Pope Martin I
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|Papacy began||21 July 649|
|Papacy ended||16 September 655|
Near Todi, Umbria, Byzantine Empire
|Died||16 September 655
Cherson, Byzantine Empire
|Other popes named Martin|
|Papal styles of
Pope Martin I
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Pope Martin I (Latin: Martinus I; died 16 September 655) reigned from 21 July 649 to his death in 655. He was born near Todi, Umbria, in the place now named after him (Pian di San Martino). He succeeded Pope Theodore I on 5 July 649. He was the only pope during the Byzantine Papacy whose election was not approved by a iussio from Constantinople. Martin I was abducted by Emperor Constans II and died at Cherson. He is considered a saint and martyr by the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.
He was the last apocrisiarius to be elected pope.
One of his first official acts was to summon the Lateran Council of 649 to deal with the Monothelites, whom the Church considered heretical. The Council met in the church of St. John Lateran. It was attended by 105 bishops (chiefly from Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia, with a few from Africa and other quarters), held five sessions or secretarii from 5 October to 31 October 649, and in twenty canons condemned Monothelitism, its authors, and the writings by which Monothelitism had been promulgated. In this condemnation were included not only the Ecthesis (the exposition of faith of the Patriarch Sergius for which the emperor Heraclius had stood sponsor), but also the typus of Paul, the successor of Sergius, which had the support of the reigning Emperor (Constans II).
Abduction and exile (653–655)
Martin was very energetic in publishing the decrees of the Lateran Council of 649 in an encyclical, and Constans replied by enjoining his exarch (governor) in Italy to arrest the pope should he persist in this line of conduct and send Martin as a prisoner to Rome of Constantinople.
These orders were found impossible to carry out for a considerable space of time, but at last Martin was arrested in the Lateran on 17 June 653 along with Maximus the Confessor. He was hurried out of Rome and conveyed first to Naxos, Greece, and subsequently to Constantinople, where he arrived on 17 September 653. After suffering an exhausting imprisonment and many alleged public indignities, he was ultimately banished to Cherson (present day Crimea region), where he arrived on 15 May 655 and died on 16 September of that year.
Place in the calendar of saints
- Mershman, Francis (1910). "Pope St. Martin I" in The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- A. Edward Siecienski, The Filioque: History of a Doctrinal Controversy, (Oxford University Press, 2010), 74.
- Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1969), p. 90
- Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001 ISBN 978-88-209-7210-3), p. 220
- Ekonomou, Andrew J. 2007. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes: Eastern influences on Rome and the papacy from Gregory the Great to Zacharias, A.D. 590–752. Lexington Books.
|Catholic Church titles|