Porsche 964

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Porsche 964
Porsche 964 front 20080515.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Porsche
Also called Porsche 911
Porsche Carrera
Production 1989–1994
62,172 built
Assembly Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Designer Benjamin Dimson (1986)
Body and chassis
Class Sports car
Body style 2-door coupe
2-door convertible
2-door targa
Layout RR layout
R4 layout
Powertrain
Engine 3.3 L M30/69 turbo H6
3.6 L M64/01, 02, 03 H6
3.6 L M64/50 turbo H6
3.75 L M64/04 H6 (3.8 RS/RSR)[1]
Transmission 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,270 mm (89.4 in)
Length 4,275 mm (168.3 in)
Width 1,650–1,775 mm (65.0–69.9 in)
Height 1,310–1,320 mm (51.6–52.0 in)
Chronology
Predecessor Porsche 911 classic
Successor Porsche 993

The Porsche 964 is the company's internal name for the Porsche 911 manufactured and sold between 1989 and 1994. Designed by Benjamin Dimson in 1986, it featured significant styling revisions over previous 911 models, most prominently the more integrated bumpers (fenders). It was the first generation 911 to be offered with Porsche's optional Tiptronic automatic transmission and all wheel drive as options.

Name[edit]

Type 964 ("nine-sixty-four", or "nine-six-four") is Porsche's internal code name for the 911 Carrera 2 and 911 Carrera 4 models, which were badged simply as "Carrera 2" and "Carrera 4". "964" is used by automotive publications and enthusiasts to distinguish them from other generations of the Carrera.

Carrera 2 and 4[edit]

Porsche 964 Carrera
Porsche 964 Carrera 2 cabriolet

The 964 was considered to be 85% new as compared to its predecessor, the Carrera 3.2. The first 964s available in 1989 were all wheel drive equipped "Carrera 4" models; Porsche added the rear wheel drive Carrera 2 variant to the range in 1990. Both variants were available as a coupe, Targa or Cabriolet. The 964 Carrera was the last generation sold with the traditional removable Targa roof. Later evolutions of the Targa, starting with the 993 generation, replaced that setup with a complex glass-roof "greenhouse" system. A new naturally aspirated engine called the M64 was used for 964 models, with a flat-6 displacement of 3.6 litres. Porsche substantially revised the suspension, replacing the rear torsion bars with coil springs and shock absorbers.[2] Power steering and ABS brakes were added to the 911 for the first time; both were standard. The exterior bumpers and fog lamps became flush into the car, allowing for better aerodynamics. A new electric rear spoiler raised at speeds above 50 mph (80 km/h) and lowered down flush with the rear engine lid at lower speeds or at rest. A revised interior featured standard dual airbags beginning in 1990 for all North American production cars. A new automatic climate control system provided superior heating and cooling. Revised instrumentation housed a large set of warning lights that were tied into the car's central warning system, alerting the driver to a possible problem or malfunction.

Engine[edit]

Engine design: Air/oil-cooled, horizontally opposed, dry-sump lubrication, rear-mounted
Engine displacement: 3,600 cc (220 cu in)
Cylinders: Six
Bore and stroke: 100 x 76.4 mm (3.94 x 3.01 in)
Compression ratio: 11.3 : 1
Fuel/ignition: Electronic fuel injection, DME controller, with twin-spark with knock regulation
Crankshaft: Forged, eight main bearings
Block and heads: aluminum alloy
Valve Train: Overhead cam, one per bank, double chain drive
Power: 184 kW/247 hp (SAE net)/250 PS (DIN) at 6,100 rpm
Torque: 310 N·m/228 lb·ft at 4,800 rpm
Engine speed limitation: 6,700 rpm

Performance[edit]

Top speed: 163 mph (261 km/h), 159 mph (256 km/h) (Tiptronic)
0-60 mph: 5.5 s (manual transmission), 6.2 s (Tiptronic)
1/4 mile: 13.6 s (C2), 14.0 s (Tiptronic), 14.1 s (C4)
Coefficient of drag: 0.32
Fuel consumption approx 24 mpg[vague]

Selected dimensions/capacities[edit]

Curb weight (to DIN 70020): 3,031 lb/1,375 kg (C2); 3,100 lb/1,406 kg (Tiptronic), 3,252 lb (1,475 kg) (C4)
Wheelbase: 89.4 in (2,270 mm)
Overall Length: 168.3 in (4,270 mm)
Width 65.0 in (1,650 mm)
Height: 52.0 in (1,320 mm)
Front Track: 54.3 in (1,380 mm)
Rear Track: 54.1 in (1,370 mm)
Ground Clearance: 4.7 in (US)
Fuel Tank: 20.3 gal (US)
Engine Oil: 11.5 L (12.1 qt US), oil change volume: 9 L (9.5 qt US)
Transmission Fluid: 3.6 L (3.8 qt US) (C2), 9 L (9.5 qt US (Tiptronic), 3.8 L (4.0 qt US) (C4)

Carrera RS variants[edit]

In 1992, Porsche produced a super-lightweight, rear-wheel-drive only version of the 964 dubbed Carrera RS for the European market. It was based on Porsche's 911 "Carrera Cup" race car and harked back to the 2.7 and 3.0 RS and RSR models. It featured a revised version of the standard engine, titled M64/03 internally, with an increased power output of 260 bhp (194 kW; 264 PS) and lightweight flywheel coupled to the G50/10 transmission with closer ratios, asymmetrical Limited Slip Differential and steel syncromesh. A track-oriented suspension system with 40 mm (1.6 in) lower ride height, stiffer springs, shocks and adjustable stabilizer bars without power steering (RHD UK cars did have power steering).

A stripped-out interior devoid of power windows or seats, rear seats, air conditioning, cruise control, sound deadening or a stereo system (optionally fitted) and new racing-bucket front seats were part of the package. The trunk hood was made of aluminum, the chassis was seam welded and sound deadening was deleted. Wheels were made of magnesium and the glass was thinner in the doors and rear window. The Carrera RS is approximately 345 pounds (155 kg) lighter than the US version Carrera 2 model. Also available were a heavier Touring variant (with sound deadening, power seats (optional), undercarriage protection and power windows) and an N/GT racing variant with a stripped, blank metal interior and a roll cage. They also came with optional lights on the visors.

A later ultra-limited production version, the Carrera 3.8 RS featuring the Turbo body and a 300 bhp (224 kW; 304 PS) 3.8 litre version of the M64 motor was sold briefly in Europe.[1] This engine was bored out by 2 mm for a total of 3,746 cc, and was also available in a more powerful competition version called the 3.8 RSR.[1]

The Carrera RS was not sold in the USA because Porsche Cars North America felt the car's aggressive tuning was not suited to the American market. In 1992, 45 USA-legal cars that were very similar to the Carrera RS were imported to the USA for a proposed "Porsche Carrera Cup" racing series. This Carrera Cup series was to function as a support race for the American CART racing series just as European Carrera Cup has supported Formula One.

These 45 cars were identical to a Carrera RS other than having airbags (with required electric windows), alarm system, American lighting, American bumpers, aluminum wheels, and standard seats. The cars otherwise had the lightweight seam welded chassis, lightweight interior trim, aluminum hood, lightweight door glass, suspension, brakes, G50/10 transmission and M64/03 engine etc. of the Carrera RS. These cars were approximately 200 pounds (90 kg) lighter than a normal USA Carrera 2 model.

The plan was for Andial, the then equivalent of what is now Porsche Motorsport USA, to convert these cars to full racing specification, however, due to lack of sponsor support for the Carrera Cup series, it was cancelled before it began. The 45 cars imported to the USA for this series were then sold, quietly without any advertising so as not to compete with the new RS America, through normal dealer channels. These cars were supplied with a dash plaque which indicated that they were the "Carrera Cup USA Edition".

Porsche RS America in speed yellow

In order to please devoted American 911 enthusiasts who wanted an RS model, Porsche produced the RS America. The RS America was produced as a model year 1993 and 1994 car based on the USA Carrera 2. The cars were offered in standard colors red, black and white and optional colors midnight blue metallic and polar silver. Several paint to order cars were manufactured in speed yellow. The RS America featured a distinctive "whale tail" spoiler, a partially stripped interior with flat door panels (from the European RS) and carpeting along with a luggage shelf replacing the rear seats. Cloth covered sports seats, 17 inch wheels and M030 Sports Suspension were fitted as standard. The logo "RS America" was written on the deck lid along with an "RS" logo in front of the rear wheels. Deleted to save weight were power steering, cruise control, powered side mirrors, air-conditioning, sunroof and radio, although the air-conditioning, sunroof and radio as well as a limited slip differential could be ordered as options. The RS America was listed by Porsche as weighing 2,954 pounds (1,340 kg), 77 pounds (35 kg) lighter than the weight listed for a stock Carrera 2. The standard USA Carrera 2 brakes, engine and gearbox were used.

Engine[edit]

Engine Design: Air-cooled or oil-cooled, horizontally opposed (flat), dry-sump lubrication, rear-mounted engine
Displacement: 3,600 cc (220 cu in)
Cylinders: Six
Bore and Stroke: 3.94 x 3.01 in (100.0 x 76.4 mm)
Compression ratio: 11.3 : 1
Fuel/Ignition: Electronic fuel injection, DME controller, twin-spark with knock regulation
Crankshaft: Forged, 8 main bearings
Block and heads: aluminum alloy
Valve Train: Overhead cam, one per bank, double chain drive
Power: 191 kW/260 hp (SAE net) at 6,100 rpm
Torque: 312 N·m/230 lb·ft at 4,800 rpm

964 Cup[edit]

Based on the Porsche 964 was the 1990 racing version for the new Porsche Carrera Cup. In addition to an increase in output by 11 kW to 195 kW (265 hp) the 964 Cup had a welded roll-cage, a modified chassis set-up and the ground clearance was 55 mm lower than on the standard version. To reduce weight: the interior and the sound-proofing material was removed. The gear ratios were modified and it had non power-steering. The vehicle did have a catalytic converter and an anti-lock braking system (ABS). In 1992, the 964 Cup had a major revision. The vehicle now had the body from the 964RS and the engine now produced 202 kW (275 hp). Another major change was that the ABS could be switched off in the event of emergency braking or whilst the car was going backwards. The vehicle now had 18 inch magnesium rims, which replaced the aluminium rims. The car was lowered by a further 20 mm.

Technical Data[edit]

Model Porsche 964 Cup
Year 1990–1991 1992–1993
Engine 3,600cc, six cylinder, boxer engine 3,600cc, six cylinder, boxer engine
Power 195 kW (265 PS) at 6100/min 202 kW (275 PS) at 6100/min
Torque 310 Nm at 4800/min 314 Nm at 4800/min
Weight 1120 kg 1120 kg

Turbo[edit]

Porsche 964 Turbo

Porsche introduced the 964 Turbo model in March, 1990[3] as the successor to the 930. Unfortunately, they hadn't had the necessary time to develop a turbocharged version of the 3.6 litre M64 engine, and chose to re-use the 3.3 litre engine from the 930, with several minor revisions that made the engine smoother, less prone to turbo lag and more powerful, with a total output of 320 PS (240 kW; 320 hp) @ 5750 rpm. A total of 3,660 of the 964 Turbos were built.

In 1992 the 3.3 litre Turbo S was introduced. With a power of 381 PS (280 kW; 376 hp) and with a lightweight interior and limited "creature comforts" the Turbo S was one of the fastest cars on the road. With lowered suspension, a front strut brace and manual steering, the Turbo S was geared to performance. About 80 cars were produced during the only year of production.

Porsche released the 964 Turbo 3.6 in January, 1993,[3] now featuring a turbocharged version of the 3.6 litre M64 engine and producing 360 PS (260 kW; 360 hp) @ 5500 rpm, the 3.6 litre powered Turbo was produced only for model year 1993/1994, with fewer than 1,500 of them produced in total, making it one of the rarest and most sought after Porsches produced since the 959.

At the end of 964 production in 1994 the Porsche factory had some 90 Turbo chassis left. These were all transferred to Porsche Exclusiv and built as the very special Turbo 3.6S. The Turbo 3.6S was available either with the traditional 964 Turbo 3.6 body, or with the exclusive Slant nose option.

Option X83 (Japan), X84 (ROW) and X85 (USA), the Turbo S Slantnose, was available in the US as a $60,179 USD option on top of the base price $99,000 USD Turbo 3.6. The "Slantnose" option was available when ordering the no charge '36S' option '1994 Turbo "S" Model'. In addition to the Slantnose fenders, it also included the 'X88' option or the 'Turbo S' motor, the 'X92' Exclusive front spoiler, 'X93' Exclusive rear spoiler and 'X99' Exclusive rear fender vents. The Slantnose option was designed around the model 968 front end for the ROW and USA versions and the 930 style Turbo S front end for Japan (right down to the sill covers on the fenders). 39 Models were made for US markets, 27 for the Rest of the world, and 10 for Japan all in Polar Silver (http://flachbau.com).

Specifications[edit]

Turbo 3.3:
Displacement: 3,299 cc
Bore and stroke: 97 x 74.4 mm (3.82 x 2.93 in)
Compression ratio: 7.0:1
Power: 320 PS (240 kW; 320 hp) @ 5750 rpm
Torque: 450 N·m (332 lb·ft) @ 4500 rpm

Turbo S:
Bore and stroke: 97 x 74.4 mm (3.82 x 2.93 in)
Displacement 3,299 cc
Compression Ratio 7.0:1
Power: 381 PS (280 kW; 376 hp) @ 5750 rpm
Torque: 471 N·m (347 lb·ft) @5000 rpm / 490 N·m (361 lb·ft) @ 4800 rpm


Turbo 3.6:
Bore and stroke: 100 x 76.4 mm (3.94 x 3.01 in)
Displacement 3,600 cc
Compression Ratio 7.5:1
Power: 360 PS (260 kW; 360 hp) @ 5500 rpm
Torque: 520 N·m (384 lb·ft) @ 4200 rpm

Turbo 3.6S:
Bore and stroke: 100 x 76.4 mm (3.94 x 3.01 in)
Displacement 3,600 cc
Compression Ratio 7.5:1
Power: 385 PS (283 kW; 380 hp) @ 5750 rpm
Torque: 520 N·m (384 lb·ft) @ 5000 rpm ZF Clutch type limited slip
20% lock under acceleration 100% lock under deceleration

Turbo S LM-GT[edit]

In 1993, Porsche developed a highly tuned 964 Turbo S prototype for use in international motorsport. The car, known as the Turbo S Le Mans GT (or simply Turbo S LM-GT), was based on the standard road-legal Turbo S, but stripped down and modified for circuit use. A deep chin spoiler was added to the front, while two air inlets were added just above the rear wheel fenders. An adjustable racing rear wing was added on top of the standard Turbo's wing. Wider fenders were used to house 12-inch (300 mm) wide racing slicks. The interior was completely stripped, a rollcage added, and the windows replaced with plastic. The engine used was not the standard road-car unit, but a smaller twin-turbocharged 3.2 liter unit which produced 475 hp.[4]

The Turbo S LM-GT made its debut at the 1993 12 Hours of Sebring where the car finished seventh overall and first in its class with the Brumos Porsche racing team. From there, the car was entered in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, running under the guise of the Porsche factory team. The car would however fail to finish after the engine was damaged early in the race. For 1994, the Turbo S LM-GT would be moved to the hands of Larbre Compétition, where a new 3.6 liter engine based on the 993 unit would be used in place of the 3.2 liter engine. The team opened the year with a second place finish at the 24 Hours of Daytona, before moving on to select rounds of the BPR Global GT Series. The car would win all four races in which it competed, including the 1000 km Suzuka. The Turbo S LM-GT would make a few select appearances in 1995 with Obermaier Racing before being retired.

The development work from the Turbo S LM-GT helped Porsche in creating the 993-generation 911 GT2 in 1995, which would be mass-produced and sold to racing customers. Some teams, unable to buy new 911 GT2s, developed their own twin-turbo racing versions of the 964 Turbo to mimic the Turbo S LM-GT, but lacked the success of the factory project.

964 Speedster[edit]

Porsche 964 Speedster

There were two very distinct incarnations of the 964 Speedster. The first was the 1989 model year Speedster. Shown at the 1988 Frankfurt autoshow beside the upcoming Carrera 4, the 1989 Speedster actually shared more in common with the 930 turbo than with the upcoming 964 generation 911s, causing it to be looked upon, in retrospect, as a much inferior "driver's car" to the later 1994 Speedster. More than three quarters (641) of the 800 built had the "Turbo look" wide-body option.[5]

The 1994 Porsche 911 Speedster was available either in standard or lightweight trim called “clubsport." Unlike the 1989 model, the 1994 Speedster was based on the new Carrera 2 platform and was not initially available with the "Turbo look" wide-body style. The 1994 Speedster was designed to be a more focused "driver's car" and served as a hybrid between a 964 Carrera 2 Cabriolet and a 964 RS. While it featured a softer suspension set up than the 964 RS, it offered almost none of the comforts of a normal 964 Carrera 2 Cabriolet, though power windows were standard and it was available with air conditioning and a stereo. Porsche planned to build 3000 examples of the 1994 Speedsters in 1992, but only 936 examples were built and sold during the two years of production. Once again, the United States was the most important market with 427 Speedsters heading Stateside. Right hand drive versions were exceptionally rare this time, with only 14 cars having the steering wheel on the ‘proper’ side compared to 139 examples in right hand drive of the pre-964 911 Speedster. In addition, 20 special examples were finished at Porsche Exclusive's workshop at Werk 1 (Factory 1) with the optional “Turbo look” wide-bodies.[6]

For both incarnations of the 964 Speedster the manually folding "pram-like" hood was a basic contraption that required practice to erect quickly (Porsche referred to it as strictly an emergency soft top for inclement weather).

The last 964 Speedster produced was a RHD example finished in slate grey. Known as the Sonderwunsch "Special Wishes" Speedster Leichtbau for its extensive use of light weight materials and its Porsche Exclusive Werk 1 provenance, it is widely regarded as the most collectable version of all. Since 2008, the Sonderwunsch Speedster (pictured) has resided in Hong Kong with its current custodian, Mr. Kevin Yeung, a Hong Kong businessman and philanthropist. Mr. Yeung appeared with the Sonderwunsch Speedster in an episode YouTube show DigitalRev TV where Kai W - the presenter of DRTV - drove his car in a photoshoot.[7] The Sonderwunsch Speedster was specified in the same shade of slate grey as the 1970 911 S used by Steve McQueen in the movie Le Mans - and was the only 964 Speedster painted in this colour. Its 964 RS style seam welded chassis was fitted with a similar suspension to the 964 RS. It received the hydraulic brake boost system from the RS and Turbo 3.6 (normal Speedsters used the vacuum boost system from the Carrera 2) along with the same brakes as the Turbo 3.6; with four pot Brembo calipers (painted black) and cross drilled and vented 322mm, 32mm wide disks at the front and 299mm, 24mm at the rear. The car sat on 17 inch 7x17 (front) and 8x17 (rear) aluminum Cup wheels fitted with 205/50 and 255/40 tires. Where a standard Speedster made do with the standard 247 bhp 964 engine, the Sonderwunsch Speedster had 260 bhp. This was down to a blueprinted engine with remapped ignition and DME chip set with aggressive timing advance characteristics. To achieve further weight savings it borrowed the alloy doors and bonnet from the 964 RS while replacing the standard steel standard fenders with hand fabricated fenders made from super strong thin gauge steel. In the end, the Sonderwunsch Speedster took almost 9 months to complete (from start to finish) and was finally delivered to its original owner in London in September 1994 but it was first registered in January 1999 by its second owner in Edinburgh Scotland. In 2010, Spark Models produced a series of 1/43 scale models to salute this car.

America Roadster[edit]

A turbo-bodied cabriolet version was released in 1992. This had the standard electric spoiler and turbo guards. Mechanically, it was the same as the standard model, apart from 17" cup wheels and the brakes and suspension, which were 'Turbo' specification. Only 250 of this variant were produced, in total, during the 1992 and 1993 model years.

Porsche 969[edit]

The Porsche 969 was a concept based on the 964 platform intended to succeed the 930 turbo.

The car was conceived in 1982 as a twin-turbo 911 with four-wheel drive and a PDK gearbox.[8] The project received the in-house code 965 and was developed along with the new, 964 generation of the 911. However, the intended engine (a 3,3 litre, 374 hp flat-six) could not be used due to cooling problems. Various alternatives were considered during the car's development, including a water-cooled version of the traditional flat-six and two variants of Porsche's Indy V8 engine.[8]

While the 969 shared the 911's roofline, its slanted headlights and wide tail were carryovers from the 959.

Ultimately, the project was scrapped. Ongoing engine development issues and a projected price of over 200.000 DM in the wake of a recession kept it from succeeding the 911 turbo. (The 964 turbo made its debut in March 1990.) Fifteen of the 16 prototypes were destroyed in December 1988 and the sole remaining prototype has not been seen since.[8]

Production figures[edit]

Porsche Total Subtotal Grand total
964 C2 Coupé 18,219 34,398 62,172[9]
964 C2 Cabrio 11,013
964 C2 Targa 3,534
964 C2 Cabrio turbo-look 702
964 C2 Speedster 930
964 C4 Coupé 13,353 20,395
964 C4 Cabrio 4,802
964 C4 Targa 1,329
964 C4 Jubilee Coupé 911
964 Turbo 3.3 3,660 5,097
964 Turbo 3.6 1,437
964 Carrera RS 3.6 Coupé 2,282 2,282

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Specifications - 3.8 litre n/a engine". 964uk.com. 
  2. ^ Leffingwell, Randy (2002). Porsche 911 Buyer's Guide. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-7603-0947-6. 
  3. ^ a b Kittler, Eberhard (2001). Deutsche Autos seit 1990, vol.6. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. p. 352. ISBN 3-613-02052-1. 
  4. ^ "1993 Porsche 911 Turbo S Le Mans GT". Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG. Retrieved 2007-09-28. 
  5. ^ "1989 Porsche 911 Speedster". HowStuffWorks Porsche History. HowSuffWorks. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  6. ^ "1994 Porsche 911 Speedster". HowStuffWorks Porsche History. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  7. ^ "How to do Aerial Photography - DigitalRev TV". How to do Aerial Photography. DigitalRev TV. Retrieved 2012-07-20. 
  8. ^ a b c http://www.flachbau.com/Documents-Media/965_Master.pdf
  9. ^ All figures from: Eberhard Kittler: Deutsche Autos seit 1990, vol. 6. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-613-02052-1, p. 353.
  • Ludvigsen, Karl (2003). Porsche. Excellence Was Expected 3. Cambridge, Mass.: Bentley Publishers. ISBN 0-8376-0235-1. 

External links[edit]

  • Porsche - 1989 Porsche 911 Carrera Coupé, Cabriolet, Targa, Speedster, and 4 Coupé
  • Porsche - 1989 Porsche Turbo 911 Coupé, Cabriolet, and Targa