Pope John Paul I

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Servant of God, Pope
John Paul I
Pope John Paul I (Albino Luciani).jpg
John Paul I in 1978.
Papacy began 26 August 1978
Papacy ended 28 September 1978
Predecessor Paul VI
Successor John Paul II
Orders
Ordination 7 July 1935
Consecration 27 December 1958
by John XXIII
Created Cardinal 5 March 1973
by Paul VI
Personal details
Birth name Albino Luciani
Born (1912-10-17)17 October 1912
Canale d'Agordo, Belluno, Veneto, Kingdom of Italy
Died 28 September 1978(1978-09-28) (aged 65)
Apostolic Palace, Vatican City
Previous post
Motto Humilitas (Humility)
Coat of arms {{{coat_of_arms_alt}}}
Sainthood
Title as Saint Servant of God
Other popes named John Paul

Pope John Paul I (Latin: Ioannes Paulus I), born Albino Luciani (Italian pronunciation: [alˈbino luˈtʃani]; 17 October 1912 – 28 September 1978), was Pope from his election to the papacy on 26 August 1978 to his sudden death 33 days later on 28 September 1978. His 33-day reign is among the shortest in papal history, resulting in the most recent Year of Three Popes, the first since 1605.

John Paul I was the first pope to be born in the 20th century and the last pope to die in it. In fact, he is the only pope to have lived his entire life in the 20th century. John Paul I remains the most recent Italian-born pope, ending a succession of Italian-born popes that started with Clement VII in 1523. He was declared a Servant of God by his successor, Pope John Paul II, on 23 November 2003, the first step on the road to sainthood.

Before the papal conclave that elected him, he expressed his desire not to be elected, telling those close to him that he would decline the papacy, but upon the cardinals electing him, he felt an obligation to say "yes".[1] He was the first pontiff to have a double name, choosing "John Paul" in honour of his two immediate predecessors Pope John XXIII and Pope Paul VI. He explained that he was indebted to John XXIII for naming him a bishop and to Paul VI for creating him a cardinal. As the first pope to use the name "John Paul" he was, during his tenure, the first pope not to carry an ordinal number since the election of Pope Lando in 913; the ordinal "I" was added to his name after his successor chose the name John Paul II.

His sudden death caused suspicion among people that has led to a number of conspiracy theories concerning his death. His two immediate successors, Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI, later recalled the warm qualities of the late pontiff in several addresses.

In Italy, he is remembered with the appellatives of "Il Papa del Sorriso" (The Smiling Pope)[2] and "Il Sorriso di Dio" (The smile of God).[3] Time magazine and other publications referred to him as The September Pope.[4] He is also known in Italy as "Papa Luciani".

In his town of birth, Canale d'Agordo, there is a museum that has been made and named in his honour.

Early life and education[edit]

Luciani as a young priest, 1936

Albino Luciani was born on 17 October 1912 in Forno di Canale (now Canale d'Agordo) in Belluno, a province of the Veneto region in Northern Italy. He was the son of Giovanni Luciani (1872?–1952), a bricklayer, and Bortola Tancon (1879?–1948). Albino was followed by two brothers, Federico (1915–1916) and Edoardo (1917–2008), and a sister, Antonia (1920–2009). He was baptised on the day he was born by the midwife because he was considered to be in danger of death, and the solemn rites of baptism were formalised in the parish church two days later.[5]

Luciani entered the minor seminary of Feltre in 1923, where his teachers found him to be "too lively", and later went on to the major seminary of Belluno. During his stay at Belluno, he attempted to join the Jesuits, but was denied by the seminary's rector, Bishop Giosuè Cattarossi.[6]

Ordination and teaching career[edit]

Ordained a priest on 7 July 1935, Luciani then served as a curate in his native Forno de Canale before becoming a professor and the vice-rector of the Belluno seminary in 1937.[5] Among the different subjects, he taught dogmatic and moral theology, canon law and sacred art.

In 1941, Luciani started to work on a Doctorate of Sacred Theology from the Pontifical Gregorian University.[5] This required at least one year's attendance in Rome. However, the Belluno seminary's superiors wanted him to continue teaching during his doctoral studies. The situation was resolved by a special dispensation by Pope Pius XII on 27 March 1941. His thesis (The origin of the human soul according to Antonio Rosmini) largely attacked Rosmini's theology and earned him his doctorate magna cum laude in 1947.[5]

In 1947, he was named chancellor to Bishop Girolamo Bortignon, OFM Cap, of Belluno.[5] In 1954, he was named the vicar general for the Belluno diocese.[5] Luciani was nominated for the position of Bishop several times but was passed down due to his poor health, stature and resigned appearance. In 1949, he published a book titled Catechesis in crumbs.

Episcopate[edit]

Luciani in 1966.

On 15 December 1958, Luciani was appointed Bishop of Vittorio Veneto by Pope John XXIII. He received his episcopal consecration on the following 27 December from Pope John XXIII himself, with Bishops Bortignon and Gioacchino Muccin serving as the co-consecrators. As a bishop, he participated in all the sessions of the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). In 1958, he had taken his Humilitas (Humility) as his episcopal motto.[5] He took possession of the diocese on 11 January 1959. In 1966, he visited Burundi in East Africa.[7]

On 15 December 1969, he was appointed as the new Patriarch of Venice by Pope Paul VI and he took possession of his new archdiocese on 3 February 1970. On 1 February 1970, he received honorary citizenship of the town of Vittorio Veneto, where he had previously served as bishop.

Cardinalate[edit]

Pope Paul VI created Luciani the Cardinal-Priest of San Marco in the consistory on 5 March 1973.[5]

During his time as Patriarch of Venice, Luciani clashed with priests who supported the liberalisation of divorce in Italy, eventually suspending some of them.[1] At the same time, he was opposed to the 1974 referendum restricting divorce after it had been liberalised, feeling that the such a move would fail and simply point out a divided Church with declining influence.[1]

In 1975, Luciani visited Germany in May and then to Brazil (6-21 November) where he met with members of the clergy, including Cardinal Aloísio Lorscheider. Upon his return to Italy, he suffered an embolus in his right eye. A few months after that, Luciani also made a visit to Fatima. While there, he also met with Lucia Santos, one of the three children that were related to the apparitions of the Our Lady of Fatima back in 1917. When he met her, she referred to him as "Holy Father". This meeting shocked Luciani.[8] In January 1976, he published Illustrissimi, a collection of fictional letters penned by him in previous years to historical figures or literature.

In 1976, Luciani sold a gold cross that Pope John XXIII had given to him to raise money for spastic children. He also urged fellow priests to sell their valuables.[7]

Papacy[edit]

Election[edit]

Pope Paul VI died on August 6, 1978, ending a reign of fifteen years. Luciani was summoned to Rome for the conclave to elect the new pope. Luciani was not considered to be papabile at the time, but some came to him and said that he would make a fine pontiff. The electors did not want a Curial figure, but a warm and pastoral figure like Pope John XXIII. Luciani was elected on the fourth ballot of the August 1978 papal conclave. Luciani had previously said to his secretary Diego Lorenzi and to priest Prospero Grech (later a cardinal) that he would decline the papacy in the case of being elected, and that he would vote for Cardinal Aloísio Lorscheider, whom he met in Brazil.[1] Cardinal Jaime Sin had come to him and said: "You will be the new pope". Later, when Sin gave him homage, the new pope said: "You were a prophet, but my reign will be a short one".[7]

However, when he was asked by Jean-Marie Villot if he accepted his election, he said, "May God forgive you for what you have done" and accepted his election. Senior Cardinal Deacon Pericle Felici announced that the Cardinals had elected Venice patriarch Albino Luciani to be Pope John Paul.[9] He chose the regnal name of John Paul, the first double name in the history of the papacy, explaining in his Angelus that he took it as a thankful honour to his two immediate predecessors: John XXIII, who had named him a bishop, and Paul VI, who had named him Patriarch of Venice and a cardinal.[10] He was also the first pope to designate himself explicitly as "the first" with the name.[11] (Pope Francis, elected in 2013, also took a previously-unused papal name but did not use "the first".)

John Paul I at the window for the Angelus.

In the aftermath of the election, he had confided to his brother Edoardo that his first thought was to call himself "Pius XIII" in honour of Pope Pius XI, but he had given up thinking about the sectors of the church that exploited this choice of regnal name.[12]

Observers have suggested that his selection was as a candidate linked to the rumoured divisions between rival camps within the College of Cardinals:[10]

  • Conservatives and Curialists supporting Cardinal Giuseppe Siri, who favoured a more conservative interpretation or even reversal of Vatican II's reforms. There remains a conspiracy theory (the so-called 'Siri Conspiracy') concerning allegations Siri was actually elected in the 1958 conclave, but then forced to withdraw acceptance of his election.
  • Those who favoured a more liberal interpretation of Vatican II's reforms along with some Italian cardinals who supported Cardinal Giovanni Benelli, who was opposed because of his "autocratic" tendencies.

Outside the Italians, who were experiencing diminished influence within the increasingly internationalist College of Cardinals, were figures like Cardinal Karol Wojtyła.[10] Over the days following the conclave, cardinals effectively declared that, with general great joy, they had elected "God's candidate".[10] Argentine Cardinal Eduardo Francisco Pironio stated, "We were witnesses of a moral miracle."[10] And later, Mother Teresa commented, "He has been the greatest gift of God, a sunray of God's love shining in the darkness of the world."[10] Cardinal Basil Hume said: "Once it had happened, it seemed totally and entirely right ... We felt as if our hands were being guided as we wrote his name on the paper".[7]

The leader of the delegation from the Russian Orthodox Church, Metropolitan Nikodim (Rotov) of Leningrad, collapsed and died after the ceremony on 5 September 1978. The new pope prayed over him.[13]

Church policies[edit]

Papal styles of
Pope John Paul I
John paul 1 coa.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style Servant of God

Six point plan[edit]

After he became pope he had set six plans down which would dictate his pontificate:

  • To renew the church through the policies implemented by Vatican II.
  • To revise canon law.
  • To remind the church of its duty to preach the Gospel.
  • To promote church unity without watering down doctrine.
  • To promote dialogue.
  • To encourage world peace and social justice.[7]

Humanising the papacy[edit]

After his election, John Paul I quickly made several decisions that would "humanise" the office of pope, admitting publicly he had turned scarlet when Paul VI placed his stole on Luciani's shoulders while the pontiff visited Venice on 16 September 1972. He was the first modern pope to speak in the singular form, using 'I' instead of the royal we, though the official records of his speeches were often rewritten in more formal style by aides, who reinstated the royal we in press releases and in the L'Osservatore Romano. He initially refused to use the sedia gestatoria until others convinced him of its need in order to allow the faithful to see him. He was the last pope to use the sedia gestatoria; subsequently, his successors refused to use it.

He was the first pope to choose a "papal inauguration" to commence his papacy rather than the traditional Papal Coronation Mass. Therefore, he would be given the pallium instead of the traditional tiara.

One of his remarks, reported in the press, was that God "is our Father; even more He is our Mother,"[14][15] referring to Isaiah 49:14–15, which compares God to a mother who will never forget her child Zion. The comment appeared in his 10 September Angelus address, which urged prayer for the upcoming Camp David Accords.[14]

Moral theology[edit]

The moral theology of John Paul I had been openly debated because of his opinions expressed on a number of issues, particularly birth control. It is certain that John Paul I would not have reversed Paul VI's teaching, namely on contraception, since it was a question of sexual ethics and Church doctrine, rather than one of personal opinion. Nevertheless, it is reasonable to assume that John Paul I would not have insisted upon the negative judgment in Humanae Vitae as aggressively and publicly as John Paul II did. Some take a different view, describing that while serving as Patriarch of Venice, "Luciani was intransigent with his upholding of the teaching of the Church and severe with those, who through intellectual pride and disobedience paid no attention to the Church's prohibition of contraception," though while not condoning the sin, he was patient with those who sincerely tried and failed to live up to the Church's teaching."[2]

Contraception[edit]

Luciani had mixed feelings in regards to the traditional stance on contraception. In 1968, as Bishop of Vittorio Veneto, he submitted a report to his predecessor as the Patriarch of Venice that argued that the contraceptive pill should be permitted. It was agreed on by fellow Veneto bishops and was submitted to Pope Paul VI.[16] After Humanae Vitae was released, Luciani defended it. In May 1978, Cardinal Luciani was invited to speak at a Milanese conference to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the encyclical. He refused to speak and attend.[17]

Abortion[edit]

In his letter to Carlo Goldini from the book Illustrissimi, Luciani took a critical perspective of abortion and argued that it violated God's law and that it went against the deepest aspirations of females, profoundly disturbing them.[18]

Homosexuality[edit]

In a 1974 interview while he was the Patriarch of Venice, Luciani upheld the traditional line: "A sexuality that is worthy of man must be a part of love for a person of a different sex with the added commitments of fidelity and indissolubility."[19]

Personality[edit]

Pope John Paul I with Cardinal Karol Wojtyła (later Pope John Paul II) on 4 September 1978

John Paul I was regarded as a skilled communicator and writer, and has left behind some writings. His book Illustrissimi, written while he was a cardinal, is a series of letters to a wide collection of historical and fictional persons. Among those still available are his letters to Jesus,[20] King David,[21] Figaro the Barber,[22] Empress Maria Theresa[23] and Pinocchio.[24] Others 'written to' included Mark Twain, Charles Dickens and Christopher Marlowe.

John Paul I impressed people with his personal warmth. There are reports that within the Vatican he was seen as an intellectual lightweight not up to the responsibilities of the papacy, although David Yallop (In God's Name) says that this is the result of a whispering campaign by people in the Vatican who were opposed to Luciani's policies. In the words of John Cornwell, "they treated him with condescension"; one senior cleric discussing Luciani said "they have elected Peter Sellers."[25] Critics contrasted his sermons mentioning Pinocchio to the learned intellectual discourses of Pius XII or Paul VI. Visitors spoke of his isolation and loneliness and the fact that he was the first pope in decades not to have previously held either a diplomatic role (like Pius XI and John XXIII) or Curial role (like Pius XII and Paul VI) in the Church.

His personal impact, however, was twofold: his image as a warm, gentle and kind man captivated the whole world. This image was immediately formed when he was presented to the crowd in St. Peter's Square following his election. The warmth of his presence made him a much-loved figure before he even spoke a word. The media in particular fell under his spell. He was a very skilled orator.

According to his aides, he was not the naive idealist his critics made him out to be. Cardinal Giuseppe Caprio, the substitute Papal Secretary of State, said that John Paul I quickly accepted his new role and performed it with confidence.[26]

John Paul I had admitted that the prospect of the papacy had daunted him to the point that other cardinals had to encourage him to accept it. He refused to have the millennium-old traditional Papal Coronation and wear the Papal Tiara.[27] He instead chose to have a simplified Papal Inauguration Mass. John Paul I used as his motto Humilitas. In his notable Angelus of 27 August 1978 (delivered on the first full day of his papacy), he impressed the world with his natural friendliness.[28]

Abrupt death[edit]

Tomb of John Paul I in the Vatican Grottoes.

John Paul I was found dead sitting up in his bed shortly before dawn on 28 September 1978,[29] just 33 days into his papacy. The Vatican reported that the 65-year-old pope most likely died the previous night of a heart attack. It has been claimed that the Vatican had altered some of the details of the discovery of the death to avoid possible unseemliness[30][31] in that he was discovered by Sister Vincenza Taffarel, who was a nun.[32] Inconsistent statements were made relating to who found John Paul I's body, the time when he was found, and what papers were in his hand. These various issues led to a number of conspiracy theories concerning his death. The Vatican has not investigated the claims and does not believe in any possible deceit.

John Paul I's funeral was held in Saint Peter's Square on 4 October 1978, celebrated by Cardinal Carlo Confalonieri. In his eulogy of the late pope, he described him as a flashing comet who briefly lit up the church. He was then laid to rest in the Vatican grottos.

Legacy[edit]

Pope John Paul I was the first pope to abandon the Papal Coronation, and he was also the first Pope to choose a double name (John Paul) for his papal name. His successor, Cardinal Karol Jozef Wojtyła, chose the same name. He was the first pope to have a Papal Inauguration and the last pope to use the sedia gestatoria.

Canonisation process[edit]

The process of canonisation for John Paul I formally began in 1990 with the petition by 226 Brazilian bishops, including four cardinals. The petition was addressed directly to Pope John Paul II.

On 26 August 2002, Bishop Vincenzo Savio announced the start of the preliminary phase to collect documents and testimonies necessary to start the process of canonisation. On 8 June 2003 the Congregation for the Causes of Saints gave its assent to the work. On 23 November, the process formally opened in the Cathedral Basilica of Belluno with Cardinal José Saraiva Martins in charge.[33][34]

The diocesan inquiry for the cause subsequently concluded on 11 November 2006 in Belluno. In June 2009, the Vatican began the "Roman" phase of the beatification process for John Paul I, drawing upon the testimony of Giuseppe Denora di Altamura who claimed to have been cured of cancer by the intercession of the late pontiff. An official investigation into the alleged miracle is now under way.[35]

For Luciani to be beatified, the investigators have to certify at least one miracle. For canonisation there must be a second miracle, though the reigning pope may waiver these requirements altogether, as is often done in the case of beatified popes.[36]

The diocesan inquiry on the case of the Giuseppe Denora healing was validated on 25 March 2010. The documents in regards to the miracle were delivered to the prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, Cardinal Angelo Amato on 17 October 2012 (the hundred year anniversary of the late pope's birth), to examine the cause and to determine whether the late pontiff should or not be declared Venerable, thus, putting him another step closer towards the end of the canonization process.

The views of successors[edit]

John Paul II[edit]

The Pope Luciani Museum.

Cardinal Karol Wojtyła was elected John Paul I's successor as Pope on Monday, 16 October 1978. The next day he celebrated Mass together with the College of Cardinals in the Sistine Chapel. After the Mass, he delivered his first Urbi et Orbi (a traditional blessing) message, broadcast worldwide via radio. In it he pledged fidelity to the Second Vatican Council and paid tribute to his predecessor:[37]

"What can we say of John Paul I? It seems to us that only yesterday he emerged from this assembly of ours to put on the papal robes—not a light weight. But what warmth of charity, nay, what 'an abundant outpouring of love'—which came forth from him in the few days of his ministry and which in his last Sunday address before the Angelus he desired should come upon the world. This is also confirmed by his wise instructions to the faithful who were present at his public audiences on faith, hope and love."

Benedict XVI[edit]

Benedict XVI spoke of the late pontiff on 28 September 2008 during his weekly Angelus address. Of the late pope, he said:

"Because of this virtue of his, it only took 33 days for Pope Luciani to win people's hearts. In his addresses he always referred to events in practical life, from his family memories and from popular wisdom. His simplicity was a vehicle for a solid, rich teaching which, thanks to the gift of an exceptional memory and a vast knowledge, he embellished with numerous citations from ecclesiastical and secular writers. Thus, he was an incomparable catechist, following in the footsteps of St Pius X, who came from the same region and was his predecessor first on the throne of St Mark and then on that of St Peter. "We must feel small before God", he said during the same Audience. And he added, "I am not ashamed to feel like a child before his mother; one believes in one's mother; I believe in the Lord, in what he has revealed to me". These words reveal the full depth of his faith. As we thank God for having given him to the church and to the world, let us treasure his example, striving to cultivate his same humility which enabled him to talk to everyone, especially the small and the "distant". For this, let us invoke Mary Most Holy, the humble handmaid of the Lord".

Media[edit]

  • In 2006, the Italian Public Broadcasting Service, RAI, produced a television miniseries about the life of John Paul I, called Papa Luciani: Il sorriso di Dio (literally, "Pope Luciani: The smile of God"). It stars Italian comedian Neri Marcorè in the titular role.

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Cornwall, John (1989). A Thief in the Night: the Death of Pope John Paul I. London: Viking. ISBN 0-670-82387-2
  • Gurwin, Larry (1983). The Calvi Affair: Death of a Banker. London: Pan Books, 1984, cop. 1983. xiii, 251 p. + [8] p. of b&w photos. ISBN 0-330-28540-8; alternative ISBN on back cover, 0-330-28338-3
  • Hebblewaite, Peter (1978). The Year of Three Popes. First United States ed. Cleveland, Ohio: W. Collins, 1979, cop. 1978. ix, 220 p. ISBN 0-529-05652-6
  • Manhattan, Avro (1985). Murder in the Vatican: American, Russian, and Papal Plots. First ed. Springfield, Mo.: Ozark Books. 274 p. Without ISBN

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Allen, John (November 2, 2012). "Debunking four myths about John Paul I, the 'Smiling Pope'". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Raymond and Lauretta, The Smiling Pope, The Life & Teaching of John Paul I. Our Sunday Visitor Press, 2004.
  3. ^ Papa Luciani: Il sorriso di Dio (Pope Luciani: The Smile of God). Radiotelevisione Italia 2006 documentary.
  4. ^ The September Pope, cover story in Time, Monday, 9 Oct 1978, webpage found 3 April 2010.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Highlights of the Life of His Holiness John Paul I, The Holy See, retrieved 29 December 2013 
  6. ^ Yallop, David (1985) In God's name: an investigation into the murder of Pope John Paul I, p.16 quotation:

    So strongly did the writings of Couwase [Jean Pierre de Caussade] influence him that Luciani began to think very seriously of becoming a Jesuit. He watched as first one, then a second, of his close friends went to the rector, Bishop Giouse Cattarossi, and asked for permission to join the Jesuit order. In both instances the permission was granted to them. Luciani would soon make his decision, and so he went and asked for permission. The bishop considered the request, then responded, "No, three is one too many. You had better stay here."

  7. ^ a b c d e "Modern Heroes of the Church - Leo Knowles". Google Books. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  8. ^ "The first years of Albino Luciani: 4° part (the conclave)". YouTube. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  9. ^ 1978 Year in Review: The Election of Pope John Paul II-http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1978/The-Election-of-Pope-John-Paul-II/12309251197005-5/
  10. ^ a b c d e f http://www.papaluciani.com/eng/conclave.htm The Conclave: 25 – 26 August 1978
  11. ^ Yallop, p. 75.
  12. ^ La speranza è aspettare qualcosa di bello dal Signore (di Stefania Falasca), 30 Giorni, retrieved 9 February 2014 
  13. ^ "Russian Archbishop Dies During Papal Audience". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press. September 6, 1978. p. 6. Retrieved August 30, 2013. 
  14. ^ a b "Angelus Address". Vatican official website. 10 September 1978. Retrieved 28 February 2011. 
  15. ^ "Sarasota Herald-Tribune". Google. 30 September 1978. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  16. ^ John Julius Norwich, The Popes, London, 2011 p445
  17. ^ John Julius Norwich, The Popes, London, 2011, p. 445
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ Interview with Il Gazzettino, February 12, 1974, p. 7
  20. ^ Gloria C. Molinari (10 September 1999). "Letters to Jesus Christ". Papaluciani.com. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  21. ^ Gloria C. Molinari (10 September 1999). "Letter: the Biblical King David". Papaluciani.com. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  22. ^ Gloria C. Molinari (10 September 1999). "Figaro the Barber". Papaluciani.com. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  23. ^ Gloria C. Molinari (10 September 1999). "Marie Theresa of Austria". Papaluciani.com. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  24. ^ Gloria C. Molinari (10 September 1999). "Pinocchio". Papaluciani.com. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  25. ^ McCabe, Joseph, A History of the Popes excerpts from: A History of the Popes
  26. ^ "We must not be deceived by his smile. He listened, he asked for information, he studied. But once he made a decision, he did not go back on it, unless new facts came to light.... With absolute respect to persons, the Pope had no intentions of deviating from what had been the rule of his life and the direction of his pastoral action: fatherly, yes, but absolutely firm in the guidance of the souls entrusted by God to his care." Quoted in Raymond Seabeck, The Smiling Pope, The Life and Teaching of John Paul I Our Sunday Visitor Press, 2004, p. 65.
  27. ^ Romano Pontifici Eligendo (1975) Paul VI's Apostolic Constitution on the election on the pontiff, Section 92.
  28. ^ "First Angelus Address, Pope John Paul I". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved 28 November 2008. 
  29. ^ NBC Radio News announces Pope John Paul I Death (In RealAudio)
  30. ^ "Evidence of foul play in Pope death claimed". Chicago Tribune. 7 October 1978. Retrieved 26 December 2009. 
  31. ^ "Bishop Tells Story of Pope John Paul I's Death He Debunks Conspiracy Theory, But Says Vatican Altered Some Details". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 11 October 1998. Retrieved 31 December 2009. 
  32. ^ "Foul Play". Baltimore Afro-American. 10 October 1978. Retrieved 26 December 2009. 
  33. ^ Congregation for the Causes of Saints, Solemn Opening of the Cause for Canonization of the Servant of God, Albino Luciani, Pope John Paul I on 23 November 2003. In Italian. Page found 13 June 2010.
  34. ^ John Paul I on Sainthood Track. United Press International, 12 November 2006. Page found 13 June 2010.
  35. ^ John Paul I's Miracle Goes to Rome. National Catholic Register, 8 June 2009.
  36. ^ "What is a Saint?". Catholic-Pages.com. 29 July 1997. Retrieved 28 September 2012. 
  37. ^ "First Radiomessage "Urbi et orbi", Pope John Paul II". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved 28 November 2008. 

External links[edit]

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Giuseppe Carraro
Bishop of Vittorio-Veneto
27 December 1958 – 15 December 1969
Succeeded by
Antonio Cunial
Preceded by
Giovanni Urbani
Patriarch of Venice
15 December 1969 – 16 August 1978
Succeeded by
Marco Cé
Preceded by
Giovanni Urbani
Cardinal-Priest of San Marco
5 March 1973 - 26 August 1978
Succeeded by
Marco Cé
Preceded by
Paul VI
Pope
26 August – 28 September 1978
Succeeded by
John Paul II