Port of Los Angeles
|Port of Los Angeles|
|Location||San Pedro, Los Angeles|
|Opened||December 9, 1907|
|Size of harbor||3200 acres|
|Vice President||David Arian|
|Commissioners||Kaylynn L. Kim
Douglas P. Krause
Geraldine Knatz, Ph.D.
|Official name: Port of Los Angeles Long Wharf|
|Vessel arrivals||2,182 (CY 2010)|
|Annual cargo tonnage||157.8 million metric revenue tons (FY 2010)|
|Annual container volume||7.8 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) (CY 2010)|
|Value of cargo||US$236.4 billion (CY 2010)|
|Passenger traffic||731,952 million passengers (CY 2010)|
|Annual revenue||US$406.8 million (FY 2010)|
The Port of Los Angeles, also called Los Angeles Harbor and WORLDPORT L.A, is a port complex that occupies 7,500 acres (3,000 ha) of land and water along 43 mi (69 km) of waterfront. The port is located on San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro neighborhood of Los Angeles, approximately 20 mi (32 km) south of downtown. The Port of Los Angeles adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach, employs over 16,000 people, and is the busiest container port in the United States. For public safety, the Port of Los Angeles utilizes the Los Angeles Port Police to fight crime and terrorism, and the Los Angeles City Lifeguards to provide lifeguarding services for inner Cabrillo Beach.
In 1542, Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo discovered the "Bay of Smokes". The south-facing San Pedro Bay was originally a shallow mudflat, too soft to support a wharf. Visiting ships had two choices: stay far out at anchor and have their goods and passengers ferried to shore; or beach themselves. That sticky process is described in Two Years Before the Mast by Richard Henry Dana, Jr., who was a crew member on an 1834 voyage that visited San Pedro Bay. Phineas Banning greatly improved shipping when he dredged the channel to Wilmington in 1871 to a depth of 10 feet (3.0 m). The port handled 50,000 tons of shipping that year. Banning owned a stagecoach line with routes connecting San Pedro to Salt Lake City, Utah and to Yuma, Arizona, and in 1868 he built a railroad to connect San Pedro Bay to Los Angeles, the first in the area.
After Banning's death in 1885 his sons pursued their interests in promoting the port, which handled 500,000 tons of shipping in that year. The Southern Pacific Railroad and Collis P. Huntington wanted to create Port Los Angeles at Santa Monica, and built the Long Wharf there in 1893. However the Los Angeles Times publisher Harrison Gray Otis and U.S. Senator Stephen White pushed for federal support of the Port of Los Angeles at San Pedro Bay. The Free Harbor Fight was settled when San Pedro was endorsed in 1897 by a commission headed by Rear Admiral John C. Walker (who later went to become the chair of the Isthmian Canal Commission in 1904). With U.S government support breakwater construction began in 1899 and the area was annexed to Los Angeles in 1909. The Los Angeles Harbor Commission was founded in 1907.
In 1912 the Southern Pacific Railroad completed its first major wharf at the port. During the 1920s, the port passed San Francisco as the west coast's busiest seaport. In the early 1930s a massive expansion of the port was taken with the construction of a massive breakwater three miles out that was over 2 miles in length. In addition to the construction of this outer breakwater an inner breakwater was built off of Terminal Island with docks for seagoing ships and smaller docks built at Long Beach. It was this improved harbor that hosted the sailing events for the 1932 Summer Olympics. During World War II the port was primarily used for shipbuilding, employing more than 90,000 people. In 1959, Matson Navigation Company's Hawaiian Merchant delivered 20 containers to the port, beginning the shift to containerization at the port. The opening of the Vincent Thomas Bridge in 1963 greatly improved access to Terminal Island and allowed to increased traffic and further expansion of the port. In 1985, the port handled one million containers in a year for the first time. In 2000, The Pier 400 Dredging and Landfill Program, the largest such project in America, was completed.
The port district is an independent, self-supporting department of the government of the City of Los Angeles. The Port is under the control of a five-member Board of Harbor Commissioners appointed by the Mayor and approved by the City Council, and is administered by an executive director.
The container volume was 7.9 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) in calendar year 2011. The Port is the busiest port in the United States by container volume, the 16th busiest container port in the world and the 6th busiest internationally when combined with the neighboring Port of Long Beach. The port is also the number one freight gateway in the United States when ranked by the value of shipments passing through it. For the second consecutive year, the Port of Los Angeles experienced record-breaking exports as outbound container volumes surged in 2011 and 2010. The top trading partners in 2010 were
- China ($120.7 billion)
- Japan ($35.3 billion)
- Taiwan ($10.7 billion)
- South Korea ($10.1 billion)
- Thailand ($7.2 billion)
The most imported types of goods in calendar year 2010 were, in order: furniture; footwear; toys; automobile parts; and women's and infant apparel.
During the 2002 West Coast port labor lockout, the Port had a large backlog of ships waiting to be unloaded at any given time. Many analysts believe that the Port's traffic may have exceeded its physical capacity as well as the capacity of local freeway and railroad systems. The chronic congestion at the Port caused ripple effects throughout the American economy, such as disrupting Just In Time inventory practices at many companies.
There are plans to deepen the port to 50 feet, which is about deep enough to accommodate the draft of the world's biggest container ships such as the PS-class Emma Mærsk and the future Maersk Triple E class.
World Cruise Center
Located in the San Pedro District beneath the Vincent Thomas Bridge, The Port of Los Angeles hosts recreational transportation with the largest cruise ship terminal on the West Coast of the United States. The newly renovated World Cruise Center supports three passenger ship berths transporting over 1 million passengers annually. It is claimed to be "the nation's most secure cruise passenger complex". Its vast 2560 space long term parking lot is patrolled continuously by port security. Courtesy shuttles transport passengers with their luggage between the parking lot and the terminal complex on arrival and departure days. The World Cruise Center accommodates a wide variety of transportation, including Rental Car, Tour Bus, Limousine and Taxi services. The World Cruise Center is linked to attractions Ports O' Call and the Maritime Museum by a new pedestrian esplanade featuring public art and fountains as well as connections to the Cabrillo Marine Aquarium and other San Pedro attractions when using the Waterfront Red Car trolley/shuttle.
That shipping volume comes with a cost: air pollution. Container ships burning low-quality bunker fuel idle dockside because most have no capability to connect to shore-generated electricity. Diesel-powered semi-trailer trucks and locomotives idle while waiting to be loaded and unloaded. Truck, ship, and rail pollution coming from the ports were the largest source of air pollution in Southern California in 2006. The local air quality regulatory agency did a study that found that air pollution from the port is responsible for 2,000 cases of cancer per million people (25 per million is the upper limit sought by regulators). The 47 tons of nitrogen oxides generated daily by port marine vessels nearly equals the amount emitted by the 350 largest factories and refineries in the region, and that number is expected to increase 70% by 2022.
A $2.8 million Port of Los Angeles Clean Air Program (POLACAP) initiative was implemented by the Board of Harbor Commissioners in October 2002 for terminal and ship operations programs targeted at reducing polluting emissions from vessels and cargo handling equipment.
To accelerate implementation of emission reductions through the utilization of new and cleaner-burning equipment, the Port has allocated more than $52 million in additional funding for the POLACAP through 2008.
The port installed the first[clarification needed] Alternate Marine Power[clarification needed] in 2004, and can provide up to 40 MW of grid power to two cruise ships simultaneously at both 6.6 kV and 11 kV, as well as three container terminals, reducing pollution from ship engines.
- Kenneth Hahn, youngest pilot in the history of the Port
- SS Sansinena Berth 46 incident
- SS Lane Victory a working museum ship
- USS Iowa, a World War II era battleship that permanently docked at Berth 87 since June 2012 as a museum ship.
- "Port of Los Angeles". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
- "Port of Los Angeles Long Wharf". Office of Historical Preservation, California State Parks. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "World Port Rankings - 2005" - Port Industry Statistics - American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA) - Updated May 1, 2007 - (Microsoft Excel*.XLS document)
- "North American Port Container Traffic - 2006" - Port Industry Statistics - American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA) - Updated May 14, 2007 - (Adobe Acrobat*.PDF document)
- FAQ # 22 at the Port of Los Angeles.org
- Sowinski, L., Portrait of a Port, World Trade Magazine, February 2007, p. 32
- "Big Harbor Three Miles At Sea" Popular Science, December 1931, illustration of harbor and port improvements
- 1932 Summer Olympics official report. pp. 76, 78, 585.
- Cuevas, Antonio (2007-12-09). "Seaport's Legacy Drives Its Future". Los Angeles Times. pp. U6
- [dead link]
- "Top 25 U.S. Freight Gateways, Ranked by Value of Shipments: 2008". U.S. Department of Transportation. 2009.
- Port master plan amendment no. 24 - Main channel deepening project Port of Los Angeles, October 2009. Accessed: 1 October 2011.
- "ABS Record: Emma Maersk". American Bureau of Shipping. 23 July 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "Largest container ship will be 16% larger and 20% less CO2and 35% more fuel efficient". Next Big Future. 21 February 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- "Port of Los Angeles World Cruise Center Facilities". Port of Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2007-10-17.
- Sowinski, Lara L. Chalk One Up for Another Successful Peak Season World Trade WT100, 1 October 2006. Accessed: 1 October 2011.
- Philips, Peter. Los Angeles Port Now Providing Shore-Side Power to Three Cruise Lines Pacific Maritime, 1 March 2011. Accessed: 1 October 2011.
- "Wilmington Waterfront Park". Port of Los Angeles. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Landers, Jay (July 2011). "Los Angeles creates park to provide buffer between port, community". Civil Engineering Magazine: 27–30.
- Vickery, Oliver (1979). Harbor heritage: tales of the harbor area of Los Angeles, California. Mountain View, Calif.: Morgan Press/Farag. ISBN 978-0-89430-036-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Port of Los Angeles.|
- Official website
- Panoramic photographs of Los Angeles Harbor, taken in 1908 and 1926, The Bancroft Library
||Harbor City, Los Angeles||Wilmington, Los Angeles||Long Beach|
|San Pedro||Port of Long Beach|
|San Pedro||Pacific Ocean
Santa Catalina Island