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Portal:Aboriginal peoples in Canada/Selected article/1

The Canadian Crown and Aboriginal peoples
Medal-Viki.jpg
The Indian Chiefs Medal, presented to commemorate numbered Treaties 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, bearing the effigy of Queen Victoria.

The relationship between The Canadian Crown and Aboriginal peoples of Canada stretches back to the first interactions between European colonialists and North American indigenous people. Over centuries of interaction, treaties were established concerning the monarch and aboriginal tribes, and Canada's First Nations have, like the Māori and the Treaty of Waitangi in New Zealand, come to generally view these agreements as being not between they and the ever-changing Cabinet, but instead with the continuous Crown of Canada, as embodied in the reigning sovereign. As an expression of this association, aboriginal peoples of Canada and members of the Royal Family will regularly meet to celebrate milestone anniversaries, exchange ceremonial and symbolic gifts, and discuss treaty issues. Canada's aboriginal peoples have been described as "strongly supportive of the monarchy, – having a stong sense of "kinship" with the institution that takes on familial aspects  – based on the history and substance of the relationship between them and the Crown, and the latter's inherent stability and continuity, as opposed to the transitory nature of populist whims. The affiliation between the Aboriginal peoples of Canada and that country's reigning monarch is said to be a mutual one; "cooperation will be a cornerstone for partnership between Canada and First Nations, wherein Canada is the short-form reference to Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada.

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Portal:Aboriginal peoples in Canada/Selected article/2

North-West Rebellion
Battle of Fish Creek.jpg
Duck Lake  · Battleford  · Frog Lake
Fort Pitt  · Fish Creek  · Cut Knife
Batoche  · Frenchman's Butte  · Loon Lake

The North-West Rebellion (or North-West Resistance or the Saskatchewan Rebellion) of 1885 was a brief and unsuccessful uprising by the Métis people of the District of Saskatchewan under Louis Riel against the Dominion of Canada, which they believed had failed to address their concerns for the survival of their people. Despite some early victories at Duck Lake, Fish Creek and Cut Knife, the rebellion resulted in the destruction of numerous Métis and allied Aboriginal forces, and Louis Riel was hanged. Tensions between French Canada and English Canada increased for some time. Due to the role that the Canadian Pacific Railway played in transporting troops, political support increased and the legislature authorized funds to complete the nation's first transcontinental railway. After the Red River Rebellion of 1869-1870, many of the Métis moved from Manitoba to Saskatchewan, then part of the Northwest Territories, where they founded a settlement at Batoche on the South Saskatchewan River. However, as in Manitoba, settlers from Ontario began to arrive. They pushed for land to be allotted in the square concession system of English Canada, rather than the seigneurial system of strips reaching back from a river which the Métis were familiar with in their French-Canadian culture.

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Portal:Aboriginal peoples in Canada/Selected article/3

Notable Aboriginal people of Canada
"A bust color portrait of a young Aboriginal women, in a red traditional shall with her dark hair tied back ""A colour photo of Robbie Robertson on a stage. He is wearing a purple shirt while playing a six string fender guitar.""A colour bust photo of Adam Ruebin Beach wearing a grey leather bomber jacket."
"A colour photo of Tagaq on stage singing. She is holding a microphone while wearing a red and black dress.""A colour photo of Paul Okalik standing in front of a chalkboard wearing a grey sweater""A colour picture of a smiling Kenojuak Ashevak in 1997 while at work in the print shop."
"A colour picture of Tony Whitford, Commissioner of the Northwest Territories during his swearing in ceremony. He is in a dark suit and white shirt with a tie and a flower in the buttonhole."" A colour photo of actor Tom Jackson wearing a blue sleeveless sweater, zipped to his chin, over a white long sleeved shirt.""A colour photo of Bryan John Trottier while skating with no helmet in a hockey rink in uniform. "

Over the course of centuries, many notable Aboriginal people of Canada have played a critical role in shaping the history of Canada, while others have made significant contributions in every aspect of Canadian culture. Combined with Canada's late economic development and vast size, the country's history has allowed Canadian Aboriginal peoples to have strong influences on the national culture, while preserving their own identity.

First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples have defied every barrier put-forth to break through with remarkable achievements. From words and language, to art and music, to law and government, to sports and war; Aboriginal customs and culture have had a strong influences on defining the "Canadian way of life".

Countless North American Indigenous words, inventions and games have become an everyday part of Canadian language and use. The canoe, snowshoes, the toboggan, lacrosse, tug of war, maple syrup and tobacco are just a few of the products, inventions and games early indigenous North Americans have added to the Canadian and world cultures. Some of the words include the barbecue, caribou, chipmunk, woodchuck, hammock, skunk, mahogany, hurricane and moose. Many North American and South American areas, towns, cities and rivers have names of Indigenous origin. A prime example of this is the word "Canada" it derived from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word meaning "village" or "settlement". The Saskatchewan province got its name from the Saskatchewan River, which in the Cree language is called "Kisiskatchewani Sipi", meaning "swift-flowing river." Canada's capital city Ottawa comes from the Algonquin language term "adawe" meaning "to trade." Modern youth groups such as the Boy Scouts and the Girl Scouts include programs based largely on Indigenous lore, arts and crafts, character building and outdoor camp craft and living.

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Portal:Aboriginal peoples in Canada/Selected article/4

Aboriginal genetics
Map of gene flow in and out of Beringia.jpg

Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas primarily focus on Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. Autosomal "atDNA" markers are also used, but differ from mtDNA or Y-DNA in that they overlap significantly. The genetic pattern indicates Indigenous Amerindians experienced two very distinctive genetic episodes; first with the initial peopling of the Americas, and secondly with European colonization of the Americas. The former is the determinant factor for the number of gene lineages, zygosity mutations and founding haplotypes present in today's Indigenous Amerindian populations.

Human settlement of the New World occurred in stages from the Bering sea coast line, with an initial layover on Beringia for the small founding population. The micro-satellite diversity and distributions of the Y lineage specific to South America indicates that certain Amerindian populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region. The Na-Dené, Inuit and Indigenous Alaskan populations exhibit haplogroup Q (Y-DNA); however, they are distinct from other indigenous Amerindians with various mtDNA and atDNA mutations. This suggests that the peoples who first settled the northern extremes of North America and Greenland derived from later migrant populations than those who penetrated further south in the Americas. Linguists and biologists have reached a similar conclusion based on analysis of Amerindian language groups and ABO blood group system distributions.

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Portal:Aboriginal peoples in Canada/Selected article/5

Idle no more protesters marching along Government Street in Victoria, British Columbia on December 21, 2012

Idle No More a protest movement originating among the First Nations, Metis and Inuit peoples and their non-Aboriginal supporters in Canada, and to a lesser extent, internationally. It has consisted of a number of political actions worldwide, inspired in part by the hunger strike of Attawapiskat Chief Theresa Spence and further coordinated via social media. A reaction to alleged abuses of indigenous treaty rights by the Harper government, the movement takes particular issue with the recent omnibus bill Bill C-45.

The use of flash mobs performing round dances in shopping malls became a recurring theme of the protest during the pre- and post-Christmas shopping season in 2012. On 17 December a flash mob performed a round dance at the Cornwall Centre shopping mall in Regina. This tactic was also used at the Rideau Centre in Ottawa. It also spread internationally when a similar protest at the Mall of America in Minnesota. Members of the Sandy Bay First Nation in Manitoba blocked the Trans-Canada Highway. Members of the Driftpile First Nation also blocked a road on 18 December.

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Portal:Aboriginal peoples in Canada/Selected article/6

"Loon, Serpentine" - Itulu Itidluie, Cape Dorset.

Inuit art refers to artwork produced by Inuit, that is, the people of the Arctic also known as Eskimos, a term that may be deemed offensive outside Alaska. Historically their preferred medium was ivory, but since the establishment of southern markets for Inuit art in 1945, prints and figurative works carved in relatively soft stone such as soapstone, serpentinite, or argillite have also become popular.

All of the Inuit utensils, tools and weapons were made by hand from natural materials: stone, bone, ivory, antler, and animal hides. Nomadic people could take very little else with them besides the tools of their daily living; non-utilitarian objects were also carved in miniature so that they could be carried around or worn, such as delicate earrings, dance masks, amulets, fetish figures, and intricate combs and figures which were used to tell legends and objectify their mythology and oral history.

As the Inuit settled into communities in the late 1940s, their carvings became larger, and the requests to produce them as artwork increased. The Government of Canada recognized the potential economic benefit of commercial art to the isolated Arctic communities, and encouraged the development and promotion of Inuit sculpture. This encouragement was initially heavy-handed, as is most clearly shown by the pamphlet "Eskimo Handicrafts", circulated among Inuit communities in the early 1950s. Intended to provide inspiration to Inuit sculptors, this pamphlet depicted artifacts in the collection of the Canadian Museum of Civilization; many of the objects pictured, such as totem poles, were not germane to Inuit culture. James Archibald Houston, the author of Eskimo Handicrafts, was later sent to Baffin Island to collect specimens of Inuit sculpture. During his stay there, he introduced printmaking to the artists' repertoire. Figures of animals and hunters, family scenes, and mythological imagery became popular. By the 1960s, co-operatives were set up in most Inuit communities, and the Inuit art market began to flourish.

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Portal:Aboriginal peoples in Canada/Selected article/7

Treaty 9 - also known as the "James Bay Treaty," since the eastern end of the affected treaty territory was at the shore of James Bay.

The numbered treaties (or Post-Confederation Treaties) are a series of eleven treaties signed between the aboriginal peoples in Canada and the reigning Monarch of Canada (Victoria, Edward VII or George V) from 1871 to 1921. It was the Government of Canada who created the policy, commissioned the Treaty Commissioners and ratified the agreements. These Treaties are agreements with the Government of Canada, administered by Canadian Aboriginal law and overseen by the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.

Regions affected by the treaties include portions of what are now Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Saskatchewan and the Northwest Territories. When the Dominion of Canada was first formed in 1867 as a confederation of several British North American colonies, most of these regions were part of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and were controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company.

The "National Dream" of Sir John A. Macdonald, the first Prime Minister of Canada, was to create a nation from sea to sea, tied together by the Canadian Pacific Railway. In order to make this dream a reality, the Government of Canada needed to settle the southern portions of Rupert's Land (present day Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan).

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