Populated places in Ukraine
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Populated places in Ukraine (Ukrainian: Населенні пункти) are systematized into two major categories: urban and rural. Urban populated places can be either cities or urban settlements, while rural populated places can be either villages or rural settlements. According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census there are 1,344 urban populated places and 28,621 rural populated places in Ukraine.
All populated places are governed by their municipality (usually a council or a territorieal state administration), may it be a village, a city or any settlement. A municipality may consist of one or several populated places and is a constituent part of a raion (district). Certain city municipalities may be constituents of a oblast (province) or the whole Ukraine such as Kiev or Sevastopol. Note that Kiev and Sevastopol are the only populated places that also have local state administrations.
In 1995 there was created a special category for mountainous populated places in Ukraine. Mountainous status is received by populated places located in mountainous area, have inadequately developed sphere of employment and social services as well as a limited transportation access.
Urban populated places
Cities compose a unique subcategory of populated places in Ukraine. This subcategory is divided into several classes depending on level of administration in Ukraine.
- City with special status is treated as a city-region.
- City of regional significance is treated as a subdivision of region equally with district. It should be noted that some cities of regional significance as well as cities with special status are divided into districts within city, which are referred to as raions in city (districts in city), thus adding a certain degree of ambiguity.
- City of district significance is treated as a subdivision of district, may it be a regular raion, raions in city or simply a city of regional significance. Any city that is not a city of regional significance nor with special status is of district significance.
Cities most often serve as administrative centers of regions or districts. Cities are administrated by city councils, while selected cities may have State Regional Administration. Unlike other populated places in Ukraine, a city always has its own council. City status a settlement receives on a decision of the Supreme Council of Ukraine - Verkhovna Rada.
Cities that have population of less than 50,000 are considered to be small cities and fall under a special state program in development of small cities. According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census there are 454 cities in Ukraine, among which two with special status (Kiev and Sevastopol), 178 of regional significance and 274 of district significance.
Urban settlement (Town)
Urban settlement is a Soviet invented term for a populated place with some degree of urbanization or it proximity to an urbanized area. In the Constitution of Ukraine urban settlement is mentioned simply as selyshche (a settlement), which also adds another ambiguity to the administrative territorial system of Ukraine. The term selyshche is also used to some smaller populated places which often part of silrada (a rural council), while can be found within other administrative territorial subdivisions. Those settlements implicitly known as rural settlements, while often presented simply as settlements giving impression of an urban settlement.
Urban settlements sometimes may serve as administrative centers of districts. Urban settlements are administrated by settlement councils. According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census there are 890 urban settlements in Ukraine and only 783 settlement councils.
Rural populated places
The term selyshche (settlement) has a double meaning in the administrative-territorial system of Ukraine. It may be used either for urban settlements or for some smaller populated places which often part of silrada (a rural council), while can be found within other administrative territorial subdivisions. Those settlements implicitly known as rural settlements, while often presented simply as settlements giving impression of an urban settlement.
Most often rural settlements are constituent part of adjacent village, urban settlement or city, while on some occasions may be administrated by an own rural council. Unlike village, a settlement may be part of a city or another settlement council. According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census there are 1,266 rural settlements in Ukraine.
Village as a term became systematic for a conventional rural populated place and most numerous out of all terms used for populated places in a country. It is administrated by silrada (a rural council) and is the lowest level and most common form of territorial administration at that level. A rural council may be composed of a single village or group of villages. According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census there are 27,190 villages in Ukraine that organized into 10,278 rural (village) councils.
Rural populated places in Ukraine are very underdeveloped and often lack basic types of infrastructure: transportation, utilities and others.
- Law of Ukraine: "On Approval of the National Program for Development of Small Cities". March 4, 2004.
- About order for solution of issues on the administrative-territorial system of the Ukrainian SSR. Ukase of Presidium of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukrainian SSR. N 1654-X. 1981-03-12. (current)
- About the status of mountainous populated places in Ukraine. Law of Ukraine. N 56/95-VR. 1995-02-15. (current)
- Androshchuk, O. Urban settlements in a system of territorial setting in the Ukrianian SSR in 40s-60s of the 20th century. "Krayeznavstvo". 2006.