, in the arts
, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity
, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seeks to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained.
Classicism is a force which is often present in post-medieval European and European influenced traditions, however, some periods felt themselves more connected to the classical ideals than others, particularly the Age of Reason, the Age of Enlightenment and some movements in Modernism.
(February 22, 1788–September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher
known for his atheistic pessimism and philosophical clarity. At age 25, he published his doctoral dissertation, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason
, which examined the fundamental question of whether reason alone can unlock answers about the world. Schopenhauer's most influential work, The World as Will and Representation
, emphasized the role of man's basic motivation, which Schopenhauer called will
. Schopenhauer's analysis of will led him to the conclusion that emotional, physical, and sexual desires can never be fulfilled. Consequently, Schopenhauer favored a lifestyle of negating human desires, similar to the teachings of Buddhism
Schopenhauer's metaphysical analysis of will, his views on human motivation and desire, and his aphoristic writing style influenced many well-known thinkers, including Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, and Karl Kraus.