives of the Communications Media – Address of the Holy Father Pope Francis – Vatican.va – Paul VI Audience Hall Saturday, 16 March 2013
- Marco R. della Cava, Pope Francis charms media in first press address, USA Today (16 March 2013). Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Hafiz, Yasmine (11 February 2014). "Pope Francis Would Have Been Named Pope John XXIV, Before Ultimate Decision on Papal Moniker". Huffington Post. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- Allen, Jr., John L. (16 March 2013). "Francis drops first hint that reform may be real". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
- Stagno-Navarra, Karl (18 March 2013). "Gozitan Mgr Alfred Xuereb appointed Pope's official secretary". Malta Today. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- McElwee, Joshua J. (6 April 2013). "Pope appoints Franciscan to religious congregation". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- "Pope scraps Vatican staff bonuses, directs money to charity". UPI. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- Galeazi, Giacomo (19 April 2013). "Ior: Cuts to the cardinals' "earnings"". Las Stampa: Vatican Insider. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- Allen, Jr., John L. (13 April 2013). "Pope taps eight cardinals to lead reform". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- O'Connell, Gerard (13 April 2013). "Pope Francis sets up a group of eight cardinals to advise him". La Stampa: Vatican Insider. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
- Teahan, Madeleine, "Catholic MPs urge Pope Francis to allow ordination of married men", CatholicHerald.co.uk, 27 March 2013, Retrieved 27 March 2013
- "Jerusalem prelate urges pope to visit holy city", globalpost.com (from Agence France-Presse), 31 March 2013, Retrieved 31 March 2013
- "Chaldean prelate invites pope to visit Iraq", catholicculture.org, 22 March 2013, Retrieved 31 March 2013
- "Argentina's Fernandez raises Falklands with Pope Francis". BBC. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Cahal Milmo (14 March 2013). "Falkland Islanders greet election of Argentine as Pope Francis with surprise". The Independent (London). Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "Argentina pressing Francis over Falklands' dispute, says Vatican expert". Merco Press. 17 June 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Winfield, Nicole, "Pope Francis washes women's feet in break with church law", myfoxchicago.com (Fox news, from AP release), 29 March 2013, Retrieved 29 March 2013
- Speciale, Alessandro, "Pope washes feet of two girls, two Muslims at youth prison", Washington Post (On Faith), 29 March 2013, Retrieved 29 March 2013
- Heller, Jill, "Pope Francis Washes Muslim Woman’s Feet On Holy Thursday: Did He Violate Catholic Church Canon Ahead Of Easter?", ibtimes.com, 29 March 2013, Retrieved 30 March 2013
- Lymon, Eric J., "Pope Francis makes pleas for peace on Easter Sunday", usatoday.com, 31 March 2013, Retrieved 31 March 2013
- "Pope Francis delivers Easter plea for peace", bbc.co.uk, 31 March 2013, Retrieved 31 March 2013
- "Pope Francis makes an Easter plea for peace", latimes.com (from AP), 31 March 2013, Retrieved 31 March 2013
- Uebbing, David (15 April 2013). "Pope backs reform of US sisters' leadership conference". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Goodstein, Laurie (15 April 2013). "Pope Upholds Reprimand of American Nuns' Group". The New York Times.
- "David Uebbing, "Pope backs reform of US sisters' leadership conference", ''Catholic News Agency'', 15 April 2013". Catholicnewsagency.com. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Francis canonises first saints of his papacy". Al Jazeera English.
- "Pope calls for sweeping church reforms – Europe". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Catholics support Pope Francis, but many split on teachings: poll". Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Pope Francis faces church divided over doctrine, global poll of Catholics finds". Washington Post. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Roman Catholic Church refuses survey request". BBC News. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Pope Francis faces church divided over doctrine, global poll of Catholics finds
- "Poll: Catholic Beliefs at Odds With Vatican Doctrine". TIME.com. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "The Catholic Church Is Not a Democracy". Patheos.com. 1 March 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- "New Poll: ‘Faithful Catholics’ an Endangered Species". Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Gibson, David (21 February 2014). "U.S. Cardinal Raymond Burke: Pope Francis opposes abortion and gay marriage". The Washington Post.
- "Lombardi: No cardinal believes in changing Church doctrine". Romereports.com. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- "Pope Francis condemns global 'cult of money'". Al Jazeera English.
- Pope Francis sets up commission to review Vatican bank Vatican bank faces review by Pope Francis commission
- David Willey (28 June 2013). "BBC News – Monsignor Nunzio Scarano held in Vatican bank inquiry". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Update on the case of Mons. Nunzio Scarano". Justice and Peace. Vatican Radio. 12 July 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- "Monsignor Scarano: Vatican forwards request to Italy". Justice and Peace. Vatican Radio. 3 August 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- Glatz, Carol (15 January 2014). "Pope replaces cardinals serving on Vatican bank oversight commission". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Lizzy Davies. "12 months a pope: Francis's report card after a year at the top". the Guardian. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Pope Francis. "LUMEN FIDEI". The Holy See. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Pope Francis. "Evangelii gaudium". The Holy See. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- O'Connell, Gerard (4 January 2014). "Pope abolishes honorary title of monsignor for diocesan priests under the age of 65". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- Pope Francis appoints 19 new cardinals in Rome ceremony, BBC News, 22 February 2014. Accessed 22 February 2014
- Pope Francis inducts new cardinals as predecessor Benedict looks on, Reuters.com, 22 February 2014. Accessed 22 February 2014
- "BBC News – Pope Francis: Church too focused on gays and abortion". Bbc.co.uk. 19 September 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Pope urges more understanding for gays – Europe". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Migliaccio, Alessandra (19 September 2013). "Pope Says Church Should Stop Obsessing Over Gays, Abortion". Bloomberg. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- El Jesuita. Conversaciones con el cardenal Jorge Bergoglio, SJ., Sergio Rubín y Francesca Ambrogetti, Vergara editor, pp. 45–47.
- The future Pope Francis: additional interviews and writings, Catholic World News, 14 March 2013]
- On Forgiveness, Pope Francis, Vatican City, 17 March 2013.
- Pope Francis on Care for Creation
- UN to back Pope Francis statement on ‘human ecology’
- Pope Francis's Radical EnvironmentalismPope Francis Calls Exploitation Of Nature Sin Of Our Time
- Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2)
- Zachary Davies Boren (21 November 2014). "Pope Francis says greed will 'destroy the world'". The Independent. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Pope Francis to issue climate change call to arms for world’s Catholics in measures that will anger Vatican conservatives
- John Vidal (27 December 2014). "Pope Francis’s edict on climate change will anger deniers and US churches". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Pope Francis greets Cardinals: Full text, Vatican Today 15 March 2013.
- What I would have said at the Consistory: An interview with Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Archbishop of Buenos Aires, 30 Days, November 2007.
- Allen, Jr., John L. (3 March 2013). "Profile: New pope, Jesuit Bergoglio, was runner-up in 2005 conclave". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Latin American Episcopal Conference (1992). "Documento de Santo Domingo" [Santo Domingo Document] (PDF). Nueva evangelización, promoción humana, cultura cristiana : documento de consulta : IV Conferencia General del Episcopado Latinoamericano, Santo Domingo, República Dominicana, 1992, Conclusiones. Cuarta Conferencia General del Episcopado Latinoamericano (in Spanish). Bogotá: CELAM. OCLC 29289158. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- Bergoglio, Jorge Mario (30 September 2009). Seminario : las deudas sociales de nuestro tiempo : la deuda social según la doctrina de la iglesia [Seminar : social debts of our time : the social debt according to the doctrine of the church] (presented seminar). Posgrado internacional del bicentenario. Políticas públicas, soluciones para la crisis de nuestro tiempo. (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: EPOCA-USAL. OCLC 665073169.
- Rouillon, Jorge (1 October 2009). "Bergoglio: "Los derechos humanos también se violan con la pobreza"" [Bergoglio: "Human rights are also violated in poverty"]. La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 March 2013.
Citó a los obispos latinoamericanos que en 1992 dijeron que "los derechos humanos se violan no sólo por el terrorismo, la represión, los asesinatos, sino también por condiciones de extrema pobreza y estructuras económicas injustas que originan grandes desigualdades".
- "Extreme poverty is also a violation of human rights, says Argentinean cardinal". Catholic News Agency. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "Argentines protest against pay cuts". BBC News. 8 August 2001. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Popper, Helen; Karina, Grazina (14 March 2013). "Argentina's pope stood up to power, but has his critics". Reuters. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- "Bergoglio criticó a "los que no tienen en cuenta a los más pobres"". lanacion.com. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Bangladesh factory collapse: pope condemns 'slave labour' conditions. The Guardian.
- Pope Francis Condemns 'Slave Labor' In Bangladesh: 'Goes Against God'. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
- Oxfam reaction to the Savar building collapse in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
- "Pope Francis hits out at global 'cult of money'". Bbc.co.uk. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Squires, Nick (18 May 2013). Pope blames tyranny of capitalism for making people miserable. The Age. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Lizzy Davies in Rome (17 May 2013). "Pope Francis attacks 'cult of money' in reform call". London: Guardian. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Philip Pullella (9 May 2014). U.N. should encourage redistribution of wealth, pope says. Reuters. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
- Pope Francis: Modern slavery is 'becoming worse and worse every day'
- Australian Grace Forrest inspires Pope Francis and other world religious leaders to sign pledge to eradicate slavery by 2020
- Pope Francis uses new year mass to condemn slavery and human trafficking
- Pope Francis urges people to unite to fight modern slavery and seek peace in first mass of 2015
- "Pope Francis Insists Church Must Help Poor, Not 'Speak of Theology'". Huffingtonpost.com. 18 May 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Rachel Donadio (25 May 2013). "Francis' Humility and Emphasis on the Poor Strike a New Tone at the Vatican". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
It was so hard to sell anything under Benedict. This pope attracts huge crowds, and they all want to bring back home something with his smiling face on it.
- Mark Koba (6 August 2013). "A blunt Pope Franc is targets free market economics". Cnbc.com. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Joshua Holland (26 November 2013). Pope Francis Calls Unfettered Capitalism ‘Tyranny’. Moyers & Company. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- 'Not to share wealth with poor is to steal': Pope slams capitalism as 'new tyranny'. RT, 26 November 2013.
- Paul Brandeis Raushenbush (14 December 2013). Pope Francis: 'Marxist Ideology Is Wrong, But I Know Many Marxist Who Are Good People'. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- Pope Francis: Communists ‘stole’ the flag of Christianity. RT, 30 June 2014.
- "Pope Francis was all too familiar with Liberation Theology. That's why he opposed it, Catholic Herald.co.uk, 14 June 2013". CatholicHerald.co.uk. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Bergoglio, a Revolutionary His Own Way" (in Italian). Chiesa.espresso.repubblica.it. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Alessandro Speciale (9 September 2013). "Liberation theology finds new welcome in Pope Francis’ Vatican". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Coday, Dennis (18 March 2013). "Hard questions about Francis in Argentina and a lesson from Chile". Ncronline.org. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Westen, John-Henry (3 May 2013). "Pope Tells Argentine Bishops to Use Doc Restricting Communion for Pro-Aborts". LifeSiteNews.com. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- Haines, Andrew M. (8 May 2013). "Pope Denies Communion to Pro-Abortion Politicians". Ethika Politika. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- Doino Jr., William (22 July 2013). "Five Myths About Pope Francis". First Things. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- "Papież pozdrowił organizatorów Marszu dla życia ze Szczecina. "Niech ta inicjatywa przypomina wszystkim o potrzebie szacunku dla życia"s". Wpolityce.pl. 15 May 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- "Pope Francis denounces abortion after decrying church's focus on rules". CBS News. 20 September 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- Russell Goldman (13 March 2013). "Francis Becomes First Latin American Pope". ABC News. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- Chris Pleasance (12 January 2014). "Pope Francis baptises baby of an unmarried couple". Daily Mail. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- O'Leary, Naomi (3 April 2013). "Pope Francis stresses "fundamental importance" of women in Catholic Church". Reuters. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- Fox, Thomas C. (3 April 2013). "Francis talks about women and the faith". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- "Audience: The fundamental role of women in the Church". Vatican Radio. 3 April 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- Coday, Dennis (9 May 2013). "For LCWR, the more the papacy changes, the more it stays the same". Ncronline.org. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- John Hooper. "Pope Francis jokes 'woman was from a rib' as he avoids vow to reform church". the Guardian. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Pope Francis Talks to Press About Benedict XVI, Vatican Bank and 'Gay Lobby'". Catholic Communications, Sydney Archdiocese. 13 July 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- "Pope Francis slams door on women's ordination", Women's Ordination Conference website.
- "Pope Francis: There Will Be No Women Cardinals". CNS News. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "For Pope Francis: A To-Do List on Women". The Huffington Post. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Joanna Rothkopf (22 December 2014). "Pope Francis slams Vatican: Clergy suffers from "spiritual Alzheimer’s"". Salon. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- Carol Glatz. "Pope Francis: Priests should be ‘shepherds living with the smell of the sheep’". The Catholic Telegraph. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- "International Clergy Conference participants commit themselves to Pope Francis' call to evangelisation". Vatican Radio. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- Allen, John L. (10 August 2012). "Australian priest, advocate for women's ordination excommunicated". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Gibson, David, "Book reveals new pope's views on celibacy, abuse, crisis", USA Today (from Religion News Service), 20 March 2013, Retrieved 21 March 2013
- Rice-Oxley, Mark (13 March 2013). "Pope Francis: the humble pontiff with practical approach to poverty". The Guardian (UK) (London). Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- Feiden, Douglas (13 March 2013). "Pope Francis, the new leader of the Catholic Church, praised by many for practicing what he preaches, his humble nature and his empathy for the poor". New York Daily News. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- Allen, Jr., John L. (3 March 2013). "New pope, Jesuit Bergoglio, was runner-up in 2005 conclave". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- "Argentina's Bergoglio becomes Pope Francis". CNN. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- Pope Francis: No Catholic need to breed like 'rabbits'
- Pope says birth control ban doesn't mean breed 'like rabbits'
- Catholic Online. "NEW POPE: Who is this man named Bergoglio? – Living Faith – Home & Family – Catholic Online". Catholic.org. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Pentin, Edward (8 July 2010). "Cardinal Bergoglio Hits Out at Same-Sex Marriage". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "Clashing Pope Francis, Argentine president meet in Vatican". CBC News. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- Feder, J. Lester (13 March 2013). "Pope Francis Brings Lessons of Argentina's Marriage Fight To Rome". Buzzfeed. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Erin McClam (13 March 2013). "Meet the new pope: Francis is humble leader who takes the bus to work". NBC News.
- "El cura suspendido: "A la Iglesia le preocupa más la cama de los argentinos que su mesa". Perfil (in Spanish). 13 July 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- De Vedia, Mariano (16 July 2010). "La carta de Bergoglio, un error estratégico" (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Romero, Simon; Schmall, Emily (19 March 2013). "On Gay Unions, a Pragmatist Before He Was a Pope". New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "Claims that Pope supported gay civil unions disputed". Catholic News Agency. 22 March 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- Westen, John-Henry (22 March 2013). "Pope Francis will never approve homosexual civil unions". LifeSiteNews.com (Campaign Life Coalition). Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- Allen, Jr., John L. (12 April 2013). "Hard questions about Francis in Argentina and a lesson from Chile". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Romo, Rafael, and Rodriguez, Jose Manuel, "Behind closed doors, pope supported civil unions in Argentina, activist says", cnn.com, 21 March 2013, Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Winright, Tobias (23 March 2013). "Pope Francis, Saint Peter, and the Other". Catholic Moral Theology Web site. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- "The Advocate's Person of the Year 2013". The Advocate Magazine.
- Pullella, Philip (5 January 2014). "Vatican denies pope is open to recognition of gay civil unions – World News". Worldnews.nbcnews.com. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Wong, Curtis. "Pope Francis Calls For Catholic Church Re-Think on Gay Parents". Huffington Post.
- Ben Tufft (18 January 2015). "Pope Francis warns that same-sex marriage 'threatens the family' and 'disfigures God's plan for creation'". The Independent.
- Michele Richinick (16 January 2015). "Pope Francis suggests gay marriage threatens traditional families". MSNBC.
- Antonia Blumberg (6 February 2015). "Pope Francis Backs Slovakia's Referendum Against Same-Sex Marriage, Adoption Rights". Huffington Post Religion.
- J Lester Feder. "Pope Endorses Referendum Denying Marriage And Adoption Rights To Same-Sex Couples". Buzzfeed.
As quoted by Trudy Ring (5 February 2015). "Pope Has Kind Words for Backers of Anti-Equality Measures in Slovakia". The Advocate.
- Pope Francis: Isis violence against minorities in Iraq must be stoppedPope condemns religious persecution in Iraq
- Pope Francis Endorses Use Of Force Against ISIS In Iraq, businessinsider.com.
- Pope Francis supports use of force to stop Islamic extremists from attacking religious minorities in Iraq, nydailynews.com.
- Pope Endorses Use Of Force, US Airstrikes To Stop ISIS Amid Plans To Visit Iraq, ibtimes.com.
- Francis X. Rocca (23 October 2014). "Pope Francis calls for abolishing death penalty and life imprisonment". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- Paul Richter and Tom Kington, "Bridge to Cuba Via Vatican", Los Angeles Times 19 December 2014, p. A1.
- Richter and Kington, LA Times, 17 December 2014, p. A6.
- Alan Cowell, "Pope Declines to Meet with Dalai Lama", New York Times 13 December 2014, p. A8
- "Pope Declines to Meet with Dalai Lama", New York Times 13 December 2014, p. A8.
- "Does Pope Francis have a cunning plan?". Irish Independent. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Mark Binelli (28 January 2014). "Pope Francis Cover Story: The Times They Are A-Changin' | Culture News". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Father Federico Lombardi, spokesman for Radio Vaticana comments on media manipulation on the Pontiff's homily – http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/vatican-spokesman-media-manipulated-popes-comments-on-families/
- "Pope Francis is the Catholic Church's Obama – God help us". Fox News. 4 December 2013.
- Saletan, William (19 September 2013). "Pope Francis Is a Liberal". Slate. The Slate Group. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- Luke Coppen (11 January 2014). "Sorry – but Pope Francis is no liberal". The Spectator. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- O'Loughlin, Michael (28 January 2014). "Catholics Urge Pope Francis to Speak Out for LGBT Rights". Advocate.com. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Popular priest Father John Zuhlsdorf against the media take on the Pontiff – http://wdtprs.com/blog/2013/12/cracks-in-the-liberal-adulation-of-pope-francis/
- "Pope Francis named Esquire's 'Best Dressed Man of 2013' – but why?". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Webb, Sam (29 December 2013). "A divine sense of style: Pope Francis is named Esquire's Best Dressed Man of 2013". Daily Mail (London).
- "Person of the Year 2013". Time. 11 December 2013.
- Colvin, Geoff (20 March 2014). "Fortune ranks the World's 50 Greatest Leaders". CNN.
- Ho, Erica, "Argentina: Town renames street after Pope Francis", 28 March 2013, Retrieved 28 March 2013
- "Argentina weighs putting Pope Francis' face on a coin - CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. 28 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "CNS NEWS BRIEFS Aug-29-2014". Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Rome Reports
- New York Daily News
- Shahan, Thomas Joseph (1907). "Ecclesiastical Abbreviations". Catholic Encyclopedia 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- "Pope". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- Adriano Cappelli. "Lexicon Abbreviaturarum". p. 283. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- "Contractions and Abbreviations". Ndl.go.jp. 4 August 2005. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
- "What Does PP Stand For?". Acronyms.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
- Alan Parker (15 March 2013). "A Few Things You Might Not Know About Pope Francis". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "Wedvick of Jarlsby – Religious/Francis, H. H. Pope 3".
- "Lo Stemma di Papa Francesco" (in Italian). L'Osservatore Romano. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis: "Miserando atque eligendo"...". Vatican Information Service. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- Rubin, Sergio; Ambrogetti, Francesca (2010). El Jesuita [The jesuit] (in Spanish) (1 ed.). Argentina: Vergara Editor. ISBN 978-950-15-2450-5.
- Lanser, Amanda (2014). Pope Francis: Spiritual Leader and Voice of the Poor. United States: ABDO publishing company. ISBN 978-1-61783-704-3. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- Rosales, Luis; Olivera, Daniel (2013). Francis: A pope for our time. United States: Umanix Books. ISBN 978-1-63006-002-2. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Database entry Q450675 on Wikidata|
|White smoke after election|
|White smoke on YouTube|
|Habemus Papam on YouTube|
|First appearance and speech on YouTube|
- Vatican: the Holy See – Vatican web site (Archived at WebCite)
- Pope Francis at DMOZ
- Pope Francis on Twitter (Official Twitter account)
- Pope Francis's channel on YouTube (Official Vatican YouTube page, covering the Pope and related interests)
|Catholic Church titles|
|Archbishop of Buenos Aires
Mario Aurelio Poli
13 March 2013 – present