Porajmos

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The Romani genocide or Romani Holocaust, also known as the Porajmos (Romani pronunciation: IPA: [pʰoˈɽajmos]), was the attempt made by Nazi Germany and its allies to exterminate the Romani people (gypsies) of Europe during World War II. Under Adolf Hitler's rule, both Roma and Jews were defined as "enemies of the race-based state" by the Nuremberg laws; the two groups were targeted by similar policies and persecution, culminating in the near annihilation of both populations within Nazi-occupied countries.[1]

Estimates of the death toll of Romanies in World War II range from 220,000 to 1,500,000.[2] West Germany formally recognised the genocide of the Roma in 1982.

Etymology[edit]

The term porajmos (also Porrajmos or Pharrajimos—literally, devouring or destruction in some dialects of the Romani language[3]) was introduced by Ian Hancock, in the early 1990s.[4] Hancock chose the term, coined by a Kalderash Rom, from a number of suggestions in an "informal conversation in 1993".[5]

The term is used mostly by activists and is unknown to most Roma, including relatives of the victims and survivors.[4] Some Russian and Balkan Romani activists protest against using the word porajmos.[6] In various dialects, "porajmos" is synonymous with poravipe which means "violation" and "rape", a term which some Roma consider to be offensive. Balkan Romani activists prefer the term Samudaripen ("mass killing"),[7] first introduced by linguist Marcel Courthiade. Hancock dismisses this word, arguing that it does not conform to Romani language morphology.[5] Some Ruska Roma activists offer the emotive term Kali Traš ("Black Fear").[8] Another alternative that has been used is Berša Bibahtale ("The Unhappy Years").[5] Lastly, adapted borrowings such as Holokosto, Holokausto etc. are also occasionally used in the Romani language.

Linguistically, the term is composed of the verb root porrav- and the abstract-forming nominal ending -imos. This ending is of the Vlax Romani dialect, whereas other varieties generally use -ibe(n) or -ipe(n).[9] For the verb itself, the most commonly given meaning is "to open/stretch wide" or "to rip open", whereas the meaning "to open up the mouth, devour" occurs in fewer varieties.[10]

History[edit]

Romani discrimination before 1933[edit]

The emergence of racism[edit]

In the late 19th century, the emergence of scientific racism and Social Darwinism, linking social differences to racial differences, provided the public justifications for prejudices against Jews and Romani. During this time, “the concept of race was systematically employed to explain social phenomena.” This approach validated the idea that races were not variations of a single species and instead were of different biological origin. It established a scientifically backed racial hierarchy, which othered minority groups on the basis of biology.[11]

In addition to racial pseudo-science, the end of the 19th century was a period of state-sponsored modernization in Germany. Industrial development altered many aspects of society. Most notably, the period shifted social norms of work and life. For Roma, this meant a denial of their traditional way of being. János Bársony notes that "industrial development devalued their services as craftsmen, resulting in the disintegration of their communities and social marginalization."[12]

Persecution under the German Empire and Weimar Republic[edit]

The developments of racial pseudo-science and modernization resulted in anti-Romani state interventions, carried out by the German Empire and Weimar Republic. In 1899, the Information Services on Gypsies by the Security Police was created in the Imperial Police Headquarters in Munich. Its purpose was to keep records (identification cards, fingerprints, photographs, etc.) and continuous surveillance on the Roma community. Roma in the Weimar Republic were forbidden from entering public swimming pools, parks, and other recreational areas, and depicted throughout Germany and Europe as criminals and spies.[13] By 1926, this ‘racial panic’ was transmitted into law. The Law for the Fight Against Gypsies, Vagrants and the Workshy was enforced in Bavaria. It stipulated that groups identified as ‘Gypsies’ avoid all travel to the region. Those already living in the area were to “be keep under control so that there [was] no longer anything to fear from them with regard to safety in the land.”[14] Herbet Heuss notes that "[t]his Bavarian law became the model for other German states and even for neighbouring countries."[15]

The demand for Roma to settle in a specific region was often the focus of anti-Gypsy policy both of the German Empire and Weimar Republic. Once settled, communities were concentrated and isolated in one area within a town or city.[16] This process facilitated state-run surveillance practices and ‘crime prevention.’

Public policy increasingly targeted the Roma on the explicit basis of race following the Law for the Fight Against Gypsies, Vagrants and the Workshy. In 1927, legislation was passed in Prussia that required all Roma to carry identity cards. Eight thousand Roma were processed this way and subjected to mandatory fingerprinting and photographing.[17] Two years later, the focus became ever more explicit. In 1929, the German state of Hussen proposed the Law for the Fight Against the Gypsy Menace. The same year the Centre for the Fight Against Gypsies in Germany was opened. This body enforced restrictions on travel for undocumented Roma and "allowed for the arbitrary arrest and detention of gypsies as a means of crime prevention.”[18]

Legislation before Hitler’s rise to power was propelled by a rhetoric of racism. Policy based on the premise of “fighting crime” was redirected to “fighting a people.”[15] Targeted groups were no longer determined by juridical grounds. Instead, they were victims of racialized policy.[15]

Aryan racial purity[edit]

For centuries, Romani tribes were subject to antiziganist persecution and humiliation in Europe.[19] They were stigmatized as habitual criminals, social misfits, and vagabonds.[19] Given the Nazi predilection for “racial purity”, the Roma were among their first victims. However, in the early days of Third Reich, the Romanies posed a problem for Hitler’s racial ideologues: the Romani language is one of the Indo-Aryan languages, originating in northern India. Nazi anthropologists realized that Romanies migrated into Europe from India and were thus descendants of the Aryan occupants of the subcontinent, thought at the time to have invaded India from Europe. In other words, the Romanies are native speakers of an Aryan language.

Huttenbach argues that the Nazis planned to eliminate the Romanis, one way or another, from as early as 1933; they announced on July 14, 1933, the goal of preventing lebensunwertes Leben (see Life unworthy of life) from reproducing.[20] The Department of Racial Hygiene and Population Biology began to experiment on Romanis to reach criteria for their racial classification.[21]

Nazi racialist Hans F. K. Günther added a socioeconomic component to the theory of racial purity. While he conceded that the Romanies were, in fact, descended from Aryans, they were of poorer classes that had mingled with the various “inferior” races they encountered during their wanderings. This, he explained, accounted for their extreme poverty and nomadic lifestyle. While he conceded that there were some groups that were "purely Aryan", most Romanies posed a threat to Aryan homogeneity because of their racial mingling.

Romani woman with German police officer and Nazi psychologist Dr. Robert Ritter

To study the problem further, the Nazis established the Racial Hygiene and Demographic Biology Research Unit (Rassenhygienische und Bevölkerungsbiologische Forschungsstelle, Department L3 of the Reich Department of Health) in 1936. Headed by Dr. Robert Ritter and his assistant Eva Justin, the body was mandated to conduct an in-depth study of the "Gypsy question (Zigeunerfrage)" and to provide data required for formulating a new Reich "Gypsy law". After extensive fieldwork in the spring of 1936, consisting of interviews and medical examinations to investigate genealogical and genetic data, it was determined that most Romanies posed a danger to German racial purity and should be eliminated. No decision was made regarding the remainder (about 10 percent of the total Romani population of Europe), primarily Sinti and Lalleri tribes living in Germany, though several suggestions were made. At one point Heinrich Himmler even suggested the establishment of a remote reservation, where "pure Gypsies" could continue their nomadic lifestyle unhindered. According to him:

...The aim of measures taken by the State to defend the homogeneity of the German nation must be the physical separation of Gypsydom from the German nation, the prevention of miscegenation, and finally, the regulation of the way of life of pure and part-Gypsies.

Nine representatives of the Romani community in Germany were asked to compile lists of pure-blooded Romanies to be saved from extermination. However, these lists were often ignored and some who were named on them were still sent to concentration camps.[22]

Loss of citizenship[edit]

On November 14, 1935, The Law for the "Protection of Blood and Honour", a supplementary extension to the Nuremberg Laws, was passed. This law forbade Aryans to marry non-Aryans. Criteria defining who is Romani were exactly twice as strict as those defining any other group. The second Nuremberg law, The Reich Citizenship Law, stripped citizenship from "non-Aryans", blacks[23] and Romanies, like Jews, lost their right to vote on March 7, 1936.

Extermination[edit]

The Brown Triangle. Romani prisoners in German concentration camps such as Auschwitz were forced to wear the brown inverted triangle on their prison uniforms to distinguish them from other inmates.[24]

The persecution of the Roma by the Third Reich government began as early as 1936 when they began to be transferred to municipal internment camps on the outskirts of cities, a prelude to their deportation to extermination camps. Notable internment and concentration camps include Dachau, Dieselstrasse, Marzahn (which evolved from a municipal internment camp) and Vennhausen. The Society for Threatened Peoples estimates the casualties at 277,100.[25] Martin Gilbert estimates a total of more than 220,000 of the 700,000 Romani in Europe, including 15,000 (mainly from the Soviet Union) in Mauthausen in January–May 1945.[26] The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum cites scholars that estimate the number of Sinti and Roma killed to lie between 220,000 and 500,000.[27] Dr. Sybil Milton, a historian at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Research Institute, estimated the number of lives lost as "something between a half-million and a million-and-a-half".[2][28]

They were herded into ghettos, including the Warsaw Ghetto (April–June 1942), where they formed a distinct subclass.[citation needed] Ghetto diarist Emmanuel Ringelblum speculated that Romanies were sent to the Warsaw Ghetto because the Germans wanted:

...to toss into the Ghetto everything that is characteristically dirty, shabby, bizarre, of which one ought to be frightened, and which anyway has to be destroyed.[29]

Initially there was disagreement about how to solve the "Gypsy Question". In late 1939 and early 1940, Hans Frank, the General Governor of occupied Poland, refused to accept the 30,000 German and Austrian Roma which were to be deported. For his "ethnic reservation" Heinrich Himmler "lobbied to save a handful of pure-blooded Roma", but was opposed by Martin Bormann, who favored deportation for all Roma.[13] The debate ended in 1942 when Himmler signed the order marking the beginning of the mass deportations to Auschwitz. During Operation Reinhard (1941–43), an undetermined number of Roma were also killed in the extermination camps, such as Treblinka.[30]

The Nazi persecution of Roma varied from country to country and region to region. In France, between 3,000 and 6,000 Roma were deported to Dachau, Ravensbrück, Buchenwald, and other camps.[13] Further east, in the Balkan states and the Soviet Union, the Einsatzgruppen, mobile killing squads, travelled from village to village massacring the inhabitants where they lived and typically leaving few to no records of the number of Roma killed in this way. In a few cases, significant documentary evidence of mass murder was generated.[31] Timothy Snyder notes that in the Soviet Union alone there were 8,000 documented cases of Roma murdered by the Einsatzgruppen in their sweep east.[32] In return for immunity from prosecution for war crimes, Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski stated at the Einsatzgruppen Trial that "the principal task of the Einsatzgruppen of the S.D. was the annihilation of the Jews, Gypsies and Political Commissars".[33] Roma in Slovakia were killed by the local collaborating auxiliaries.[13] Notably, Roma in Denmark and Greece were not as intensely hunted as those in the Baltics.[34][35] Bulgaria and Finland, although allies of Germany, did not cooperate with the Porajmos, just as they did not cooperate with the Shoah.

On December 16, 1942, Himmler ordered that the Romani candidates for extermination should be deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau. To the Romani people of Europe, this order was equivalent to the January 20 decision of that same year, made at the Wannsee Conference, at which Nazi bureaucrats decided on the "Final Solution" to the "Jewish problem". Himmler then ordered, on November 15, 1943, that Romanies and "part-Romanies" were to be put "on the same level as Jews and placed in concentration camps".[36]

Sybil Milton has speculated that Hitler was involved in the decision to deport all Romanies to Auschwitz, as Himmler gave the order six days after meeting with Hitler and Himmler had prepared for the meeting a report on the subject Führer: Aufstellung wer sind Zigeuner.[37] Organized Jewish resistance occurred in nearly every large ghetto and concentration camp (Auschwitz, Sobibor, Treblinka, Ravensbrück, and Buchenwald, among many others), and the Roma themselves similarly attempted to resist the Nazis' extermination. In Auschwitz, in May 1944, SS guards attempted to liquidate the Gypsy Family Camp and were "met with unexpected resistance—the Roma fought back with crude weapons—and retreated". However, a few months later the SS succeeded in liquidating the camp, and ultimately 20,000 Roma were murdered in the camp.[13]

Persecution in other Axis countries[edit]

Romanies were also victims of the puppet regimes that cooperated with the Third Reich during the war, especially the notorious Ustaše regime in Croatia. In Jasenovac concentration camp, along with Serbs and Jews, tens of thousands of Romanies were killed. Yad Vashem estimates that the Porajmos was most intense in Yugoslavia, where around 90,000 Romanies were killed.[34] The Ustaše government also deported around 26,000;[38] Serbian Romanies are parties to the pending Class action suit against the Vatican Bank and others currently pending in U.S. federal court seeking return of wartime loot.[39]

The governments of some Nazi German allies, namely Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria, also contributed to the Nazi plan of Romani extermination, but this was implemented on a smaller scale and most Romani in these countries survived, unlike those in Ustaše Croatia or in areas directly ruled by Nazi Germany (such as Poland). The Hungarian Arrow Cross government deported between 28,000 and 33,000 Romanies out of a population estimated between 70,000 and 100,000.[40]

The Romanian government of Ion Antonescu did not systematically exterminate Roma on its territory. Instead, resident Roma were deported to Romanian-run concentration camps in occupied Transnistria.[41] Of the estimated 25,000 Romani inmates of these camps, 11,000 (44%, or almost half) died.[42]

According to eyewitness Mrs. de Wiek, Anne Frank, a notable Jewish Holocaust victim, is recorded as having witnessed the prelude to the murder of Romani children at Auschwitz: "I can still see her standing at the door and looking down the camp street as a herd of naked gypsy girls were driven by, to the crematory, and Anne watched them going and cried."[43]

In the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Romani internees were sent to the Lety and Hodonín concentration camps before being transferred to Auschwitz-Birkenau for gassing. What makes the Lety camp unique is that it was staffed by Czech guards, who could be even more brutal than the Germans, as testified in Paul Polansky’s book Black Silence. The genocide was so thorough that the vast majority of Romani in the Czech Republic today are actually descended from migrants from Slovakia who moved there during the post-war years in Czechoslovakia. In Nazi-occupied France, between 16,000 and 18,000 were killed.[34]

The small Romani population in Denmark was not subjected to mass killings by the Nazi occupiers, but classified as simply "asocial". Angus Fraser attributes this to "doubts over ethnic demarcations within the travelling population".[44] The Romanis of Greece were taken hostage and prepared for deportation to Auschwitz, but were saved by appeals from the Archbishop of Athens and the Greek Prime Minister.[45]

Estimated number of victims[edit]

According to Ian Hancock, director of the Romani Archives and Documentation Center at the University of Texas at Austin,[46] there also existed a trend to downplay the actual figures. He surmised that almost the entire Romani population was killed in Croatia, Estonia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.[47] Rudolph Rummel, a professor emeritus of political science at the University of Hawaii who spent his career assembling data on collective violence by governments towards their people (for which he coined the term democide), estimated that 258,000 must have been killed in Nazi Germany,[48] 36,000 in Romania under Ion Antonescu[49] and 27,000 in Ustaše-controlled Croatia.[50]

The following figures are from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust.[51]

Country Pre War Roma population Low Estimate High Estimate
Austria 11,200 6,800 8,250
Belgium 600 350 500
Czech Republic (Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia) 13,000 5,000 6,500
Estonia 1,000 500 1,000
France 40,000 15,150 15,150
Germany 20,000 15,000 15,000
Greece ? 50 50
Hungary 100,000 1,000 28,000
Italy 25,000 1,000 1,000
Latvia 5,000 1,500 2,500
Lithuania 1,000 500 1,000
Luxembourg 200 100 200
Netherlands 500 215 500
Poland 50,000 8,000 35,000
Romania 300,000 19,000 36,000
Slovakia 80,000 400 10,000
Soviet Union (1939 borders) 200,000 30,000 35,000
Yugoslavia 100,000 26,000 90,000
Total 947,500 130,565 285,650
  • In a 2010 publication, Ian Hancock stated that he agrees with the view that the number of Romanies killed has been underestimated as a result of being grouped with others in Nazi records under headings such as "remainder to be liquidated", "hangers-on", and "partisans".[52] He notes recent evidence such as the previously obscure Lety concentration camp in the Czech Republic and Ackovic's revised estimates[53] of Gypsies killed by the Ustaše as high as 80,000–100,000. These numbers suggest that previous estimates have been grossly underrepresented.[54]
  • Zbigniew Brzezinski has estimated that 800,000 Romanies died as a result of Nazi actions.[55]

Medical experiments[edit]

Another distinctive feature of the Porajmos and the Holocaust was the extensive use of human subjects in medical experiments.[56] The most notorious of these physicians was Dr. Josef Mengele, who worked in the Auschwitz concentration camp. His experiments included placing subjects in pressure chambers, testing drugs on them, freezing them, attempting to change eye color by injecting chemicals into children's eyes and various amputations and other brutal surgeries.[56] The full extent of his work will never be known because the truckload of records he sent to Dr. Otmar von Verschuer at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute were destroyed by von Verschuer.[57] Mengele's own journals, consisting of some 3,300 pages, are likely never to be published, and they are suspected to contain denials of the Holocaust.[58] Subjects who survived Mengele's experiments were almost always killed and dissected shortly afterwards.

He seemed particularly keen on working with Romani children. He would bring them sweets and toys, and would personally take them to the gas chamber. They would call him "Onkel Mengele".[59] Vera Alexander was a Jewish inmate at Auschwitz who looked after 50 sets of Romani twins:

I remember one set of twins in particular: Guido and Ina, aged about four. One day, Mengele took them away. When they returned, they were in a terrible state: they had been sewn together, back to back, like Siamese twins. Their wounds were infected and oozing pus. They screamed day and night. Then their parents—I remember the mother's name was Stella—managed to get some morphine and they killed the children in order to end their suffering.[59]

Recognition and remembrance[edit]

Sinti and Roma about to be deported from the German town of Asperg, 22 May 1940

The German government paid war reparations to Jewish survivors of the Holocaust, but not to the Romani. There were "never any consultations at Nuremberg or any other international conference as to whether the Sinti and Roma were entitled like the Jews to reparations.”[60] The Interior Ministry of Wuerttemberg argued that "Gypsies [were] persecuted under the Nazis not for any racial reason but because of an asocial and criminal record."[61] When on trial for his leadership of Einsatzgruppen in the USSR, Otto Ohlendorf cited the massacres of Romanis during the Thirty Years War as a historical precedent.[62]

West Germany recognised the genocide of the Roma in 1982,[63] and since then the Porajmos has been increasingly recognized as a genocide committed simultaneously with the Shoah.[64] The American historian Sybil Milton wrote several articles arguing that the Porajmos deserved recognition as part of the Holocaust.[65] In Switzerland, a committee of experts investigated the policy of the Swiss government during the Porajmos.[66]

Formal recognition and commemoration of the Roma persecution by the Nazis is practically difficult due to the lack of significant collective memory and documentation of the Porajmos among the Roma, a consequence both of their oral traditions and their illiteracy, heightened by widespread poverty and discrimination that forces some Roma out of state schools. One UNESCO report put the illiteracy rate among the Roma in Romania at 30 percent, as opposed to the near universal literacy of the Romanian public as a whole. In a 2011 investigation of the state of the Roma in Europe today, Ben Judah, a Policy Fellow with the European Council on Foreign Relations, traveled to Romania. Nico Fortuna, a sociologist and Roma activist, explained the distinction between Jewish collective memory of the Shoah and the Roma experience:

There is a difference between the Jewish and Roma deportees...The Jews were shocked and can remember the year, date and time it happened. The Roma shrugged it off. They said, "Of course I was deported. I'm Roma; these things happen to a Roma." The Roma mentality is different from the Jewish mentality. For example, a Roma came to me and asked, "Why do you care so much about these deportations? Your family was not deported." I went, "I care as a Roma" and the guy said back, "I do not care because my family were brave, proud Roma that were not deported."

For the Jews it was a total and everyone knew this—from bankers to pawnbrokers. For the Roma it was selective and not comprehensive. The Roma were only exterminated in a few parts of Europe such as Poland, the Netherlands, Germany and France. In Romania and much of the Balkans, only nomadic Roma and social outcast Roma were deported. This matters and has an impact on the Roma mentality.[67]

Ian Hancock has also observed a reluctance among Roma to acknowledge their victimization by the Third Reich. The Roma "are traditionally not disposed to keeping alive the terrible memories from their history—nostalgia is a luxury for others".[13] The impact of the illiteracy, the lack of social institutions and the rampant discrimination faced by Roma in Europe today have produced a people who, according to Fortuna, lack a "national consciousness...and historical memory of the Holocaust because there is no Roma elite."[67]

Acts of commemoration[edit]

Plaque in Rome (Italy) in memory of Romani people who died in extermination camps
Monument in memory of Romani people who were murdered by German Nazis in forest in Polish village Borzęcin.

The first memorial commemorating victims of the Romani Holocaust was erected on May 8, 1956, in the Polish village of Szczurowa commemorating the Szczurowa massacre. Since 1996, a Gypsy Caravan Memorial is crossing the main remembrance sites in Poland, from Tarnów via Auschwitz, Szczurowa and Borzęcin Dolny, gathering the Gypsies and well-wishers in the remembrance of the Porajmos.[68] Several museums dedicate a part of their permanent exhibition to that memory, like the Museum of Romani Culture in Czech Republic and the Ethnographic Museum in Tarnów. However some political organisations still try to block the building up of memorials near former concentration camps, as shows the debate around Lety and Hodonin in the Czech Republic.

On October 23, 2007, Romanian President Traian Băsescu publicly apologized for his nation's role in the Porajmos, the first time a Romanian leader has done so. He called for the Porajmos to be taught in schools, stating that, "We must tell our children that six decades ago children like them were sent by the Romanian state to die of hunger and cold". Part of his apology was in the Romani language. Băsescu also awarded three Porajmos survivors with an Order for Faithful Services.[69] Before recognizing Romania's role in the Porajmos, Traian Băsescu was widely quoted after an incident on May 19, 2007, in which he insulted a journalist by calling her a "stinky gypsy". The president subsequently apologized.[70]

On January 27, 2011, Zoni Weisz became the first Roma guest of honour at Germany's official Holocaust Memorial Day ceremony. Dutch born Weiz escaped death during a Nazi round-up when a policeman allowed him to escape. Nazi injustices against the Roma were recalled at the ceremony, including that directed at Sinto boxer Johann Trollmann.[71][72]

The May 3, 2012 saw the world premiere of the Requiem for Auschwitz by composer Roger Moreno Rathgeb at the Nieuwe Kerk in Amsterdam performed by the The Roma and Sinti Philharmoniker directed by Riccardo M Sahiti. The Philharmoniker is a pan-European orchestra of Roma and Sinto musicians generally employed by other classical orchestras, but aiming to focus on the contribution of Roma culture on classical music. Dutch-Swiss Sinto Moreno Rathgeb expressedly wrote his requiem for all victims of Auschwitz and Nazi terror. The occasion of the premiere was coupled however to a conference, Roma between Past and Future. The requiem has since been performed in Tilburg, Prague, Budapest, Frankfurt, Cracow, and Berlin.

On 24 October 2012 the Memorial to the Sinti and Roma victims of National Socialism was unveiled in Berlin.

[73] On August 2, 2013 ternYpe - International Roma Youth Network organized in Auschwitz Birkenau at the Roma and Sinti memorial in the former "zigeunerlager" site, the largest in history Youth Commemoration Ceremony gathering over 400 young people Roma and non-Roma from 20 countries, from all over the world.The Commemoration was part of a 4-day program of the Roma Genocide Remembrance Initiative “Dik I na Bistar/look and don’t forget”held in Krakow from the 30th July till the 4th of August 2013. This initiative of ternYpe Network was held under the European Parliament's High Patronage granted by the President Martin Schulz[74]

Depiction in films[edit]

In 2009, Tony Gatlif, a French film director of Romani ethnicity, directed the film Korkoro, which is based on an anecdote by the historian Jacques Sigot. The film traces a Romani, Taloche's, escape from the Nazis, with help from a French notary Justes, and later, his inability to lead an immobile non-nomadic life. While it is not known if the French notary, Justes, really existed, the character Théodore in the movie is inspired by him.[75] The film's other main character, Mademoiselle Lise Lundi, is inspired by the schoolteacher Yvette Lundy, who used to work in Gionges, La Marne.[76] The film was shot in Loire, Monts du Forez, Rozier-Côtes-d'Aurec and Saint-Bonnet-le-Château.[77]

The 1988 Polish film And the Violins Stopped Playing also has Porajmos as its subject, although this has been criticised for showing the killing of Roma as a method of removing witnesses to the killing of Jews.[78]

A scene in the French-language film Train de Vie (Train of Life), directed by Radu Mihaileanu, depicts a group of Romanis singing and dancing with Jews at a stop en route to a concentration camp.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Bársony 2008, p. 1.
  2. ^ a b Hancock, Ian (2005), "True Romanies and the Holocaust: A Re-evaluation and an overview", The Historiography of the Holocaust, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 383–396, ISBN 1-4039-9927-9 
  3. ^ Hancock 1997, p. 339: "PORRAJMOS: The Romani Holocaust (1933–1945), also BARO PORRAJMOS, lit. 'great devouring.'"
  4. ^ a b Matras 2004, p. 195.
  5. ^ a b c On the interpretation of a word: Porrajmos as Holocaust – Ian Hancock
  6. ^ http://docs.google.com/Doc?id=ddr3tfjd_0cpggdpfw
  7. ^ http://dosta.org/?q=node/37
  8. ^ http://romanykultury.info/discussion/discussion.php?row=3
  9. ^ Norbert Boretzky and Birgit Igla. Kommentierter Dialektatlas des Romani. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag 2004. Teil 1: Vergleich der Dialekte.
  10. ^ See e.g. http://romani.uni-graz.at/romlex/lex.xml
  11. ^ Heuss 1997, p. 19.
  12. ^ Bársony 2008, p. 7.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Symi Rom-Rymer (July–August 2011). "Roma in the Holocaust". Moment Magazine. Retrieved June 30, 2011. 
  14. ^ Report on the Bavarian Landtag 1925/6, III Tagung; Gesetz- und Verordnungsblatt fur den Freistaat Bayern, Nr. 17, 22.7.1926. as cited in Heuss 1997, p. 24.
  15. ^ a b c Heuss 1997, p. 24.
  16. ^ Sparing 1997, pp. 39–40.
  17. ^ Ian Hancock, “Gypsy History in Germany and Neighbouring Lands: A Chronology Leading to the Holocaust and Beyond,” in The Gypsies of Eastern Europe, ed by David Crowe and John Kolsti (Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1991), pg. 14.
  18. ^ Erin Jessee, "Nazi Atrocities: The Genocide of the Roma/Sinti" (lecture, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, February 3, 2010).
  19. ^ a b Ian Hancock, We are the Romani People. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press, 2002, (ISBN 1 902806 19 0)
  20. ^ Gisela Bock, Racism and Sexism in Nazi Germany, p.408 in The Gypsies of Eastern Europe,ME Sharpe Inc, London, p.46
  21. ^ Gabrielle Tyrnauer, The Fate of the Gypsies During the Holocaust, p.19 in The Gypsies of Eastern Europe,ME Sharpe Inc, London, p.47
  22. ^ Helen Fein, Accounting for Genocide, Free Press, 1979, pp.140-1
  23. ^ US Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Nuremberg Laws: Nazi Racial Policy 1935". 
  24. ^ The Holocaust History Museum
  25. ^ http://www.gfbv.it/3dossier/sinti-rom/de/rom-de.html#r5
  26. ^ Gilbert, Martin (2002). The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust. Routledge, London & New York. ISBN 0-415-28145-8.  (ref Map 182 p 141 with deaths by country & Map 301 p 232)
  27. ^ Sinti and Roma, ed. by Holocaust museum
  28. ^ Ian Hancock, We Are the Romani People, 2002, University of Hertfordshire Press, p.48
  29. ^ Yad Vashem, "Ringelblum’s Diary"
  30. ^ Arad, Yitzhak (1999). Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. Indiana University Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN 978-0-2532-1305-1. 
  31. ^ Headland, Ronald (199 2). Messages of murder: a study of the reports of the Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and the Security Service, 1941-1943. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8386-3418-9. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  32. ^ Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. Basic Books. p. 276. ISBN 978-0-465-00239-9. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  33. ^ "The Trial of German Major War Criminals Sitting at Nuremberg, Germany 7th January to 19th January, 1946". The Nizkor Project. 2009. Retrieved 17 February 2010. 
  34. ^ a b c http://www1.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/microsoft%20word%20-%206324.pdf
  35. ^ No record of Romanies killed in Denmark or Greece, Ian Hancock quoted in The History of the Holocaust: A Handbook and Dictionary, Edelheit & Edelheit, Westview, 1995 p.458
  36. ^ Gilbert, Martin (2004). The Second World War: A Complete History. Clearwater, Fla: Owl Books. p. 474. ISBN 0-8050-7623-9. 
  37. ^ Sybil Milton, "The Holocaust: The Gypsies", p.172 in Century of Genocide 3rd edition, ed. Samuel Totten & William S. Parsons, Routledge, Oxford, 2009.
  38. ^ Jasenovac, at the Jewish Virtual Library.
  39. ^ Vatican Bank Claims
  40. ^ Crowe, David M. (2000). The Roma Holocaust in Schwartz, Bernard; DeCoste, Frederick Charles (Eds.) The Holocaust's ghost: writings on art, politics, law and education. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: University of Alberta Press. pp. 178–210. ISBN 0-88864-337-3. 
  41. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies), 1939-1945". Holocaust Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  42. ^ The report of the International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania (PDF), from Yad Vashem
  43. ^ "Anne as a child"—see part about Mrs. de Wiek and "gypsy girls"
  44. ^ Angus Fraser, The Gypsies, page 267, Blackwell, Oxford, 1992
  45. ^ Angus Fraser, The Gypsies, page 268, Blackwell, Oxford, 1992
  46. ^ "Faculty Profile". The University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
  47. ^ Hancock, Ian (2000). "Downplaying the Porrajmos: The Trend to Minimize the Romani Holocaust". Patrin (Sept 23). Retrieved July 15, 2011. 
  48. ^ http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/NAZIS.TAB1.1.GIF, Statistics of Democide, RJ Rummel, LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster, 1998
  49. ^ Line 1881, http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.TAB14.1D.GIF, Statistics of Democide, RJ Rummel, LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster, 1998
  50. ^ See the estimates listed at lines 195-201 in Table 9.1, Statistics of Democide, RJ Rummel, LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster, 1998
  51. ^ Niewyk, Donald L. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-231-11200-9 Page 422
  52. ^ Danger! Educated Gypsy, page 243, University of Hertfordshire Press, 2010
  53. ^ Essay "The Suffering of the Roma in Jasenovac", 2006 in Lituchy, Jasenovac and the Holocaust in Yugoslavia, Jasenovac Research Institute
  54. ^ Danger! Educated Gypsy, pages 244–5, University of Hertfordshire Press, 2010
  55. ^ Brzezinski, Zbigniew (2010). Out of Control: Global Turmoil on the Eve of the 21st Century. Simon and Schuster. p. 10. ISBN 9781439143803. 
  56. ^ a b Harran, Marilyn J. (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles: A History in Words and Pictures. Lincolnwood, IL: Publications International. p. 384. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3.  Full text
  57. ^ Müller-Hill, Benno (1998). Murderous science: elimination by scientific selection of Jews, Gypsies, and others in Germany, 1933-1945. Plainview, N.Y: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. p. 22. ISBN 0-87969-531-5. 
  58. ^ "Auschwitz 'Angel of Death' Josef Mengele's Unknown Writings to be Auctioned" June 30, 2011 /PRNewswire: http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/auschwitz-angel-of-death-josef-mengeles-unknown-writings-to-be-auctioned-124801054.html
  59. ^ a b Berenbaum, Michael (1993). The world must know: The history of the Holocaust as told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Boston: Little, Brown. pp. 194–5. ISBN 0-316-09134-0. 
  60. ^ Wolfgang Wippermann, “Compensation withheld: The denial of reparations to the Sinti and Roma,” in The Gypsies during the Second World War: The Final Chapter, ed. Donald Kenrick (Hertfordshire: University of Hertfordshire Press, 2006), 171.
  61. ^ Martin Gilbert, Second World War, page 734, Guild Publishing, London, 1989
  62. ^ Martin Gilbert, Second World War, page 735, Guild Publishing, London, 1989
  63. ^ Zoltan D., Barany (2002). The East European gypsies: regime change, marginality, and ethnopolitics. Cambridge University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-521-00910-2. 
  64. ^ William A. Duna (University of Minnesota): Gypsies: A Persecuted Race. Gypsies in Nazi Germany
  65. ^ e.g. Nazi Policies Toward Roma and Sinti, 1933-1945, Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, 1992; Chapter 5, "The Holocaust: the Gypsies" in Century of genocide: critical essays and eyewitness accounts By Samuel Totten, William S. Parsons, Israel W. Charny, Routledge, Oxford, 2004
  66. ^ Roma, Sinti und Jenische. Schweizerische Zigeunerpolitik zur Zeit des Nationalsozialismus. (English: "Roma, Sinti and Jenische. Swiss Gypsy-politics at the time of National Socialism") (PDF).
  67. ^ a b Ben Judah (July–August 2011). "Invisible Roma". Moment Magazine. Retrieved June 30, 2011. 
  68. ^ The Porajmos in Roma Memory in Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland.
  69. ^ "Romanian Leader Apologizes to Gypsies", USA Today
  70. ^ "Violence against Roma: Romania" Human Rights First
  71. ^ Evans, Stephen (2011-01-27). "Roma appeal against discrimination on Holocaust Day". BBC News. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 
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  73. ^ http://2august.eu/
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  76. ^ LG (Feb 23, 2010). "Yvette Lundy, inspire un film à Tony Gatlif". France 3. 
  77. ^ J, Sauvadon (Feb 23, 2010). "Tourné dans la Loire, Liberté sort sur les écrans". France 3. 
  78. ^ Ian Hancock & Dileep Karanth, Danger! Educated Gypsy, Univ of Hertfordshire Press, 2010, p.256
Bibliography
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