Pope Gregory XI
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (January 2011)|
- See also Vicedomino de Vicedominis, a pope-elect who took the name Gregory XI.
|Papacy began||30 December 1370|
|Papacy ended||27 March 1378|
|Ordination||2 January 1371|
|Consecration||3 January 1371|
|Created Cardinal||29 May 1348|
|Birth name||Pierre Roger de Beaufort|
Maumont, Limousin, Kingdom of France
|Died||27 March 1378
Rome, Papal States
|Papal styles of
Pope Gregory XI
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
He was born Pierre Roger De Beaufort in Maumont in the modern commune of Rosiers-d'Égletons, Limousin, around 1330. He succeeded Pope Urban V at the papal conclave of 1370. He was the seventh and last of the Avignon Popes.
During his pontificate vigorous measures (e.g. burning at the stake, confiscation of property) were taken against proponents of Lollardy which had found acceptance in Germany, England, and other parts of Europe. Efforts to reform corrupt practices in the various monastic orders such as collecting fees from persons visiting holy sites and the exhibiting of faux relics of saints.
John Wycliffe's 19 reformation articles on church related items as he wrote in his On Civil Dominion  and 21 proposed reformation articles of Johannes Klenkoka's Decadecon  were submitted to Pope Gregory XI in the early part of the 1370s. Gregory formally condemned fourteen articles of Decadecon in 1374  and nineteen propositions of Wycliffe's On Civil Dominion in 1377.
His return to Rome on 17 January 1377, is attributed in part to the stirring words of Catherine of Siena. This had been attempted by Gregory's predecessor, Urban V, without success. The project was delayed by a conflict between the pope and Florence, known as "the War of the Eight Saints" for the "Eight for War," the Florentine magistrates responsible for the conduct of the war. The pope put Florence under interdict for a time.
Gregory XI did not long survive this removal, dying on 27 March 1378. After his death the College of Cardinals was pressured by a Roman mob that broke into the voting chamber to force an Italian Pope into the papacy. The Italian chosen was Urban VI. Soon after being elected, Urban gained the Cardinals' enmity. With the encouragement of the French king, the cardinals returned to Avignon and in 1378 elected a French pope, the antipope Clement VII.
Subsequently, the Western Schism created by the selection of rival popes forced the people of Europe into a dilemma of papal allegiance. This schism was not fully resolved until the Council of Constance (1414–1418) was called by a group of cardinals. The council boldly deposed the current popes and in 1417 elected Martin V as their successor. The chaos of the Western Schism thus brought about reforming councils and gave them the power over who was elected, replacing (for a time) the College of Cardinals.
- "Pope Gregory XI". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- The Condemnation of Wycliffe
- first Quarter of the 14th Century stooping (county Hoya), 1374 Avignon
- Ocker, p. 62
- Hanawalt, G.Barbara. The Middle Ages: An Illustrated History, 1998, Oxford Univ. Press, p. 143
- Cairns, E.Earl. Christianity Throughout the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church, 1996, Zondervan, pp. 241 & 248–250
- Ocker, Christopher, Johannes Klenkok: a friar's life, c. 1310–1374 , American Philosophical Society, 1993, ISBN 0-87169-835-8
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pope Gregory XI|
|Popes of the Western Schism|
|Catholic Church titles|
30 December 1370 – 27 March 1378