Porridge (TV series)
||It has been suggested that Lukewarm (Porridge), McClaren (Porridge), Lennie Godber, Mr. Barrowclough, Harry Grout, Blanco Webb and Norman Stanley Fletcher be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since April 2014.|
Porridge main title.
|Created by||Dick Clement and
Ian La Frenais
|Written by||Dick Clement and
Ian La Frenais
|Directed by||Sydney Lotterby|
|Country of origin||United Kingdom|
|No. of episodes||21 (List of episodes)|
|Running time||18 x 30 mins
1 x 40 mins
1 x 45 mins
|Original run||5 September 1974– 25 March 1977|
|Followed by||Going Straight (1978)|
Porridge is a British situation comedy broadcast on BBC1 from 1974 to 1977, running for three series, two Christmas specials and a feature film also titled Porridge (the movie was released under the title Doing Time in the United States). Written by Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais, it stars Ronnie Barker and Richard Beckinsale as two inmates at the fictional HMP Slade in Cumberland. "Doing porridge" is British slang for serving a prison sentence, porridge once being the traditional breakfast in UK prisons.
Porridge is widely considered to be one of the greatest British sitcoms of all time. The series was placed 7th in a 2004 BBC poll of the 100 greatest British sitcoms. The series was followed by a 1978 sequel, Going Straight, which established that Fletcher would not be going back to prison again.
- 1 History
- 2 Plot
- 3 Locations
- 4 Cast
- 5 Episode list
- 6 Titles and music
- 7 Spin-offs
- 8 DVD releases
- 9 Popularity with prisoners
- 10 Contributions to the English language
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Bibliography
- 14 External links
Porridge originated with a 1973 project commissioned by the BBC Seven of One, which would see Ronnie Barker star in seven different situation comedy pilot episodes. The most successful would then be made into a full series. One of the episodes, "Prisoner and Escort", written by Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais (who appear in one episode) about a newly convicted criminal, Norman Stanley Fletcher (Barker), being escorted to prison by two warders: the timid Mr. Barrowclough (Brian Wilde) and the stern Mr. Mackay (Fulton Mackay). It was broadcast on 1 April 1973 on BBC2. Despite Barker's initial preference for another of the pilots, a sitcom about a Welsh gambling addict, "Prisoner and Escort" was selected. It was renamed Porridge, a slang term for prison; Barker and Clement and La Frenais actually came up with the same title independently of each other.
In their research, Clement and La Frenais spoke to Jonathan Marshall, a former prisoner who had written a book, How to Survive in the Nick, and he advised them about prison slang, dress and routines. Struggling to think up plots and humour for such a downbeat, confined environment, a particular phrase used by Marshall – "little victories" – struck a chord and convinced them to base the series on an inmate who made his daily life in prison more bearable by beating the system, even in trivial ways.
The BBC was forced to look around for locations because the Home Office refused permission for any production filming in or outside a real prison. Instead the main gatehouse of the disused St Albans Prison (in the town's Victoria Street) was used in the opening credits. Exteriors were first filmed at a psychiatric hospital near Watford. However after the completion of the second series, the hospital withdrew permission for more filming following complaints from patients' families. Another institution near Ealing was then used for the third series. Scenes within cells and offices were filmed at the BBC's London studios. But for shots of the wider prison interior, series production designer Tim Gleeson, converted an old water tank, used at Ealing Studios for underwater filming, into a multi-storey set.
The first episode, "New Faces, Old Hands", was aired on BBC1 on 5 September 1974, attracting a television audience of over 16 million, and received positive reviews from critics. Two further series were commissioned, as well as two Christmas special episodes. The final episode of Porridge, "Final Stretch", was broadcast on 25 March 1977. The producers and the writers were keen to make more episodes, but Barker was wary of being "stuck with a character" and also wanted to move on to other projects, so the series came to a close. Barker did, however, reprise his role as Fletcher in a sequel, Going Straight, which ran for one series in 1978. A feature length version of the show was made in 1979 and in 2003 a follow-up mockumentary was aired.
The central character of Porridge is Norman Stanley Fletcher, described by his sentencing judge as "a habitual criminal" from Muswell Hill, London. Fletcher is sent to HMP Slade, a fictional Category C prison in Cumberland, alongside his cellmate, Lennie Godber, a naïve inmate from Birmingham serving his first sentence, whom Fletcher takes under his wing. Mr Mackay is a tough warder with whom Fletcher often comes into conflict. Mackay's subordinate, Mr Barrowclough, is more sympathetic and timid – and prone to manipulation by his charges.
The prison exterior in the title sequence is the old St Albans prison gatehouse and Maidstone Prison, which was also featured in the BBC comedy series Birds of a Feather. The interior shots of doors being locked were filmed in Shepherds Bush Police Station - the BBC had a good relationship with officers there. In the episode "Pardon Me" Fletcher speaks to Blanco (David Jason) in the prison gardens: this was filmed in the grounds of an old brewery outside Baldock on the A505 to Royston. The barred windows approximated a prison. The building has since been demolished. The 1974 episode "A Day Out", which features a prison work party, was filmed in and around the Welsh village of Penderyn, the prisoners' ditch being excavated by a JCB. Elland Road, the home of Leeds United Football Club, was briefly featured in "Happy Release". In the episode "No Way Out", Fletcher tries to get MacKay to fall into a tunnel in a tarmac area, these outside shots were filmed at Hanwell Asylum in West London, the barred windows in this case, being those of the hospital pharmacy. The interior shots for the 1979 film were shot entirely at Chelmsford Prison, Essex.
Ronnie Barker had suggested the part of Lennie Godber for Paul Henry, but the decision was taken to cast Richard Beckinsale by the production team.
- Ronnie Barker as Norman Stanley Fletcher
- Fulton MacKay as Principal Officer Mr MacKay
- Richard Beckinsale as Lennie Godber
- Brian Wilde as Prison Officer Mr Henry Barrowclough
- Peter Vaughan as "Genial" Harry Grout
- Sam Kelly as "Bunny" Warren
- Tony Osoba as Jim McLaren
- Christopher Biggins as Lukewarm
- David Jason as Blanco Webb
- Ken Jones as "Horrible" Ives
- Ronald Lacey as Harris
- Michael Barrington as Geoffrey Venables (the Governor)
- Madge Hindle as Mrs Hesketh (the Governor's secretary)
- Patricia Brake as Ingrid Fletcher
- Maurice Denham as The Honourable Mr Justice Stephen Rawley
- Brian Glover as Cyril Heslop
- Ray Dunbobbin as Evans
- Dudley Sutton as Reg Urwin "with a U"
- Philip Madoc as Williams
- Alun Armstrong as Spraggon
- David Daker as Jarvis
- Eric Dodson as Banyard
- Peter Jeffrey as Napper Wainwright
- Paul McDowell as Mr Collinson
- Jane Wenham as Mrs Jamieson
- John Dair as Crusher
- Paul Angelis as Navy Rum
- Philip Jackson as Dylan
The programme's scriptwriters appear, uncredited, outside Fletch and Godber's cell in the episode "No Peace for the Wicked".
Each episode 30 minutes except where stated.
|Pilot||"Prisoner and Escort"||1 April 1973|
|Norman Stanley Fletcher, a career criminal, and his escorts – soft-hearted Mr Barrowclough and authoritarian Mr Mackay – make the journey on New Year's Eve from London up to Slade Prison in Cumberland.|
Series 1 (1974)
|1||"New Faces, Old Hands"||5 September 1974|
|It is Lennie Godber's first time in prison, and Fletcher shows him the ropes, as the two go through the checking-in process along with the rather dim-witted Heslop.|
|2||"The Hustler"||12 September 1974|
|Fletch starts an illicit gambling enterprise that soon runs into trouble at the hands of Ives and Mr. Mackay.|
|3||"A Night In"||19 September 1974|
|Largely set in relative darkness one evening, with 698 nights left for Godber, within the confines of their cell, Fletcher and Godber ponder life in prison and many other aspects of their lives.|
|4||"A Day Out"||26 September 1974|
|Fletch, Godber, Ives and some other prisoners go out on a work party, but, after Ives gets stung by a bee, Fletch is able to escape for a pint at the local pub, on the pretext of getting first aid.|
|5||"Ways and Means"||3 October 1974|
|New prisoner McLaren proves troublesome, and Fletch decides to help him out, but they both end up on the roof.|
|6||"Men Without Women"||10 October 1974|
|Fletch fancies himself as a bit of an agony aunt and is called upon by his fellow inmates to help out, before his daughter, Ingrid informs him that his own marriage is in trouble.|
Series 2 (1975)
|7||"Just Desserts"||24 October 1975|
|Fletch is appalled when someone steals his tin of pineapple chunks and is determined to catch the culprit. Meanwhile, Godber tries to steal another tin for him.|
|8||"Heartbreak Hotel"||31 October 1975|
|After his girlfriend, Denise, breaks up with him via a Dear John letter, Godber assaults a fellow inmate. At the same time, Fletch starts questioning his daughter, Ingrid, over her personal life.|
|9||"Disturbing the Peace"||7 November 1975|
|The prisoners are overjoyed when Mackay leaves on a promotion course, until they meet his replacement, Mr Wainwright, whom Fletcher remembers from a previous stretch in Brixton.|
|10||"Happy Release"||14 November 1975|
|Mackay is appalled to discover that Fletch has been severely injured and is in the hospital wing, and Blanco devises a plan for revenge on Norris, who had stolen his possessions some time before Fletch arrived.|
|11||"The Harder they Fall"||21 November 1975|
|Fletch, under Genial Harry Grout's orders, tries to rig a boxing match so that Godber, who is favourite to win, loses, only to discover Godber is taking orders from one of Grouty's rivals.|
|12||"No Peace for the Wicked"||28 November 1975|
|With everyone watching a football match, Fletch attempts to snatch a few precious minutes of peace and quiet, only to suffer constant interruptions, among whom are Mackay and visiting members of the Home Office, who then insist on questioning Fletch about his views on the penal system.|
Christmas specials (1975–1976)
|Special 1||"No Way Out"||24 December 1975||45 mins|
|A planned escape causes all kinds of trouble just before Christmas, and Fletch attempts to spend some valuable time in the infirmary.|
|Special 2||"The Desperate Hours"||24 December 1976||40 mins|
|Fletcher, Godber, Barrowclough and the governor's secretary are held hostage by a mad prisoner with a homemade gun attempting to escape.|
Series 3 (1977)
|13||"A Storm in a Teacup"||18 February 1977|
|After a capsule containing pills that Harris stole goes missing, Grouty attempts to locate them and Fletch is recruited to help, not realising that they are in his mug of tea.|
|14||"Poetic Justice"||25 February 1977|
|Fletch is incensed to discover that he is getting a new cell-mate. To make matters worse, it turns out that the cell-mate is the judge that sentenced him.|
|15||"Rough Justice"||4 March 1977|
|After the judge's watch is stolen, everyone is convinced that Harris is the culprit, and so a kangaroo court is set up in an effort to convict him of the crime.|
|16||"Pardon Me"||11 March 1977|
|Blanco refuses parole after serving a life sentence for a murder he's always claimed he never committed, so Fletch sets up an appeal committee to get him pardoned.|
|17||"A Test of Character"||18 March 1977|
|Fletch is determined to help Godber pass his History O-level, so he has Warren steal the papers, only to discover that Godber doesn't want them. Meanwhile, a debate flares up over a claim of Warren's that, at a certain scale, the nearest star from the Sun would be in Johannesburg.|
|18||"Final Stretch"||25 March 1977|
|With his parole meeting less than a week away, Godber has a fight with Jarvis, a football hooligan, and Fletch realises that he will have to risk solitary confinement and loss of his own remission to prevent it. Meanwhile, Fletch is suspicious of his daughter's holiday plans.|
Titles and music
The opening credits consist of outside shots of Slade prison and of several doors and gates being closed and locked, which was intended to set the scene for the programme. In the first series, there were also shots of St Pancras railway station, which was changed in subsequent series to shots of Fletcher walking around Slade prison. Title music was thought unsuitable for a show set in prison, so instead there is a booming narration (performed by Barker himself) given by the presiding judge passing sentence on Fletcher:
|“||Norman Stanley Fletcher, you have pleaded guilty to the charges brought by this court, and it is now my duty to pass sentence. You are an habitual criminal, who accepts arrest as an occupational hazard, and presumably accepts imprisonment in the same casual manner. We therefore feel constrained to commit you to the maximum term allowed for these offences; you will go to prison for five years.||”|
Subsequently, Barker is reported to have said that he regretted recording himself as the judge, a character role subsequently played by Maurice Denham in a later episode.
The theme music for the closing credits was written by Max Harris, who had also written the theme music for numerous other TV shows, including The Strange World of Gurney Slade and Doomwatch, and would go on to write the theme for Open All Hours, another of the Seven of One pilots. The cheery theme was "deliberately at variance with the dour comedy" and given a music hall feel by Harris because of the lead character's Cockney origins.
A sequel to Porridge, Going Straight, was aired between 24 February and 7 April 1978. Beginning with Fletcher's release from prison on parole, it follows his attempts to "go straight" and readjust to a law-abiding life. Richard Beckinsale reprised his role as Godber, now the fiancée of Fletcher's daughter Ingrid (Patricia Brake), and the couple married in the final episode. Nicholas Lyndhurst also featured as Fletcher's gormless son, Raymond. The series lasted six episodes, and generally was not as well received as its predecessor, although it did win two BAFTAs, for Best Situation Comedy and Best Light Entertainment Performance (jointly with The Two Ronnies) for Ronnie Barker.
Porridge - the film
Following the example of other sitcom crossovers, such as Dad's Army, Steptoe and Son and The Likely Lads, a feature length version of Porridge was made in 1979. Barker again starred as Fletcher, and most of the supporting cast also returned. Unlike the television series, it was actually filmed at a real prison as HMP Chelmsford was temporarily vacant following a fire.
Life Beyond the Box: Norman Stanley Fletcher
On 29 December 2003, a mockumentary follow-up to Porridge was broadcast on BBC Two. It looked back on Fletcher's life and how the various inmates of Slade had fared 25 years after Fletcher's release from prison. Warren is now a sign painter, Lukewarm is married to Trevor, McLaren is an MSP, Grouty has become a celebrity gangster, Horrible Ives collects money for non-existent charities, Godber is now a lorry driver and still married to Ingrid, and Fletcher runs a pub with his childhood sweetheart, Gloria.
Novelisations and audio
Novelisations of the three series of Porridge and the film were issued by BBC Books, as well as an adaptation of Going Straight. BBC Enterprises released an LP record featuring two Porridge episodes, "A Night In" and "Heartbreak Hotel" in 1977.(REB 270) Two volumes of audio cassette releases (comprising four episodes each) were issued in the mid-1990s. They were later re-released on CD.
In 2009 Porridge was adapted into a stage show, also written by Clement and La Frenais, starring former EastEnders actor Shaun Williamson as Fletcher and Daniel West as Godber. Peter Kay, a fan of the show, was previously offered the role but turned it down. It opened in September 2009 to positive reviews.
An American version entitled On the Rocks (1975–76) ran for a season, while a Dutch version Laat maar zitten (free translation: Keep 'em inside) ran from 1988 to 1991; later episodes of the Netherlands version were original scripts.
The series is repeated often on BBC Two and is a regular feature on the UKTV channel G.O.L.D.(some gestures are now pixelated and very mild profanities "bleeped", whilst racial and "homophobic" references are cut completely). The G.O.L.D. broadcasts are reduced in length from the BBC's original 28 minutes to 23 minutes, in order to allow the programme to fit into a Commercial Channel's 30-minute slot, allowing for advertisements.
|Region 2||Region 4|
|Complete Series 1||1974||1 October 2001||27 February 2003|
|Complete Series 2||1975||30 September 2002||9 March 2004|
|Complete Series 3||1977||29 September 2003||8 July 2004|
|Complete Specials||1975–1976||4 October 2004||10 November 2004|
|Complete Series||1974–1977||19 October 2009||5 March 2008|
|Porridge: The Movie||1979||14 April 2003||13 May 2002|
Popularity with prisoners
|“||What fans could never know, however, unless they had been subjected to a stint of Her Majesty's Pleasure, was that the conflict between Fletcher and Officer Mackay was about the most authentic depiction ever of the true relationship that exists between prisoners and prison officers in British jails up and down the country. I'm not sure how, but writers Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais ... grasped the notion that it is the minor victories against the naturally oppressive prison system that makes prison life bearable.||”|
He also noted:
|“||When I was inside, Porridge was a staple of our TV diet. In one high-security prison, a video orderly would be dispatched to tape the programme each week. If they missed it, they were in trouble.||”|
Contributions to the English language
The script allowed the prisoners to swear without offending viewers by using the word "naff" in place of ruder words ("Naff off!", "Darn your own naffing socks", "Doing next to naff all"), thereby popularising a word that had been recorded at least as early as 1966. Ronnie Barker did not claim to have invented it, and in a television interview in 2003 it was explained to him on camera what the word meant, as he hadn't a clue.
A genuine neologism was "nerk", which was used in place of the more offensive "berk". It should be noted that "berk" has changed meaning since its inception, and is generally used now to mean "fool" while the original rhyming slang meaning refers to female genitalia. Another term was "scrote" (presumably derived from scrotum), meaning a nasty, unpleasant person.
- Webber, pp. 3–4.
- Webber, p. 10.
- Webber, pp. 8, 19.
- Webber, pp. 13–14.
- Webber, pp. 30–32.
- Webber, pp. 26–27.
- Webber, p. 40.
- Webber, p. 123.
- Webber, pp. 45, 67.
- "Porridge star back for TV special". BBC. 2003-10-17. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
- Webber, pp. 27–28.
- "Max Harris". London: BBC. 2004-03-25. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
- Webber, p. 45.
- "Situation Comedy 1978". Bafta.org. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- "Light Entertainment Performance 1978". Bafta.org. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- Oliver, Amy (10 May 2009). ""Eastenders" Barry to do time in new Porridge stage show". London: Daily Mail. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- "Porridge". The Stage. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- naff. a, Oxford English Dictionary, Draft Revision June 2003
- Webber, Richard (2005). Porridge: The Complete Scripts and Series Guide. London: Headline Book Publishing. ISBN 0-7553-1535-9
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Porridge|
- BBC Comedy Guide
- Porridge at BBC Programmes
- RonnieBarker.com on Porridge
- 100 Greatest Sitcoms: Porridge
- Porridge at the Internet Movie Database
- Porridge at the BFI's Screenonline
- Porridge at British TV Comedy
- Porridge: The Unofficial Homepage
- Porridge at the British Comedy Guide
- Erwin James (prisoner) article on Porridge in The Guardian